Term paper
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Term paper

on

  • 1,334 views

4G

4G

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,334
Views on SlideShare
1,316
Embed Views
18

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
31
Comments
0

2 Embeds 18

http://www.techgig.com 17
http://10.150.200.57 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft Word

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Term paper Term paper Document Transcript

  • MOBILE EVOLUTION-4G TECHNOLOGY B.E. RESEARCH REPORT Next Generation & Wireless Networks Prepared by Salman Khaliq Bajwa (3746) Advisor Asstt. Professor, Fariha Hasnain College of EngineeringPAF-Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology Karachi
  • DEDICATION This report is dedicated to My Parents, Teachers & Friends, Whose love, affection and support helped me in bringing my work to this level ofaccomplishments; I am also thankful to them for their unconditional support and encouragement to pursue my interests, even when the interest went beyond the boundaries of field and scope. Without their support and kindness this work would not have been possible.
  • ACKNOWLEDEMENT Praise to Allah the most beneficent and the most mercifulI am grateful to my project advisor Ma’m Fariha Hasnain, advisor, for enlightening me with herprecious knowledge and vast experience to benefit me in the future. I also like to thank to myteachers and lab assistants for their assistance and support.I would also thank with all gratitude and depth of my hearts to my parents who helped me notonly financially but with integrity too and support me in all my hardships. Finally my sincerethanks to my institute PAF-KIET, College of Engineering, for providing me the opportunity togave me the strength to undertake this research.Special thanks to all my fellows and friends who lend me a hand throughout this project.I pray this effort may prove to be the beginning of new era, a era in which Science andTechnology may make great progress in Pakistan and Pakistan may become a part of thedeveloped nations.Thank you.
  • ABSTRACTConsumers demand more from their technology. Whether it be a television, cellular phone, orrefrigerator, the latest technology purchase must have new features. With the advent of theInternet, the most-wanted feature is better, faster access to information. Cellular subscribers payextra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging, stock quotes, and evenInternet access right on their phones. But that is far from the limit of features; manufacturersentice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video capability. It is no longer aquantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary information — the power of apersonal computer — sits in the palm of one’s hand. To support such a powerful system, weneed pervasive, high-speed wireless connectivity. A number of technologies currently exist toprovide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity; Bluetooth and 802.11 are theexamples. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over shortdistances, typically in the tens of meters. Meanwhile, cellular providers seek to increase speed ontheir long-range wireless networks. The goal is the same: long-range, high-speed wireless, whichfor the purposes of this report will be called 4G, for fourth-generation wireless system.
  • ABBREVIATIONS3GGP : The Third Generation Partnership Project3GGP2: The Third Generation Partnership Project2EVDO: Evolution-Data OptimizedHSPA : High-Speed Packet AccessIMT: International Mobile TelecommunicationsITU: International Telecommunication UnionLTE : Long Term EvolutionMIMO: Multiple Input Multiple OutputOFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division MultiplexingSDR : Software Defined RadioUMB: Ultra Mobile Broad BandWiMAX: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
  • Table of ContentsContentsTable of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 61.0-Introduction: ........................................................................................................................................... 91.1 What are Generations? ......................................................................................................................... 101.1-A Small History Telephone & Mobile Networks: .................................................................................. 10 1.1.1-Pioneers of radio telephony: ......................................................................................................... 10 1.1.2-Early services: ................................................................................................................................ 10 1.1.2.1-MTS and IMTS: ............................................................................................................................ 10 1.1.2.2-Radio Common Carrier: .............................................................................................................. 11 1.1.2.3-Rural Radiotelephone Service: ................................................................................................... 12 1.1.2.4-Before cellular networks............................................................................................................. 12 1.1.3-Cellular concepts: .......................................................................................................................... 14 1.1.4-Emergence of automated mobile phone services: ........................................................................ 15 1.1.5-Handheld cell phone: ..................................................................................................................... 171.2- What is 4G? .......................................................................................................................................... 18 1.1.1-Key Features: ............................................................................................................................. 18 1.2- How does it work? ........................................................................................................................... 201.3-Requirements: ...................................................................................................................................... 23 1.4-SWOT ANALYSIS-4G: ................................................................................................... 252.0-History:.................................................................................................................................................. 26 2.0.1-Communication System: ................................................................................................................ 26 2.0.2-Telecommunication: ...................................................................................................................... 272.1-1G.......................................................................................................................................................... 27 2.1.1-Brief Description: ........................................................................................................................... 272.2-2G.......................................................................................................................................................... 29 2.2.1-Brief Description: ........................................................................................................................... 29 Capacity:.................................................................................................................................................. 29
  • Advantages:............................................................................................................................................. 30 Disadvantages: ........................................................................................................................................ 30Evolution: .................................................................................................................................................... 312.2.2-2.5G (GPRS):....................................................................................................................................... 312.2.3-2.75G (EDGE): .................................................................................................................................... 322.3-3G:......................................................................................................................................................... 32 2.3.1-Brief Description: ........................................................................................................................... 33 Detailed breakdown of 3G systems .................................................................................................... 34 Features: ................................................................................................................................................. 35 Data rates .................................................................................................................................... 35 Security ....................................................................................................................................... 35 Applications of 3G: .................................................................................................................................. 352.4-4G:......................................................................................................................................................... 362.5-5G:......................................................................................................................................................... 363.0-Pictorial View of Mobile Evolution: ...................................................................................................... 374.0-Pictorial View of Generations: .............................................................................................................. 375.0-Satellite Mobile:.................................................................................................................................... 38 5.1-How does it work? ............................................................................................................................ 39 5.2-Features: ........................................................................................................................................... 40 5.2.1-Cost of a satellite phone: ........................................................................................................... 40 5.2.2-Virtual country codes:................................................................................................................ 41 5.2.3-Calling cost: ................................................................................................................................ 41 5.2.4-Use in disaster response: ........................................................................................................... 426.0-How to avoid falling in the mobile generation gap? ............................................................................ 427.0-Conclusion: ........................................................................................................................................... 45
  • Mobile Evolution 4G Technology
  • 1.0-Introduction:Now-a-days the goal of many customers is to have PC at one’s palm. To support such powerfulsystems we need long range, high speed wireless network called 4G. There is a great demand ofuser needs for accessing more interactive multimedia application like video on demand andseamless connection while moving from one network from other without any disturbance andmaintaining the high data rate at lower cost. Current technologies are able to provide theservices like multimedia applications but they failed to provide high data rate, transmission costand seamless connectivity on user mobility from one network to another and at the same timemaintaining its Quality of Service (QoS).
