Networking FundamentalsPhysical Layer &Transmission Media2.1
Physical Layer and Media7.2
7.3So a recap• The physical layer is responsible formovement of individual bits from one hop(node) to the next. It deals w...
2.4
7.5• The physical layer (Layer 1) specifications, which are alsotypically standards from other organizations that are refe...
7.6Transmission medium and physical layer
7.7Classes of transmission media
7.8GUIDED MEDIAGUIDED MEDIAGuided media, are those that provide a conduit fromGuided media, are those that provide a condu...
7.9Twisted-pair cableOne can simplistically say, that by twisting, unwanted signalsare mostly canceled out, when relative ...
7.10UTP and STP cables
7.11Categories of twisted-pair cables (EIA 568)
Twisted Pair(a) Category 3 UTP.(b) Category 5 UTP.
7.13UTP connector8P8C (8 Position 8 Contact, also backronymed as 8 position 8 conductor )
7.14
7.15Unshielded twisted pair cable with different twist ratesScTP, also known as FTPShielded twisted pair cable with differ...
7.16UTP performance
Coaxial CableA coaxial cable.
7.18Categories of coaxial cablesThe origin of the RG designations is in old, long-obsolete military specs; RG standsfor Ra...
7.19Coaxial cable performance
7.20BNC connectorsBayonet Neill-Concelman
7.21
7.22Bending of light ray
7.23Optical fiber
7.24Propagation modes
7.25Modes
7.26Fiber types
7.27Fiber construction
Fiber Cables(a) Side view of a single fiber.(b) End view of a sheath with three fibers.
7.29Fiber-optic cable connectors
7.30
Transmission of Light through FiberAttenuation of light through fiber in the infraredregion.
Fiber Optic NetworkA fiber optic ring with active repeaters.
7.33UNGUIDED MEDIA: WIRELESSUNGUIDED MEDIA: WIRELESSUnguided media transport electromagnetic wavesUnguided media transport...
The Electromagnetic SpectrumThe electromagnetic spectrum and its uses forcommunication.
7.35Propagation methods
7.36Bands
7.37SEGMENT BANDBANDWIDTHUSEDUSER SATELLITESUHF200 - 400MHz160 KHz MilitaryFLTSAT,LEASATL1.5 - 1.6GHz47 MHz CommercialMARI...
7.38Wireless transmission waves
7.39Omnidirectional antenna
7.40Radio waves are used for multicastcommunications, such as radio andtelevision, and paging systems.Note
7.41Unidirectional antennas
7.42Microwaves are used for unicastcommunication such as cellulartelephones, satellite networks,and wireless LANs.Note
7.43Infrared signals can be used for short-range communication in a closed areausing line-of-sight propagation.Note
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2a transmission media

  1. 1. Networking FundamentalsPhysical Layer &Transmission Media2.1
  2. 2. Physical Layer and Media7.2
  3. 3. 7.3So a recap• The physical layer is responsible formovement of individual bits from one hop(node) to the next. It deals with the mechanicaland electrical specifications of the interface andtransmission medium, as well as the proceduresand functions they have to perform fortransmission to occur.• PR DSL PT
  4. 4. 2.4
  5. 5. 7.5• The physical layer (Layer 1) specifications, which are alsotypically standards from other organizations that are referred toby OSI, deal with the physical characteristics of thetransmission medium. Connectors, pins, use of pins, electricalcurrents, encoding, and modulation (depending upon themedia) are all part of different physical layer specifications.• Multiple specifications are sometimes used to complete alldetails of the physical layer. For example, RJ-45 defines theshape of the connector and the number of wires or pins in thecable. Ethernet (802.3) define the use of wires or pins 1, 2, 3,and 6. So, to use a Category 5 cable with an RJ-45 connectorfor an Ethernet connection, Ethernet, RJ-45 and CAT 5 cablephysical layer specifications are used.• Example Standards: EIA/TIA-232, V.24, EIA/TIA-449,V.35, RJ45, Ethernet (802.3), Token Ring (802.5), WirelessLAN (802.11), Wireless MAN or BWA (802.16) etc.
