Networking FundamentalsConnecting Networks
15.2CONNECTING DEVICESCONNECTING DEVICESIn this section, we divide connecting devices into fiveIn this section, we divide ...
15.3Five categories of connecting devices
15.4A passive hub is just a connector.Note
15.5A repeater connecting two segments of a LAN
15.6A repeater connects segments of a LAN.NoteA repeater forwards every frame;it has no filtering capability.A repeater is...
15.7Function of a repeater
15.8A hierarchy of hubs - an active hub is a multiport repeater
15.9• A bridge also regenerates the signalsit receives.• In addition it has a table used infiltering decisions.Note
15.10A bridge connecting two LANs
15.11A bridge does not:- forward frames that don’t need tobe forwarded (it drops them).- change the physical (MAC)addresse...
15.12A learning bridge and the process of learning
15.13
15.14WeIn the network for an enterprise, a computer server acting as a gateway node is often alsoacting as a proxy server ...
15.15Routers connecting independent LANs and WANs
15.16BACKBONE NETWORKSBACKBONE NETWORKSA backbone network allows several LANs to beA backbone network allows several LANs ...
15.17In a star backbone, the topology of thebackbone is a star; the backbone is justone switch. Usually used as adistribut...
15.18Star backbone
15.19In a bus backbone, the topologyof the backbone is a bus. Usually usedas a distribution backbone to connectdifferent b...
15.20Bus backbone
15.21A point-to-point link is a backbone thatconnects remote networks throughbridges. Usually used to connectdifferent off...
15.22Connecting remote LANs with bridges
15.23VIRTUAL LANsVIRTUAL LANs• A station is considered part of a LAN if it isA station is considered part of a LAN if it i...
15.24A switch connecting three LANs
15.25
15.26A switch using VLAN software
15.27
15.28Two switches in a backbone using VLAN software
15.29VLANs create broadcast domains.NoteVLANs membership can be based on portnumber, MAC address, IP address etc.
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3d connecting networks

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3d connecting networks

  1. 1. Networking FundamentalsConnecting Networks
  2. 2. 15.2CONNECTING DEVICESCONNECTING DEVICESIn this section, we divide connecting devices into fiveIn this section, we divide connecting devices into fivedifferent categories based on the layer in which theydifferent categories based on the layer in which theyoperate in a network.operate in a network.
  3. 3. 15.3Five categories of connecting devices
  4. 4. 15.4A passive hub is just a connector.Note
  5. 5. 15.5A repeater connecting two segments of a LAN
  6. 6. 15.6A repeater connects segments of a LAN.NoteA repeater forwards every frame;it has no filtering capability.A repeater is a regenerator,not an amplifier.
  7. 7. 15.7Function of a repeater
  8. 8. 15.8A hierarchy of hubs - an active hub is a multiport repeater
  9. 9. 15.9• A bridge also regenerates the signalsit receives.• In addition it has a table used infiltering decisions.Note
  10. 10. 15.10A bridge connecting two LANs
  11. 11. 15.11A bridge does not:- forward frames that don’t need tobe forwarded (it drops them).- change the physical (MAC)addresses in a frame.Note
  12. 12. 15.12A learning bridge and the process of learning
  13. 13. 15.13
  14. 14. 15.14WeIn the network for an enterprise, a computer server acting as a gateway node is often alsoacting as a proxy server and a firewall server. A gateway is often associated with a router,which knows where to direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway.
  15. 15. 15.15Routers connecting independent LANs and WANs
  16. 16. 15.16BACKBONE NETWORKSBACKBONE NETWORKSA backbone network allows several LANs to beA backbone network allows several LANs to beconnected. In a backbone network, no station isconnected. In a backbone network, no station isdirectly connected to the backbone; the stations aredirectly connected to the backbone; the stations arepart of a LAN, and the backbone connects the LANs.part of a LAN, and the backbone connects the LANs.
  17. 17. 15.17In a star backbone, the topology of thebackbone is a star; the backbone is justone switch. Usually used as adistribution backbone to connectdifferent floors LANs in a building.Note
  18. 18. 15.18Star backbone
  19. 19. 15.19In a bus backbone, the topologyof the backbone is a bus. Usually usedas a distribution backbone to connectdifferent buildings in an organisation.Note
  20. 20. 15.20Bus backbone
  21. 21. 15.21A point-to-point link is a backbone thatconnects remote networks throughbridges. Usually used to connectdifferent offices of an organisation.Note
  22. 22. 15.22Connecting remote LANs with bridges
  23. 23. 15.23VIRTUAL LANsVIRTUAL LANs• A station is considered part of a LAN if it isA station is considered part of a LAN if it isphysically located on it,physically located on it, ie.ie. it is on the sameit is on the sameBroadcast domain.Broadcast domain.• What happens if we need a virtual connectionWhat happens if we need a virtual connectionbetween stations on different LANs.between stations on different LANs.• We can roughly define aWe can roughly define a virtual local area networkvirtual local area network(VLAN) as a local area network configured not(VLAN) as a local area network configured notonly by physical wiring, but by software also. Inonly by physical wiring, but by software also. Inother words they are Virtual Broadcast domains.other words they are Virtual Broadcast domains.
  24. 24. 15.24A switch connecting three LANs
  25. 25. 15.25
  26. 26. 15.26A switch using VLAN software
  27. 27. 15.27
  28. 28. 15.28Two switches in a backbone using VLAN software
  29. 29. 15.29VLANs create broadcast domains.NoteVLANs membership can be based on portnumber, MAC address, IP address etc.

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