Before the Subject, a bit about me...• I am Col BHARAT JHINGON.• Served for 31 years in the Army.• Did my B. Tech. in Electronics from IIT, Madras in 1978.Obtained First Class.• Did my M. Tech. in Optoelectronics & OpticalCommunications from IIT, Delhi in 1989. Stood firstwith CGPA of 9.83.• Did my Masters in Personnel Management from PuneUniversity in 2005. Obtained First Class.• Registered for Ph D. Topic of Research – Managementof BWA in India.• Have about 10 years of teaching experience (both,within & outside the Army).
1.3DATA COMMUNICATIONS• The term telecommunication means communicationat a distance.• The word data refers to information presented inwhatever form is agreed upon by the parties creatingand using the data.• Data communications are the exchange of databetween two devices via some form of transmissionmedium such as a wire cable.
Data Représentation• Text – Unicode ( evolved from ASCII)• Numbers – one of few No. systems• Images – also represented by bit patterns,each pixel assigned a bit pattern• Audio – bit stream• Video – bit stream
1.8NETWORKS• A network is a set of devices (often referred to asnodes) connected by communication links.• A node can be a computer, printer, or any otherdevice capable of sending and/or receiving datagenerated by other nodes on the network.• Characterised by certain parameters.– Certain important Network Criteria?(Hint – PRS)
1.26WANs: a switched WAN and a point-to-point WAN
Wide Area NetworksRelation between hosts on LANs and the subnet.Communication
Wide Area NetworksA stream of packets from sender to receiver.
1.29Internetwork – eg. a heterogeneous network made of four WANs and two LANs
1.30THE INTERNET• The Internet has revolutionized many aspects of ourdaily lives. It has affected the way we do business aswell as the way we spend our leisure time. TheInternet is a communication system that has brought awealth of information to our fingertips and organizedit for our use.• Started off as the ARPANET, the Advanced ResearchProjects Agency NET.
Architecture of the InternetOverview of the Internet.On the Internet, apoint-of-presence(POP) is an accesspoint from one placeto the rest of theInternet. It has aunique IP address.
1.33PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS• Now we define two widely used terms: protocols andstandards.• First, we define protocol, which is synonymous withrule.• Then we discuss standards, which are agreed-uponrules.
13.35802.3 MAC frameStandard Ethernet – 10 Mbps
ITU• Main sectors• Radiocommunications• Telecommunications Standardization• Development• Classes of Members• National governments• Sector members• Associate members• Regulatory agencies
IEEE 802 StandardsThe 802 working groups. The important ones aremarked with *. The ones marked with arehibernating. The one marked with † gave up.