  • 1.1 What are Generations?You might have seen 3G/4G being advertised everywhere these days, billboards, televisionadvertisements, you name it. But what is G or generation? How is it different from what weused previously? What were the previous standards?First of all, these standards are set by the International Telecommunication Union or ITU forshort. It is a specialized agency of the United Nations, founded in 1865, which is responsible forinformation and communication technologies. The ITU co-ordinates the shared global use ofthe radio spectrum, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure and establishes relatedworldwide telecommunication standards.1.1-A Small History of Telephone & Mobile Networks:1.1.1-Pioneers of radio telephony:By 1930, telephone customers in the United States could place a call to a passenger on a liner inthe Atlantic Ocean. Air time charges were quite high, at $7(1930)/minute (about $92.50/minutein 2011 dollars). In areas with Marine VHF radio and a shore station, it is still possible to arrangea call from the public telephone network to a ship, still using manual call set-up and the servicesof a human marine radio operator.However it was the 1940s onwards that saw the seeds of technological development whichwould eventually produce the mobile phone that we know today. Motorola developed abackpacked two-way radio, the Walkie-Talkie and a large hand-held two-way radio for the USmilitary. This battery powered "Handie-Talkie" (HT) was about the size of a mans forearm.1.1.2-Early services:1.1.2.1-MTS and IMTS:In 1946 in St. Louis, the Mobile Telephone Service was introduced. Only three radio channelswere available, and call set-up required manual operation by a mobile operator. Although very
  • popular and commercially successful, the service was limited by having only a few voicechannels per district.In 1964 Improved Mobile Telephone Service was introduced with additional channels and moreautomatic handling of calls to the public switched telephone network. Even the addition ofradio channels in three bands was insufficient to meet demand for vehicle-mounted mobileradio systems.1.1.2.2-Radio Common Carrier:Parallel to Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) in the US, a competing mobile telephonetechnology was called Radio Common Carrier or RCC. The service was provided from the 1960suntil the 1980s when cellular AMPS systems made RCC equipment obsolete. These systemsoperated in a regulated environment in competition with YOLO the Bell Systems MTS andIMTS. RCCs handled telephone calls and were operated by private companies and individuals.RCCs used paired UHF 454/459 MHz and VHF 152/158 MHz frequencies near those used byIMTS.Some systems were designed to allow customers of adjacent carriers to use their facilities, butequipment used by RCCs did not allow the equivalent of modern "roaming" because technicalstandards were not uniform. For example, the phone of an Omaha, Nebraska–based RCCservice would not be likely to work in Phoenix, Arizona. Roaming was not encouraged, in part,because there was no centralized industry billing database for RCCs. Signaling formats were notstandardized. For example, some systems used two-tone sequential paging to alert a mobile ofan incoming call. Other systems used DTMF. Some used Secode 2805, which transmitted aninterrupted 2805 Hz tone (similar to IMTS signaling) to alert mobiles of an offered call. Someradio equipment used with RCC systems was half-duplex, push-to-talk LOMO equipment suchas Motorola hand-helds or RCA 700-series conventional two-way radios. Other vehicularequipment had telephone handsets, rotary or pushbutton dials, and operated full duplex like aconventional wired telephone. A few users had full-duplex briefcase telephones (radicallyadvanced for their day).
  • At the end of RCCs existence, industry associations were working on a technical standard thatwould have allowed roaming, and some mobile users had multiple decoders to enableoperation with more than one of the common signaling formats (600/1500, 2805, and Reach).Manual operation was often a fallback for RCC roamers.1.1.2.3-Rural Radiotelephone Service:Using the same channel frequencies as IMTS, the US Federal Communications Commissionauthorized Rural Radiotelephone Service for fixed stations. Because RF channels were sharedwith MILFS IMTS, the service was licensed only in areas that were remote from large Bureau ofthe Census Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs).Systems used UHF 454 MHz or 152 MHz radio channels to provide telephone service toextremely rural places where it would be too costly to extend cable plant. One such system wason a 454/459 MHz channel pair between the Death Valley telephone exchange and StovepipeWells, California. This specific system carried manual calls to the Traffic Service Position System(TSPS) center in Los Angeles. Stovepipe Wells callers went off-hook and were queried, "Numberplease," by a TSPS operator, who dialed the call. Dial service was introduced to Stovepipe Wellsin the mid-1980s. The radio link has since been replaced by cable. The analog service has sincebeen replaced by Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Service, a digital system using the samefrequencies.1.1.2.4-Before cellular networks: A mobile radio telephone.