  6. 6. 7.6Transmission medium and physical layer
  7. 7. 7.7Classes of transmission media
  8. 8. 7.8GUIDED MEDIAGUIDED MEDIAGuided media, are those that provide a conduit fromGuided media, are those that provide a conduit fromone device to another, include twisted-pair cable,one device to another, include twisted-pair cable,coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable.coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable.
  9. 9. 7.9Twisted-pair cableOne can simplistically say, that by twisting, unwanted signalsare mostly canceled out, when relative measurement is made.
  10. 10. 7.10UTP and STP cables
  11. 11. 7.11Categories of twisted-pair cables (EIA 568)
  12. 12. Twisted Pair(a) Category 3 UTP.(b) Category 5 UTP.
  13. 13. 7.13UTP connector8P8C (8 Position 8 Contact, also backronymed as 8 position 8 conductor )
  14. 14. 7.14
  15. 15. 7.15Unshielded twisted pair cable with different twist ratesScTP, also known as FTPShielded twisted pair cable with different twist ratesS/STP, also known as S/FTPSingle-core cable, 25-pair, 50 conductors
  16. 16. 7.16UTP performance
  17. 17. Coaxial CableA coaxial cable.
  18. 18. 7.18Categories of coaxial cablesThe origin of the RG designations is in old, long-obsolete military specs; RG standsfor Radio Guide (Radio Govt as per Forouzan)1.63/10.5 mm0.9/5.0 mm0.81/6.1 mmCore/Dia
  19. 19. 7.19Coaxial cable performance
  20. 20. 7.20BNC connectorsBayonet Neill-Concelman
  21. 21. 7.21
  22. 22. 7.22Bending of light ray
  23. 23. 7.23Optical fiber
  24. 24. 7.24Propagation modes
  25. 25. 7.25Modes
  26. 26. 7.26Fiber types
  27. 27. 7.27Fiber construction
  28. 28. Fiber Cables(a) Side view of a single fiber.(b) End view of a sheath with three fibers.
  29. 29. 7.29Fiber-optic cable connectors
  30. 30. 7.30
  31. 31. Transmission of Light through FiberAttenuation of light through fiber in the infraredregion.
  32. 32. Fiber Optic NetworkA fiber optic ring with active repeaters.
  33. 33. 7.33UNGUIDED MEDIA: WIRELESSUNGUIDED MEDIA: WIRELESSUnguided media transport electromagnetic wavesUnguided media transport electromagnetic waveswithout using a physical conductor. This type ofwithout using a physical conductor. This type ofcommunication is often referred to as wirelesscommunication is often referred to as wirelesscommunication.communication.
  34. 34. The Electromagnetic SpectrumThe electromagnetic spectrum and its uses forcommunication.
  35. 35. 7.35Propagation methods
  36. 36. 7.36Bands
  37. 37. 7.37SEGMENT BANDBANDWIDTHUSEDUSER SATELLITESUHF200 - 400MHz160 KHz MilitaryFLTSAT,LEASATL1.5 - 1.6GHz47 MHz CommercialMARISAT,INMARSATSHFC 6/4 GHz 800 MHz CommercialINTELSAT,DOMSATS,ANIK EX 8/7 GHz 500 MHz MilitaryDSCS,SKYNET,NATOKu 14/12 GHz 500 MHz CommercialINTELSAT,DOMSATS,ANIK EKa 30/20 GHz2500 MHz Commercial JCS1000 MHz Military DSCS IVEHFQ 44/20 GHz 3500 MHz Military/DOT MILSTARV 64/59 GHz 5000 MHz Military CROSSLINKSSATELLITE FREQUENCIES
  38. 38. 7.38Wireless transmission waves
  39. 39. 7.39Omnidirectional antenna
  40. 40. 7.40Radio waves are used for multicastcommunications, such as radio andtelevision, and paging systems.Note
  41. 41. 7.41Unidirectional antennas
  42. 42. 7.42Microwaves are used for unicastcommunication such as cellulartelephones, satellite networks,and wireless LANs.Note
  43. 43. 7.43Infrared signals can be used for short-range communication in a closed areausing line-of-sight propagation.Note

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