Psychology module 4


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Psychology module 4

  1. 1. Module 4: Research Strategies<br />
  2. 2. Learning Goals<br />Explain the advantages of research over other ways of knowing<br />Understand the ways in which bias can influence research<br />Compare and contrast the advantages, disadvantages and key characteristics of different research strategies in psychology<br />Discuss the ethical guidelines that protect humans and animals in psychological research<br />
  3. 3. Why is research important?<br />Scientific method- a method of learning about the world through the application of critical thinking and tools such as observation, experimentation and statistical analysis<br />Use to find out things that we have not known or to even back up or change things that we know.<br />Common sense-takes you only so much<br />
  4. 4. Observation and bias<br />Thinking critically- how are some ways that bias can influence research<br />Observation most common way to collect data<br />confirmation bias- tendency to search for information that confirms a preconception<br />Participant bias-a tendency for research participants to behave in a certain way because they know they are being observed or they believe they know what the researcher wants<br />Nturalistic observation-observinbg and recording behaviors without manipulation or control<br />
  5. 5. Case Studies<br />Thinking Critically: why do psychologists use case studies<br />Case studies-A research technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles<br />can’t use case study everytime… abuse<br />
  6. 6. correlation<br />Why is it impossible to conclude cause-and effect relationships from correlational data?<br />Correlational study- A research project strategy that investigates the degree to which 2 variables are related to each other<br />Is not used to solve cause and effect<br />Perfect positive correlation<br />Perfect negative correlation<br />Moderate positive correlation<br />Moderate negative correlation<br />Used for making predictions<br />
  7. 7. Surveys<br />Thinking critically why should we be cutious when applying data obtained from surveys?<br />Survey method- a research technique that questions a sample of people to collect information about their attitudes or behaviors<br />Population- the entire group of people about whom you would like to know something<br />random sample- a sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included<br />
  8. 8. Longitudinal and cross-sectional study<br />Use of many types of tools<br />Longitudinal study- A research technique that follows the same group of individuals over time.<br />Example test before the school year and after<br />Cross sectional studies- a research technique that compares individuals from different age groups at one time<br />Example people who watch mtv random sample<br />
  9. 9. Experiments<br />Observatin, case studies, correlational studies, surveys, longitudinal studies, and cross-sectional studies are all important and most cases combined with one another<br />Used to establish correlations<br />Experiment-A research method in which the researcher mainpulates and controls certain variables to observe the effect on other variables<br />Experiment only method in which can you can draw conclusions in a cause and effect relationship.<br />Purpose is to control different variables in a study<br />
  10. 10. Hypothesis and operational definition<br />First step develop hypothesis<br />Hypothesis-a testable prediction about the outcome research<br />Start off with general predictions<br />Variables can be used to measure areas.<br />Operational definition-an explanation of the exact procedures used to make a variable specific and measurable for research purposes<br />get specific with ideas of how to define these areas<br />Should be appropriate for your research<br />
  11. 11. Independent and dependent variables<br />Independent variable(IV)- The variable that the researcher will actively manipulate and, if the hypothesis is correct, that will cause a change in the dependent variable<br />Presence of headphones<br />Dependent variable-The variable that should show the effect of the independent variable<br />ALWAYS TRY TO DEFINE THESE VARIABLES TO HELP YOU UNDERSTAND THE EXPERIEMENT<br />
  12. 12. Groups, random assignment and confounding variables<br />To make independent variable vary, researchers set up groups of participants<br />Should have at least 2 groups an experimental group and control group<br />Experimental group- The participants in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable<br />Control group- the participants are not exposed to the treatment<br />Control group serves as comparisons and are important to the experiment<br />
  13. 13. Groups cont…<br />Number of size in the experimental and control groups vary and depends what you are trying to prove<br />How do we determine who to put in experiment??Random assignment- A procedure for creating groups that allows the researcher to control for individual differences among research participants<br />Differences that we can’t necessarily control( mental state, health and so on)<br />Confounding variable- in an experiment the variable other that the IV that could produce a change in the dependent variable<br />
  14. 14. Factors <br />Psychologists must make sure that the participants are not aware of the hypothesis <br />Do not tell them the hypothesis until after the data has been collected<br />Double blind procedure-a research procedure in which both the data collectors and the research participants do not know the expected outcome of the experiment(effective studying)<br />Helps see not only what the experiment wanted to see but also to see other areas which they didn’t expect<br />
  15. 15. Placebo- an inactive pill that has no known effect<br />Used when doing experiments with drugs<br />Done with the experiment now what….<br />Statistically significant<br />See the difference between the groups, uniform results and how many participants are in the group<br />Replicate- to repeat the essece of a research study to see whether the results can be liably reproduced<br />
  16. 16. Ethics<br />Ethics play an important role in society<br />Example-cant replicate abuse so you use case studies<br />Human research and animal research refer to page 69 in book<br />Many rules that will help protect people and animals and keep you out of jail<br />
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