• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Democracy is a design problem
 

Democracy is a design problem

on

  • 526 views

Want to see a wicked problem? Just look at designing ballots. This is from a talk I gave in 2012 at UPA and ACM meetings around the country.

Want to see a wicked problem? Just look at designing ballots. This is from a talk I gave in 2012 at UPA and ACM meetings around the country.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
526
Views on SlideShare
526
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Democracy is a design problem Democracy is a design problem Presentation Transcript

    • Democracy is a design problemHow changes in design changethe outcome of elections Dana Chisnell 1
    • Democracy is a design problem
    • Design affects world peace.
    • Why voting is harder than it seems 8
    • Legislation 9
    • VotingSystems 10
    • Costs In Maryland, cost per voter increased by 179% going from paper-based systems to touchscreens 11
    • Costs Paper has costs, too printing postage storage 12
    • History 13
    • Skills 14
    • There are 3,247 counties (or equivalent) in theUSSecretaries of state issue ballot templatesCounties design, print, and distribute ballotsThere are many more elections every year thanyou realize 15
    • Voting is still hard 16
    • Poor ballot design frustrates voters undermines confidence contributes to Election Day problems 17
    • All voters are affected thousands of votes are lost or miscast all voting technologies are affected greater risk for some groups of voters 18
    • Instructions QuestionsContests 19
    • Classic problems splitting contests into different columns placing different contests on the same screen placing response options on both sides of names using arrows rather than bubbles on paper ballots leaving in disqualified candidates 20
    • Better Ballots: Re-designed Ballot, Kewaunee CountyKeep contestsin samecolumn
    • Better Ballots: Sarasota County, FL (2006)
    • Better Ballots: Sarasota County, FL (2006)
    • Better Ballots: Sarasota County, FL (2006)
    • Classic problems inconsistency in format and style not using shading, bold text not writing short, simple instructions placing instructions too far away not telling voters how to correct paper ballots 25
    • Better Ballots: Los Angeles County Format consistently
    • Top 10 design principles Use lowercase letters Use accurate instructional illustrations Avoid centered text Use informational icons (only) Pick one sans-serif font Use contrast and color Use big enough type functionally Support process and Decide what’s most navigation important Use clear, simple language 27
    • Before and after 28
    • Cedar County:May 2006 for ES&Soptical scanners
    • Cedar County:November 2006 forES&S optical scanners
    • TEST BALLOT GENERAL ELECTION NOVEMBER 4, 2008 MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIAINSTRUCTIONS TO VOTERS:• Use only the marking pen provided, or a ball-point pen with black ink.• To vote for a candidate, completely blacken the oval next to your choice, like this . Do not vote for more than the number of candidates to be elected.• When there are two (2) or more candidates to be elected for the same office, blacken the ovals next to each of your choices.• To vote on a measure, blacken the oval next to the word YES or next to the word NO.• Write-in candidates: To vote for a qualified write-in candidate, blacken the oval next to the blank line for the office and write the name of the person on the line. Do not vote for both a write-in candidate and a candidate whose name is on the ballot for the same office.• All distingushing marks on the ballot are forbidden and void the ballot.• If you make a mistake, tear your ballot, or want to change your vote, return it to the election official and obtain another. FEDERAL DISTRICT PROPOSITION 3: CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL BOND ACT. GRANT PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT MARIN HEALTHCARE DISTRICT, PROGRAM. INITIATIVE STATUTE. Vote for One Party (1) DIRECTOR Authorizes $980,000,000 in general Vote for no more than Two (2) obligation bonds for construction, BOB BARR Libertarian expansion, remodeling, renovation, WAYNE A. ROOT furnishing and equipping of eligible JOHN MCCAIN Republican ARCHIMEDES RAMIREZ children’s hospitals. Fiscal Impact: State SARAH PALIN Neurosurgeon cost of about $2 billion over 30 years to pay CYNTHIA MCKINNEY Green PETER CHRISTIAN ROMANOWSKY off both the principal ($980 million) and ROSA CLEMENTE Minister/Entertainer/Artist interest ($933 million) costs of the bonds. ALAN KEYES American Independent HARRIS (HANK) SIMMONDS WILEY S. DRAKE, SR. Retired Physician Payments of about $64 million per year. RALPH NADER Peace And Freedom SHARON J. JACKSON MATT GONZALEZ Incumbent BARACK OBAMA Democratic FRANK PARNELL YES NO JOE BIDEN Physician/Businessman PROPOSITION 4: WAITING PERIOD AND PARENTAL NOTIFICATION BEFORE UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE, TERMINATION OF MINOR’S 6TH DISTRICT PREGNANCY. INITIATIVE Vote for One (1) MEASURES SUBMITTED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT. TO THE VOTERS Changes California Constitution, prohibiting abortion for unemancipated minor until 48 JOEL R. SMOLEN Libertarian hours after physician notifies minor’s Registered Investment Advisor STATE parent, legal guardian, or, in limited cases, MIKE HALLIWELL Republican PROPOSITION 1A: SAFE, RELIABLE HIGH- substitute adult relative. Provides an College Professor SPEED PASSENGER TRAIN. exception for medical emergency or LYNN WOOLSEY Democratic To provide Californians a safe, convenient, U.S. Representative parental waiver. Fiscal Impact: Potential affordable, and reliable alternative to driving and unknown net state costs of several million high gas prices; to provide good-paying jobs dollars annually for health and social and improve California’s economy while services programs, court administration, STATE reducing air pollution, global warming and state health agency administration
    • NOVEMBER 4, 2008 MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIAINSTRUCTIONS TO VOTERS:• Use only the marking pen provided or a ball point pen with black ink.• To vote for a candidate, completely blacken the oval to the left of the name, like this . Where two or more candidates for the same office are to be elected, blacken the oval to the left of each of your choices.• To vote on a measure, completely blacken the oval next to YES or NO.• To vote for a qualified write-in candidate, completely blacken the oval next to the blank line for that office and write the name of the person on the line.• If you make a mistake, damage your ballot, or you want to change a vote, take your ballot to an election worker and get another. All distinguishing marks are forbidden and void the ballot. FEDERAL DISTRICT PROPOSITION 2: STANDARDS FOR CONFINING FARM ANIMALS. PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT MARIN HEALTHCARE DISTRICT, INITIATIVE STATUTE. Vote for One Party (1) DIRECTOR Requires that certain farm animals be Vote for no more than Two (2) allowed, for the majority of every day, to BOB BARR Libertarian fully extend their limbs or wings, lie down, WAYNE A. ROOT stand up and turn around. Limited JOHN MCCAIN Republican ARCHIMEDES RAMIREZ exceptions apply. SARAH PALIN Neurosurgeon Fiscal Impact: Potential unknown CYNTHIA MCKINNEY Green PETER CHRISTIAN ROMANOWSKY decrease in state and local tax revenues ROSA CLEMENTE Minister/Entertainer/Artist from farm businesses, possibly in the range ALAN KEYES American Independent HARRIS (HANK) SIMMONDS WILEY S. DRAKE, SR. Retired Physician of several million dollars annually. Potential RALPH NADER Peace And Freedom SHARON J. JACKSON minor local and state enforcement and MATT GONZALEZ Incumbent prosecution costs, partly offset by increased BARACK OBAMA Democratic FRANK PARNELL fine revenue. JOE BIDEN Physician/Businessman YES NO UNITED STATES REPRESENTATIVE, PROPOSITION 3: CHILDREN’S 6TH DISTRICT HOSPITAL BOND ACT. GRANT Vote for One (1) MEASURES SUBMITTED PROGRAM. INITIATIVE STATUTE. TO THE VOTERS Authorizes $980,000,000 in general obligation bonds for construction, JOEL R. SMOLEN Libertarian expansion, remodeling, renovation, Registered Investment Advisor STATE furnishing and equipping of eligible MIKE HALLIWELL Republican PROPOSITION 1A: SAFE, RELIABLE HIGH- children’s hospitals. College Professor SPEED PASSENGER TRAIN BOND ACT. Fiscal Impact: State cost of about $2
    • ProgressLessons from crises
    • Sarasota 34
    • No testing =lost votesKing Co. 2009 undervotes were disproportionateto other countiesresulted in legislation about ballot design 35
    • EnsuringfranchiseMinnesota SoS tests vote-by-mail after 2008senate recounts Before
    • EnsuringfranchiseMinnesota SoS tests vote-by-mail after 2008senate recounts After
    • DEMONSTRATION BALLOT [Insert Chinese Translation] SAMPLE BALLOT FOR THE GENERAL ELECTION - City of New York - County of Kings - November 2, 2010 [Insert Korean Translation] A B C D E F G RDH H WRITE-IN CANDIDATO POR 1. BEFORE VOTING THIS BALLOT, Democratic Republican Independence Conservative Working Families Green Rent is 2 Damn Libertarian ESCRITO [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] High [Chinese] PLEASE READ THE [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Chinese] [Korean] INSTRUCTIONS ON [Korean] THE OTHER SIDE OF 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G 1H WRITE-IN THIS BALLOT. Andrew M. Carl P. Andrew M. Carl P. Andrew M. Howie Jimmy Warren 1. ANTES DE EMITIR Cuomo Paladino Cuomo Paladino Cuomo Hawkins McMillan Redlich [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] SU VOTO CON [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] ESTA PAPELETA, [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] SÍRVASE LEER LAS [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] INSTRUCCIONES EN EL DORSO DE ESTA PAPELETA. Electors for Robert J. Gregory J. Robert J. Gregory J. Robert J. Gloria Alden Governor and Duffy Edwards Duffy Edwards Duffy Mattera Link [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] LieutenantNew York sued [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] Governor [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] 2. BALLOT PROPOSALS [Spanish] ARE LOCATED ON THE 1 OTHE SIDE OF THIS [Chinese] K J ✺ I BALLOT. 