1a introduction to network fundamentals


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1a introduction to network fundamentals

  1. 1. Networking FundamentalsINTRODUCTION
  2. 2. Before the Subject, a bit about me...• I am Col BHARAT JHINGON.• Served for 31 years in the Army.• Did my B. Tech. in Electronics from IIT, Madras in 1978.Obtained First Class.• Did my M. Tech. in Optoelectronics & OpticalCommunications from IIT, Delhi in 1989. Stood firstwith CGPA of 9.83.• Did my Masters in Personnel Management from PuneUniversity in 2005. Obtained First Class.• Registered for Ph D. Topic of Research – Managementof BWA in India.• Have about 10 years of teaching experience (both,within & outside the Army).
  3. 3. 1.3DATA COMMUNICATIONS• The term telecommunication means communicationat a distance.• The word data refers to information presented inwhatever form is agreed upon by the parties creatingand using the data.• Data communications are the exchange of databetween two devices via some form of transmissionmedium such as a wire cable.
  4. 4. 1.4Five components of data communication
  5. 5. Data Représentation• Text – Unicode ( evolved from ASCII)• Numbers – one of few No. systems• Images – also represented by bit patterns,each pixel assigned a bit pattern• Audio – bit stream• Video – bit stream
  6. 6. 1.7Data flowEgs.?
  7. 7. 1.8NETWORKS• A network is a set of devices (often referred to asnodes) connected by communication links.• A node can be a computer, printer, or any otherdevice capable of sending and/or receiving datagenerated by other nodes on the network.• Characterised by certain parameters.– Certain important Network Criteria?(Hint – PRS)
  8. 8. 1.11Types of connections:Physical Structures
  9. 9. 1.12Physical TopologyPhysical Structures
  10. 10. 1.13A fully connected mesh topology (five devices)
  11. 11. 1.15A star topology connecting four stations
  12. 12. 1.17A bus topology connecting three stationsQn. Type of Connection?
  13. 13. 1.19A ring topology connecting six stations
  14. 14. 1.21A hybrid topology: a star backbone with three bus networks
  15. 15. Categories of Networks• Personal Area Networks• Local Area Networks• Metropolitan Area Networks• Wide Area Networks• Internetworks
  16. 16. 1.24An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet
  17. 17. Metropolitan Area Networks
  18. 18. 1.26WANs: a switched WAN and a point-to-point WAN
  19. 19. Wide Area NetworksRelation between hosts on LANs and the subnet.Communication
  20. 20. Wide Area NetworksA stream of packets from sender to receiver.
  21. 21. 1.29Internetwork – eg. a heterogeneous network made of four WANs and two LANs
  22. 22. 1.30THE INTERNET• The Internet has revolutionized many aspects of ourdaily lives. It has affected the way we do business aswell as the way we spend our leisure time. TheInternet is a communication system that has brought awealth of information to our fingertips and organizedit for our use.• Started off as the ARPANET, the Advanced ResearchProjects Agency NET.
  23. 23. 1.31Hierarchical organization of the Internet
  24. 24. Architecture of the InternetOverview of the Internet.On the Internet, apoint-of-presence(POP) is an accesspoint from one placeto the rest of theInternet. It has aunique IP address.
  25. 25. 1.33PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS• Now we define two widely used terms: protocols andstandards.• First, we define protocol, which is synonymous withrule.• Then we discuss standards, which are agreed-uponrules.
  26. 26. 13.35802.3 MAC frameStandard Ethernet – 10 Mbps
  27. 27. ITU• Main sectors• Radiocommunications• Telecommunications Standardization• Development• Classes of Members• National governments• Sector members• Associate members• Regulatory agencies
  28. 28. IEEE 802 StandardsThe 802 working groups. The important ones aremarked with *. The ones marked with  arehibernating. The one marked with † gave up.