  • These mobile radio telephone services preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology.Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systemsare sometimes retroactively referred to as pre cellular (or sometimes zero generation) systems.Technologies used in pre cellular systems included the Push to Talk (PTT or manual), MobileTelephone System (MTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), and Advanced MobileTelephone System (AMTS) systems. These early mobile telephone systems can be distinguishedfrom earlier closed radiotelephone systems in that they were available as a commercial servicethat was part of the public switched telephone network, with their own telephone numbers,rather than part of a closed network such as a police radio or taxi dispatch system.These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks, though briefcase models werealso made. Typically, the transceiver (transmitter-receiver) was mounted in the vehicle trunkand attached to the "head" (dial, display, and handset) mounted near the driver seat.They were sold through WCCs (Wire line Common Carriers, AKA telephone companies), RCCs(Radio Common Carriers), and two-way radio dealers.Early examples for this technology:  Motorola in conjunction with the Bell System operated the first commercial mobile telephone service Mobile Telephone System (MTS) in the US in 1946, as a service of the wire line telephone company.  The A-Netz launched 1952 in West Germany as the countrys first public commercial mobile phone network.  First automatic system was the Bell Systems IMTS which became available in 1962, offering automatic dialing to and from the mobile.  The Televerket opened its first manual mobile telephone system in Norway in 1966. Norway was later the first country in Europe to get an automatic mobile telephone system.  The Autoradiopuhelin (ARP) launched in 1971 in Finland as the countrys first public commercial mobile phone network.  The B-Netz launched 1972 in West Germany as the countrys second public commercial mobile phone network (but the first one that did not require human operators to connect calls).
  • 1.1.3-Cellular concepts: Top of cellular telephone towerIn December 1947, Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young, Bell Labs engineers, proposed hexagonalcells for mobile phones in vehicles. Philip T. Porter, also of Bell Labs, proposed that the celltowers be at the corners of the hexagons rather than the centers and have directional antennasthat would transmit/receive in three directions (see picture at right) into three adjacenthexagon cells on three different frequencies. At this stage, the technology to implement theseideas did not exist, nor had the frequencies been allocated. Several years would pass beforeRichard H. Frenkiel and Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs developed the electronics to achieve this in the1960s.In all these early examples, a mobile phone had to stay within the coverage area serviced byone base station throughout the phone call, i.e. there was no continuity of service as thephones moved through several cell areas. The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff, as wellas a number of other concepts that formed the basis of modern cell phone technology, weredescribed in the 1970s. In 1970 Amos E. Joel, Jr., a Bell Labs engineer invented an automatic"call handoff" system to allow mobile phones to move through several cell areas during a singleconversation without interruption.In 1969 Amtrak equipped commuter trains along the 225-mile New York-Washington routewith special pay phones that allowed passengers to place telephone calls while the train wasmoving. The system re-used six frequencies in the 450 MHZ band in nine sites, a precursor ofthe concept later applied in cellular telephones.
  • In December 1971, AT&T submitted a proposal for cellular service to the FederalCommunications Commission (FCC). In 1977 they built the first network in Chicago and had1300 customers on the system by the end of 1978.fAfter years of hearings, the FCC approvedthe proposal in 1982 for Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) and allocated frequencies inthe 824–894 MHz band. Analog AMPS was eventually superseded by Digital AMPS in 1990.A cellular telephone switching plan was described by Fluhr and Nussbaum in 1973, and acellular telephone data signaling system was described in 1977 by Hachenburg et al.1.1.4-Emergence of automated mobile phone services:The first fully automated mobile phone system for vehicles was launched in Sweden in 1960.Named MTA (Mobile Telephone system A), it allowed calls to be made and received in the carusing a rotary dial. The car phone could also be paged. Calls from the car were direct dial,whereas incoming calls required an operator to determine which base station the phone wascurrently at. It was developed by Sture Laurén and other engineers at Televerket networkoperator. Ericsson provided the switchboard while Svenska Radioaktiebolaget (SRA) andMarconi provided the telephones and base station equipment. MTA phones consisted of vacuutubes and relays, and weighed 40 kg. In 1962, an upgraded version called Mobile System B(MTB) was introduced. This was a push-button telephone, and used transistors and DTMFsignaling to improve its operational reliability. In 1971 the MTD version was launched, openingfor several different brands of equipment and gaining commercial success. The networkremained open until 1983 and still had 600 customers when it closed.In 1958 development began on a similar system for motorists in the USSR. The "Altay" nationalcivil mobile phone service was based on Soviet MRT-1327 standard. The main developers of theAltay system were the Voronezh Science Research Institute of Communications (VNIIS) and theState Specialized Project Institute (GSPI). In 1963 the service started in Moscow, and by 1970was deployed in 30 cities across the USSR. Versions of the Altay system are still in use today as atrunking system in some parts of Russia.
