Las preposiciones

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prepositions english, time, movement

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Las preposiciones

  1. 1. PREPOSITIONS damy
  2. 2. PREPOSITIONS damy Las preposiciones pueden realizar distintas funciones:  Servir de enlace entre dos palabras o distintos elementos en la oración: I'll see you at five o'clock / Te veré a las cinco  Pueden acompañar a un verbo sirviendo de enlace a su complemento. En este caso, pueden no alterar el significado del verbo o alterarlo con lo que constituyen una palabra distinta. To look / Mirar (no altera el significado del verbo) To look after / Cuidar de (se altera el significado del verbo)  Cuando ponemos un verbo después de una preposición, en inglés normalmente se utiliza la forma ' ing' y no el infinitivo. You shouldn’t go to India without visiting the Taj Mahal. No deberías ir a la India sin visitar el Taj Mahal. I’m interested in studying psychology. / Estoy interesado en estudiar psicología. Las principales preposiciones en inglés son: about alrededor de, sobre above por encima de after detrás de, después de among entre (tres o más) at en, junto a before antes de, delante de behind detrás de below debajo de beneath debajo de beside junto a between entre (dos o más) but excepto, pero by por, junto a down hacia abajo except excepto for para, por, durante, desde hace from de, desde in en, dentro de into en, adentro like como, igual a near cerca de of de off de (alejándose), fuera de on en, sobre over por encima de, al otro lado since desde through a través de throughout por todo till = until hasta to a, hasta, hacia under por debajo de up hacia arriba upon (poniendo) sobre, encima with con without sin
  3. 3. PREPOSITIONS damy POSICIÓN DE LAS PREPOSICIONES Generalmente, se colocan delante del sustantivo o del pronombre, excepto en los siguientes casos: a.) Con el pronombre relativo, cuando va seguido de preposición, ésta puede colocarse en la posición final. The girls I study with / Las muchachas con las que estudio (en lugar de: The girls with whom I study) b.) En frases interrogativas cuando empiezan por un pronombre interrogativo: Who were you speaking to? / ¿con quién estabas hablando? (en lugar de: To whom were you speaking?) LA PREPOSICIÓN Y LA CONTRACCIÓN La contracción española, es decir, la fusión de una preposición con el artículo definido (al, del) no existen en inglés. Se traducen siempre por la preposición seguida del artículo definido y separado de ella (al = a el) (del = de el): Tell it to the chairman / Dígaselo al president
  4. 4. PREPOSITIONS damy There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary, reading a lot in English literature and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips). The following examples contain rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English:
  5. 5. PREPOSITIONS damy Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction) English Usage Example in - room, building, street, town, country - book, paper etc. - car, taxi - picture, world  in the kitchen, in London  in the book  in the car, in a taxi  in the picture, in the world at - meaning next to, by an object - for table - for events - place where you are to do something typical (watch a film, study, work)  at the door, at the station  at the table  at a concert, at the party  at the cinema, at school, at work on - attached - for a place with a river - being on a surface - for a certain side (left, right) - for a floor in a house - for public transport - for television, radio  the picture on the wall  London lies on the Thames.  on the table  on the left  on the first floor  on the bus, on a plane  on TV, on the radio by, next to, beside - left or right of somebody or something  Jane is standing by  / next to /  beside the car. under - on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else  the bag is under the table below - lower than something else but above ground  the fish are below the surface over - covered by something else - meaning more than - getting to the other side (also across) - overcoming an obstacle  put a jacket over your shirt  over 16 years of age  walk over the bridge  climb over the wall above - higher than something else, but not directly over it  a path above the lake across - getting to the other side (also over) - getting to the other side  walk across the bridge  swim across the lake
  6. 6. PREPOSITIONS damy through - something with limits on top, bottom and the sides  drive through the tunnel to - movement to person or building - movement to a place or country - for bed  go to the cinema  go to London / Ireland  go to bed into - enter a room / a building  go into the kitchen / the house towards - movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)  go 5 steps towards the house onto - movement to the top of something  jump onto the table from - in the sense of where from  a flower from the garden ……… Exercise
  7. 7. PREPOSITIONS damy 1) She was born 2004. 2) They are waiting the bus. 3) Don't forget to bring some flowers you. 4) I haven't smoked ages. 5) You can look up the word a dictionary. 6) She is allergic insect stings. 7) I'm looking my keys. Have you found them? 8) The song was written Madonna. 9) He likes to travel Spain in summer. 10) The police car chased the robbers the streets.

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