2. LAS PROPUESTAS DE [Korean] Taxpayers Freedom Anti-Prohibition PAPELETA APARECEN [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese]for usability [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] EN EL DORO DE ESTA Vote Once PAPELETA. Vote una vez 1K 1J 1I [Chinese] [Korean] Carl P. Charles Kristin M. Paladino Barron Davis [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean]problems MARKING INSTRUCTIONS: Gregory J. Eva M. Tanya INSTRUCCIONES Edwards Doyle Gendelman DE MARCADO: [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] Correct Mark: [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] Marca Correcta: A B C D E F GTesting Comptroller Democratic Republican Independence Conservative Working Families Green Libertarian [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Spanish] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Chinese] 2 [Korean] 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 2G WRITE-IN Vote Once Thomas P. Harry Harry Harry Thomas P. Julia A. John Vote una vez DiNapoli Wilson Wilson Wilson DiNapoli Willebrand Gaetani [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Korean] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean]Training [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] A B C D E F G ✺ Attorney General Democratic Republican Independence Conservative Working Families Libertarian Freedom [Spanish] [Chinese] [Korean] [Chinese] [Korean] [Chinese] [Korean] [Chinese] [Korean] [Chinese] [Korean] [Chinese] [Korean] [Chinese] [Korean] [Chinese] 3 [Korean] 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E 3F 3G WRITE-IN Vote Once Eric T. Dan Eric T. Dan Eric T. Carl E. Ramon J. Vote una vez [Chinese] Schneiderman Donovan Schneiderman Donovan Schneiderman Person Jimenez [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Korean] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] A B C D E F G RDH H Democratic Republican Independence Conservative Working Families Green Rent is 2 Damn Libertarian [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] High [Chinese] 38 [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Chinese] [Korean] [Korean] 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4F 4G 4H WRITE-IN United States Kristen E. Joseph J. Kristen E. Joseph J. Kristen E. Cecile A. Joseph John Gillibrand DioGuardi Gillibrand DioGuardi Gillibrand Lawrence Huff Clifton Senator [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Spanish] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] 4 [Korean] K J I Vote Once Vote una vez [Chinese] [Korean] Tax Revolt Taxpayers Anti-Prohibition [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese] [Korean] [Korean] [Korean] 4K 4J 4I Bruce Joseph J. Viva Blakeman DioGuardi Morgan [Chinese] [Chinese] [Chinese]
    • 39
    • Recommended 03/08/2011$03:47:00pm$Youfilledintoomanyovalsin3contests.Thesevoteswillnotcount: e d t tl s eReturnyourballotU n Ignoremessage.CastballotGet$your$ballot$back$to$correct$it.$Ask$a$ Ignore$this$message$and$cast$your$poll$worker$for$a$new$one.$ ballot$with$votes$that$will$not$count.$ ReturnBallot Cast 40
    • Research andstandardsElection Assistance Commission andNational Institute of Standards andTechnologyVoluntary Voting System Guidelines -VVSG 2.5
    • Brennan Center Design forDemocracy 42
    • Field Guides seriesResearch Research SOP and Usability Researchcommissioned by commissioned by and Civic Life commissioned byEAC, book NIST, book Project, book NIST, bookfunded by funded by funded by funded byKickstarter Kickstarter Kickstarter Kickstarter
    • Coming soonEffective election Delivering useful Effective design Designing multi-department voter education for vote-by-mail language ballotsweb sites Research Research Funding yet to be Funding yet to be sponsored by sponsored by secured secured John D. & John D. & Catherine T. Catherine T. MacArthur MacArthur Foundation Foundation
    • Field GuidesTo Ensuring Voter Intentcivicdesigning.org /fieldguides
    • Be anelection worker
    • Observe elections HUGE PROJECTon poll worker security! We need participants everywhere 47
    • Volunteer to proofread
    • Use theaccessible system http://trace.wisc.edu/voting/ 49
    • Join our projectsAIGA Design for DemocracyUPA Usability in Civic Life
    • Epilogue 51
    • Why can’t I vote on the internet?SecrecyError toleranceSecurityDisagreement about the level of risk 52
    • Why aren’t all voters using the samevoting system? 53
    • The 10th AmendmentIt’s a states rights issue. 54
    • DanaChisnelldana@usabilityworks.netwww.usabilityworks.net415.519.1148@danachis