  • In 1959 a private telephone company located in Brewster, Kansas, USA, the S&T TelephoneCompany, (still in business today) with the use of Motorola Radio Telephone equipment and aprivate tower facility, offered to the public mobile telephone services in that local area of NWKansas. This system was a direct dial up service through their local switchboard, and wasinstalled in many private vehicles including grain combines, trucks, and automobiles. For someas yet unknown reason, the system, after being placed online and operated for a very brief timeperiod, was shut down. The management of the company was immediately changed, and thefully operable system and related equipment was immediately dismantled in early 1960, not tobe seen again.In 1966, Bulgaria presented the pocket mobile automatic phone RAT-0, 5 combined with a basestation RATZ-10 (RATC-10) on Interorgtechnika-66 international exhibition. One base station,connected to one telephone wire line, could serve up to six customersOne of the first successful public commercial mobile phone networks was the ARP network inFinland, launched in 1971. Posthumously, ARP is sometimes viewed as a zero generation (0G)cellular network, being slightly above previous proprietary and limited coverage networks. ]
  • 1.1.5-Handheld cell phone: Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola, made the first US analog mobile phone call on a larger prototype model in 1973. This is a reenactment in 2007.On 3 April 1973, Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, made the first analogmobile phone call using a heavy prototype model. He called Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs. Thephone was 2.5 pounds, and 9x5x1.75 inches in size. Cooper couldnt show off his new prototypefor long because the talk time was only 30 minutes, and it took 10 hours to charge, but that wasstill amazing back then to the general public.There was a long race between Motorola and Bell Labs to produce the first portable mobilephone. Cooper is the first inventor named on "Radio telephone system" filed on 17 October1973 with the US Patent Office and later issued as US Patent 3,906,166. John F. Mitchell,Motorolas chief of portable communication products (and Coopers boss) was also named onthe patent. He successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products thatwould be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.
  • 1.2- What is 4G?4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless and is a successor to 3G and 2Gstandards. Though 4G is a broader term and could include standards outside IMT-Advanced. A4G system may upgrade existing communication networks and is expected to provide acomprehensive and secure IP based solution where facilities such as voice, data and streamedmultimedia will be provided to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis and at much higher datarates compared to previous generations.1.1.1-Key Features:4G mobile communications have transmission rates up to 20 Mbps— higher than of 3G. Thetechnology is expected to be vailable by the year 2010. Presently, NTT DoCoMo and Hewlett-Packard are on their agenda to make it available by the year 2006. 4G is being developed withthe following objectives: 1. Speeds up to 50 times higher than of 3G. However, the actual available bandwidth of 4G is expected to be about 10 Mbps. 2. Three-dimensional virtual reality—imagine personal video avatars and realistic holograms, and the ability to feel as if you are present at an event even if you are not. People, places, and products will be able to interact as the cyber and real worlds merge.
  • 3. Increased interaction between corroborating technologies; the smart card in your phone will automatically pay for goods as you pass a linked payment kiosk, or will tell your car to warm up in the morning as your phone has noted you leaving the house.Other 4G applications include high-performance streaming of multimedia content based onagent technology and scaleable media coding methods. 4G have solved problems like limitedbandwidth in 3G when people are moving and uncertainty about the ailability of bandwidth forstreaming to all users at all times. One of the key requirements is to realise a wireless 4G IP-based access system. The ultimate objective is to create a protocol suite and radiocommunication schemes to achieve broadband mobile communication in 4G wireless systems.A new protocol suite for 4G wireless systems supported by Department of Defense (DoD)contains: 1. Transport-layer protocols 2. Error-control protocols 3. Medium-access protocol 4. Mobility management 5. Simulation testbed 6. Physical testbed 7. Protocol suite in the mobile terminal 8. Protocol suite in the base station
  • 1.2- How does it work?Offering cell phone data speeds several times faster than youre used to, 4G is expected to startheating up the airwaves in the next year or so. As for what 4G is — basically, theres nothingsimple about 4G expect for the name, which refers to fourth generation cell phones. First-generation cell phones were basic analog units, based on a scheme that Alexander Graham Bellwould recognize. Second-generation cell phones were digital units; third-generation (3G) werefaster digital units; while fourth generation (4G) opens the door to broadband speeds. Whatthat means: You could, in theory, watch the Superbowl in HD on a 4G phone while downloadingemail and talking to a like-minded fan on the phone. In theory. As for how 4G works, the simpleanswer is OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing.) Translation: the signal is dividedinto parallel data streams carried over closely-spaced radio sub-channels, to be reassembled atthe far end. The approach is already used in certain kinds of WiMAX and Wi-Fi systems, which
  • let you get on-line at Starbucks at a reasonable speed. How fast is 4G? The maximum speed isusually given as 100 megabits per second downstream (from the network to you) and 50megabits per second upstream (back to the network). By comparison, an HDTV signal consumesabout 25 megabits per second. But 100 megabits down and 50 megabits up are purelytheoretical numbers, cautions Fred Campbell, president of the Wireless CommunicationsAssociation International (WCAI) in Washington, DC. "In the real world you don’t reachmaximum speeds, because in the real world you have trees and buildings and distanceattenuation and moving receivers and bandwidth limitations," he told TechNewsDaily.Campbell pointed to a network test several months ago by a cell phone carrier whosetechnicians drove around in cars, averaging 35 mph, to see what data speeds they could get.Their 4G gear saw average download speeds of 6 megabits, while their 3G gear was averaging1.5 megabits. However, steady enhancements can be expected to gradually drive real-worldspeeds towards the maximum, Campbell added.
  • As the need for communication rather fastest communication is the foremost priority ofpresent era also the need of quick data transfer. Distant business correspondence by sharingdata becomes very important. Ever growing technology is the example of one such steptowards the fastest transmission of data. 4G stands for Fourth Generation is the latesttechnology with high speed transferability of data with security measurements. It is comingwith wireless broadband for the instant download. Talking about the standard of 4Gtechnology, still not defined as set standard, two technologies are supposed to be the basedfeatures of 4G. WiMAX LTEITU promotes the technologies against the defragmentation and incompatibilities in 4Gtechnologies. WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access previouslyworked as fixed wireless facility under the 802.16e band. Now the modified standard 802.16mhas been developed with the properties of speed, wide spectrum, and increase band.
  • 1.3-Requirements:In mid 1990s, the ITU-R organization specified the IMT-2000 specifications for what standardsthat should be considered 3G systems. However, the cell phone market brands only some ofthe IMT-2000 standards as 3G (e.g. WCDMA and CDMA2000), not all (3GPP EDGE, DECT andmobile-WiMAX all fulfil the IMT-2000 requirements and are formally accepted as 3G standards,but are typically not branded as 3G). In 2008, ITU-R specified the IMT-Advanced (InternationalMobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G systems.This article uses 4G to refer to IMT-Advanced (International Mobile TelecommunicationsAdvanced), as defined by ITU-R. An IMT-Advanced cellular system must fulfill the followingrequirements: Based on an all-IP packet switched network. Peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility such as mobile access and up to approximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access, according to the ITU requirements. Dynamically share and use the network resources to support more simultaneous users per cell.
  • Scalable channel bandwidth 5–20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz. Peak link spectral efficiency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75 bit/s/Hz in the uplink (meaning that 1 Gbit/s in the downlink should be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth). System spectral efficiency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.25 bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor usage. Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks. Ability to offer high quality of service for next generation multimedia support.In September 2009, the technology proposals were submitted to the InternationalTelecommunication Union (ITU) as 4G candidates. Basically all proposals are based on twotechnologies: LTE Advanced standardized by the 3GPP 802.16m standardized by the IEEE (i.e. WiMAX)Present implementations of WiMAX and LTE are largely considered a stopgap solution that willoffer a considerable boost while WiMAX 2 (based on the 802.16m spec) and LTE Advanced arefinalized. Both technologies aim to reach the objectives traced by the ITU, but are still far frombeing implemented.The first set of 3GPP requirements on LTE Advanced was approved in June 2008. LTE Advancedwill be standardized in 2010 as part of the Release 10 of the 3GPP specification. LTE Advancedwill be fully built on the existing LTE specification Release 10 and not be defined as a newspecification series. A summary of the technologies that have been studied as the basis for LTEAdvanced is included in a technical report.Current LTE and WiMAX implementations are considered pre-4G, as they do not fully complywith the planned requirements of 1 Gbit/s for stationary reception and 100 Mbit/s for mobile.Confusion has been caused by some mobile carriers who have launched products advertised as4G but which are actually current technologies, commonly referred to as 3.9G, which do not
  • follow the ITU-R defined principles for 4G standards. A common argument for branding 3.9Gsystems as new-generation is that they use different frequency bands to 3G technologies; thatthey are based on a new radio-interface paradigm; and that the standards are not backwardscompatible with 3G, whilst some of the standards are expected to be forwards compatible with"real" 4G technologies.While the ITU has adopted recommendations for technologies that would be used for futureglobal communications, they do not actually perform the standardization or development workthemselves, instead relying on the work of other standards bodies such as IEEE, The WiMAXForum and 3GPP. Recently, ITU-R Working Party 5D approved two industry-developedtechnologies (LTE Advanced and WirelessMAN-Advanced) for inclusion in the ITU’sInternational Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced program), which is focusedon global communication systems that would be available several years from now.1.4-SWOT ANALYSIS-4G:SWOT analysis (alternately SLOT analysis) is a strategic planning method used to evaluate theStrengths, Weaknesses/Limitations, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in abusiness venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project andidentifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve thatobjective. STRENGTHS: Strong position of telecommunication vendors. -Faster data transmissions . -Higher bit-rate . -Larger bandwidth. -Personalized multimedia communication tools. WEAKNESS: No large user community .
  • -Divergence between vendors and operators. -No full internet -- limited speed ,bandwidth -Highest cost to use and on infrastructure. OPPORTUNITIES: Evolutionary approach. -Sophisticated commercialization would encourage e-commerce and m-commerce. -Expected that consumers will replace handsets with newer tech. -Desirable higher data capacity rates. THREATS: Faster rate of growth and developments in other region. -Since 3G is still in market ,it squeezes the market competition in mobile industry.2.0-History of Communication:The brief history of communication sytem & different generations is given below;2.0.1-Communication System:Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication has been derived fromthe Latin word "communis", meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message,and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sendersintent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur acrossvast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating partiesshare an area of communicative commonality.
  • 2.0.2-Telecommunication:Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances tocommunicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such asbeacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audiomessages via coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, or sent by loud whistles, for example. In themodern age of electricity and electronics, telecommunications now also includes the use ofelectrical devices such as the telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, as well as the use of radioand microwave communications, as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics, plusthe use of the orbiting satellites and the Internet.The ITU has divided the development in the telecommunication system into differentgenerations depending upon the enhancements in the previous systems. There are actuallyfour generation of the mobile generations.2.1-1G:1G is short for first-generation wireless telephone technology. This generation of phones andnetworks is represented by the brick-sized analog phones introduced in the 1980’s. Subsequentnumbers refer to newer and upcoming technology.2.1.1-Brief Description:1G (or 1-G) refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobiletelecommunications. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced
  • in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. The maindifference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G, is that the radiosignals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital. Although both systemsuse digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) to the rest of thetelephone system, the voice itself during a call is encoded to digital signals in 2G whereas 1G isonly modulated to higher frequency, typically 150 MHz and up. One such standard is NMT(Nordic Mobile Telephone), used in Nordic countries, Switzerland, Netherlands, Eastern Europeand Russia. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) used in the North Americaand Australia,[1] TACS (Total Access Communications System) in the United Kingdom, C-450 inWest Germany, Portugal and South Africa, Radiocom 2000 in France, and RTMI in Italy. In Japanthere were multiple systems. Three standards, TZ-801, TZ-802, and TZ-803 were developed byNTT, while a competing system operated by DDI used the JTACS (Japan Total AccessCommunications System) standard.1G speeds vary between that of a 28k modem(28kbit/s) and 56k modem(56kbit/s), meaningactual download speeds of 2.9KBytes/s to 5.6KBytes/s.
  • 2.2-2G:2G phones use digital networks. Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital dataservices, such as SMS and email. 2G networks and their digital nature also made it moredifficult to eavesdrop on mobile phone calls.2.2.1-Brief Description:2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland byRadiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over theirpredecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems weresignificantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetrationlevels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.After 2G was launched, the previous mobile telephone systems were retrospectively dubbed1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital.Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the handsets) tothe rest of the telephone system.Capacity:Using digital signals between the handsets and the towers increases system capacity in two keyways:
  • Digital voice data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings through the use of various codecs, allowing more calls to be packed into the same amount of radio bandwidth. The digital systems were designed to emit less radio power from the handsets. This meant that cells had to be smaller, so more cells had to be placed in the same amount of space. This was made possible by cell towers and related equipment getting less expensive.Advantages: The lower power emissions helped address health concerns. Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data services, such as SMS and email. Greatly reduced fraud. With analog systems it was possible to have two or more “cloned” handsets that had the same phone number. Enhanced privacy. A key digital advantage not often mentioned is that digital cellular calls are much harder to eavesdrop on by use of radio scanners. While the security algorithms used have proved not to be as secure as initially advertised, 2G phones are immensely more private than 1G phones, which have no protection against eavesdropping.Disadvantages: In less populous areas, the weaker digital signal may not be sufficient to reach a cell tower. This tends to be a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies, but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies. National regulations differ greatly among countries which dictate where 2G can be deployed. Analog has a smooth decay curve, digital a jagged steppy one. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. Under good conditions, digital will sound better. Under slightly worse conditions, analog will experience static, while digital has occasional dropouts. As conditions worsen, though, digital will start to completely fail, by dropping
  • calls or being unintelligible, while analog slowly gets worse, generally holding a call longer and allowing at least a few words to get through. While digital calls tend to be free of static and background noise, the lossy compression used by the codecs takes a toll; the range of sound that they convey is reduced. You will hear less of the tonality of someones voice talking on a digital cellphone, but you will hear it more clearly.Evolution:2G networks were built mainly for voice services and slow data transmission.Some protocols, such as EDGE for GSM and 1x-RTT for CDMA2000, are defined as "3G" services(because they are defined in IMT-2000 specification documents), but are considered by thegeneral public to be 2.5G or 2.75G services because they are several times slower than present-day 3G service.2.2.2-2.5G (GPRS):2.5G ("second and a half generation") is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented apacket-switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. It does not necessarilyprovide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit-switched data services(HSCSD) as well.The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction ofGeneral Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA2000 networks similarly evolved through theintroduction of 1xRTT. The combination of these capabilities came to be known as 2.5G.GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s. It can be used for services suchas Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for
  • Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access. GPRS data transferis typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred, while data communication viatraditional circuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independent of whetherthe user actually is utilizing the capacity or is in an idle state.1xRTT supports bi-directional (up and downlink) peak data rates up to 153.6 kbit/s, deliveringan average user data throughput of 80-100 kbit/s in commercial networks.[3] It can also be usedfor WAP, SMS & MMS services, as well as Internet access.2.2.3-2.75G (EDGE):GPRS1 networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. EnhancedData rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) isa backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved datatransmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE was deployed on GSMnetworks beginning in 2003—initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States.EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an upgrade that provides apotential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks. The specification achieveshigher data-rates (up to 236.8 kbit/s) by switching to more sophisticated methods of coding(8PSK), within existing GSM timeslots.2.3-3G:3G networks are an in between standard. 3G is seen more as pre4G instead of a standard of itsown. The advantage 3G networks have over 2G networks is speed. 3G networks are built tohandle the needs of today’s wireless users. This standard of wireless networks increases thespeed of internet browsing, picture and video messaging, and handheld GPS use.
  • 2.3.1-Brief Description:3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobilephones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International MobileTelecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International TelecommunicationUnion.[1] Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internetaccess, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment.Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G,indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Servicesadvertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards forreliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system isrequired to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, manyservices advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a3G service. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadbandaccess of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers.The following standards are typically branded 3G:  the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:
  •  The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA.  The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered in China.  The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.  the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred spread spectrum radiotransmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phones andMobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely differenttechnologies.Detailed breakdown of 3G systemsThe 3G (UMTS and CDMA2000) research and development projects started in 1992. In 1999,ITU approved five radio interfaces for IMT-2000 as a part of the ITU-R M.1457Recommendation; WiMAX was added in 2007.[3]There are evolutionary standards (EDGE and CDMA) that are backwards-compatible extensionsto pre-existing 2G networks as well as revolutionary standards that require all-new networkhardware and frequency allocations. The cell phones used utilise UMTS in combination with 2GGSM standards and bandwidths, but do not support EDGE. The latter group is the UMTS family,which consists of standards developed for IMT-2000, as well as the independently developedstandards DECT and WiMAX, which were included because they fit the IMT-2000 definition.
  • Features: Data ratesITU has not provided a clear definition of the data rate users can expect from 3G equipment orproviders. Thus users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that therates it specifies are not being met. While stating in commentary that "it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary orwalking users, and 384 kbit/s in a moving vehicle,"[22] the ITU does not actually clearly specifyminimum or average rates or what modes of the interfaces qualify as 3G, so various rates aresold as 3G intended to meet customers expectations of broadband data. Security3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE (UserEquipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network isthe intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block cipher insteadof the older A5/1 stream cipher. However, a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMIcipher have been identified.[23]In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end-to-end security is offered whenapplication frameworks such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property.Applications of 3G:The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications notpreviously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are: Mobile TV Video on demand Videoconferencing Telemedicine Location-based services
  • 2.4-4G:4G (AKA Beyond 3G) is like the other generations in that its advantage lies in promisedincreased speeds in data transmission. There is currently no formal definition for 4G, but thereare objectives. One of these objectives is for 4G to become a fully IP-based system, much likemodern computer networks. The supposed speeds for 4G will be between 100 Mbit/s and 1Gbit/s.2.5-5G:5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a name used insome research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobiletelecommunications standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards effective since 2011. Atpresent, 5G is not a term officially used for any particular specification or in any officialdocument yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as3GPP, WiMAX Forum, or ITU-R. New standard releases beyond 4G are in progress bystandardization bodies, but are at this time not considered as new mobile generations butunder the 4G umbrella.
  • 3.0-Pictorial View of Mobile Evolution:The graph between the speed and the mobile generations is given in the form of picture;4.0-Pictorial View of Generations:
  • 5.0-Satellite Mobile:Now days, Satellite phones are also used everywhere and they are also considered as the partof 4th generation. A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of mobile phonethat connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites. They provide similarfunctionality to terrestrial mobile telephones; voice, short messaging service and low-bandwidth internet access are supported through most systems. Depending on the architectureof a particular system, coverage may include the entire Earth, or only specific regions.
  • A satellite phone5.1-How does it work?When an individual makes a call from a satellite phone the signal is sent to the satellites of thatparticular company. These satellites process the call and relay it back to Earth via a gateway.The gateway then routes the call to its destination using the regular landline and cellularnetworks. The Globalstar constellation is made up of 48 satellites and every call is relayed by upto 4 satellites down to Globalstar gateways on Earth. Clifton, Texas is home to one of the majorGlobalstar gateway that services the US.If an individual uses a satellite phone to call another satellite phone then the call is sent up tothe satellite from the callers phone. The satellite then routes the call back down to thereceivers phone without using any land infrastructure. Thus, satellite phones on the samenetwork can be used to call each other without using any landline or cellular phoneinfrastructures.One important thing to keep in mind with satellite phones is that the phone or the phonesantenna must be located in the open to allow it to have an unobstructed view of the sky.Satellite phones require a clear line-of-sight view of the satellite to be able to send and receivesignals from the satellite. While Iridium phones use a non-directional antenna, which meansthat the antenna need not point in any particular direction, Inmarsat uses geostationarysatellites. In this case, the phones antenna must point directly at the satellite with a clear,unobstructed view to get transmission.
  • 5.2-Features:5.2.1-Cost of a satellite phone: Satphones on displayWhile it is possible to obtain used handsets for the Thuraya, Iridium, and Globalstar networksfor approximately US$200, the newest handsets are quite expensive. The Iridium 9505A,released in 2001, sold in March 2010 for over $1,000 USD new. Since satellite phones arepurpose-built for one particular network and cannot be switched to other networks, the priceof handsets varies with network performance. If a satellite phone provider encounters troublewith its network, handset prices will fall, then increase once new satellites are launched.Similarly, handset prices will increase when calling rates are reduced.
  • Among the most expensive satellite phones are BGAN terminals, often costing several thousandUS dollars. These phones provide broadband Internet and voice communications. Satellitephones are sometimes subsidized by the provider if one signs a post-paid contract but subsidiesare usually only a few hundred US dollars or less.Since most satellite phones are built under license or the manufacturing of handsets iscontracted out to OEMs, operators have a large influence over the selling price. Satellitenetworks operate under proprietary closed standards, making it difficult for manufacturers toindependently make handsets.5.2.2-Virtual country codes:Satellite phones are usually issued with numbers in a special country calling code.Inmarst satellite phones are issued with codes +870. In the past additional country codes havebeen allocated to different satellites but the codes +871 to +874 have been phased out at theend of 2008 leaving Inmarsat users with the same country code regardless of which satellitetheir terminal is registered with.Low earth orbit systems including some of the defunct ones have been allocated numberranges in the International Telecommunications Unions Global Mobile Satellite System virtualcountry code +881. Iridium satellite phones are issued with codes +881 6 and +881 7.Globalstar, although allocated +881 8 and +881 9 use U.S. telephone numbers except forservice resellers located in Brazil which use the +881 range.Smaller regional satellite phone networks are allocated numbers in the +882 code designatedfor "international networks" which is not used exclusively for satellite phone networks.5.2.3-Calling cost:The cost of making voice calls from a satellite phone varies from around $0.15 to $2 per minute,while calling them from landlines and regular mobile phones is more expensive. Costs for datatransmissions (particularly broadband data) can be much higher. Rates from landlines and
  • mobile phones range from $3 to $14 per minute with Iridium, Thuraya and INMARSAT beingsome of the most expensive networks to call. The receiver of the call pays nothing, unless he isbeing called via a special reverse-charge service.Making calls between different satellite phone networks is often similarly expensive, withcalling rates of up to $15 per minute.Calls from satellite phones to landlines are usually around $0.80 to $1.50 per minute unlessspecial offers are used. Such promotions are usually bound to a particular geographic areawhere traffic is low.Most satellite phone networks have pre-paid plans, with vouchers ranging from $100 to $5,000.5.2.4-Use in disaster response:Most mobile telephone networks operate close to capacity during normal times, and largespikes in call volumes caused by widespread emergencies often overload the systems whenthey are needed most. Examples reported in the media where this has occurred include theSeptember 11 attacks, the 2006 Hawaii earthquake, the 2003 Northeast blackouts, HurricaneKatrina, the 2007 Minnesota bridge collapse, the 2010 Chile earthquake and the DawsonCollege shooting. Reporters and journalists have also been using satellite phones tocommunicate and report on events in war zones such as Iraq.Terrestrial cell antennas and networks can be damaged by natural disasters. Satellite telephonycan avoid this problem and be useful during natural disasters. Satellite phone networksthemselves are prone to congestion as satellites and spot beams cover a large area withrelatively few voice channels.6.0-How to avoid falling in the mobilegeneration gap?
  • Many media owners, online commerce companies, and brands have been frustrated by theirinability to gain real traction on the mobile web. Well-crafted products languish in the lowerdepths of the app store. And the people who invested their time and budget in them search forexplanations in frustration. The answer may lie in the emerging sociology of media consumers.Ask a group of people where to go for dinner and you will uncover more than who likes Chineseand who prefers French. Within the simple act of evaluating restaurants lie important cluesabout consumer behavior across media types. An older person might reference a restaurantrecommended by a New York Times critic. Another, perhaps in their late 30s, might cite a highscore on Zagat. The younger members in the group might mention a place that their friendsrated highly on Yelp.Within this simple discussion is the foundation of a cross-generational media strategy. Thereare effectively three generations of media consumers in the market today: people over 55 yearsold; people 30-55 years old; and the millennial generation under 30 years old. While thesegenerational boundaries are not absolute, this segmentation works well as an aid to thinkingabout serving the spectrum of consumers. I will acknowledge in advance that senior citizens areon Facebook and that people in their 30s are inhaling iPhones and iPods. These threegenerations differ not only by age but also by their preferred method of accessing media andtheir chosen source of authority.The oldest generation may be online, but it remains the backbone of the offline media brands.It is overwhelmingly represented by the people sitting on the couch, watching the eveningnews, reading the morning paper, and subscribing to most magazines. These people look for a
  • voice of trusted authority. They respect media brands and identify experts that merit theirtrust.The middle generation is the web generation. Its members devices of choice are laptops anddesktop computers. They are the group that has made Google a powerhouse. When they havea question, they enter it into the search box on their browser and trust that Google willinstantly present the most authoritative sources. Brand equity and trust have been transferredfrom media and retail to Google.The youngest generation is the virtuoso of the cell phone. These individuals treat their phonesas the remote controls for their lives and expect that anything and everything should beaccessible on the mobile web. This group places the highest value on the opinions of theirfriends and real people. They believe that Wikipedia is more trustworthy than the EncyclopediaBritannica because articles are accountable to the public rather than a nameless, facelesseditor. At its extreme, this group believes that "the truth is what we agree it is."Understanding these three generations of media consumers is more than an exercise in popethnography. It should be one of the major drivers of your cross-platform developmentstrategy. Its not enough to simply port your site to a new platform. To be successful, you needto re-imagine your service or website and adapt it for both the platform and the audience.Many brands are still stuck in the thinking that their real business is offline and that theirwebsites are the "e" versions of that real business. Their mobile presences, if they have one,exist to drive consumers to their websites. Each step in the chain is weaker and dumber thanthe previous one. This is also why incumbents are typically blind-sided by upstarts and startupsthat create products and services on the new platform without having to worry about aninstalled base or a legacy business.Re-imagining your brand for a new platform and a new generation is the key to ensuring long-term brand success. Without a re-imagining, your audience will get a little bit older every yearand die off a little bit every year.
  • 7.0-Conclusion:There is an old saying, “Need is the mother of all inventions”.After the implementation of 4G, the research work is going on 5G as well. We can hope thatsoon this technology would also be implemented with new and enhanced features, and it willalso bring a revolution in the Telecommunication’s field.