Psychology module 2
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Psychology module 2






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    Psychology module 2 Psychology module 2 Presentation Transcript

    • Module 2: History and Perspectives
    • Learning goals:
      1. Describe the first psychologists and the origins of psychology as a science
      2. Explain how twentieth Century psychologists changed the way psychology was studied
      3. Discuss how some of psychology’s groundbreakers helped advance gender and race equality.
      4. Explain the six contemporary psychological perspectives.
      5. Discuss 3 recentareas of psychological study.
    • Modern psychological ninteenth-century roots
      Thinking critically: How did the study of psychology of science get started?
      Earliest pioneers shared an interest in understanding mental proce3sses and behavior.
      Wilhelm Wundt(VOONT)- German philosopher and physiologist.
      Became a doctor but wanted to understand human consciousness.
      Introspection-describe own concious experiences in systematic way.
      Experiment-given similar sound or visual experience and each person asked to give full details of what they felt.
      Used details as foundation for understanding consciousness
      More examples of consciousness: BUTTON EXPERIMENT. Time it took to react
      Time it took to press button and left green right red button
      Task one- perception of light
      Task 2-perception of light, decision of color, decision of button to press.
    • Edward Titchener and structuralism
      Wundt’s student
      Structuralism- Theory that the structure of conscious experience could be understood by analyzing the basic elements of thoughts and sensations.
      Understand conscious experience through intensity, clarity and quality of its basic parts.
      Example tree
      Intensity-height clairity-texture quality of leaves
      Building blocks of consciousness
      Titchener steered psychology to use descriptive titles
    • Gestalt psychology
      German word meaning configuration
      Emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
      Not just use consciousness, but to use individual elements of the experience.
      Example song
    • William James and functionalism
      William James(1842-1910)First American psychologist
      Needed to study the functions of consciousness or how consciousness helps people adapt to their environment.
      Functionalism-STUDY OF HOW conciousness helps adapt to their environment
      Analysis of basic thoughts and sensations in lab
    • Psychology in the 20th century
      People didn’t really hear of structualismandfunctualism
      1900 Sigmund Freud(1856-1939) introduced psychoanalysis
      Psychoanalysis-Theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconcous motives and conflicts
      Focused on abnormal behavior- Freud linked to unconscious drives and conflicts stemming from childhood.
      Example:potty training cleaniliness later in life.
    • Freud continued
      Psychoanalysis relied on personal observation and reflection instead of controlled laboratory experimentation as its means of discovery.
      Cons- Freud claimed his work was scientific, but relied on self reported reflections and not scientific method.
      Freud’s original theory still is being used as a basis till today.
    • Ivan pavlov, john watson, and behaviorism
      Ivan Pavlov(1849-1936) studied of animal behavior prompted interest in observable behaviors from the self-examination of inner ideas and experiences.
      Focused on things that are visual not mental
      John Watson(1878-1958) Made article to dismiss the idea of consciousness
      Used fact that the study of structuralism and functionalism where non-scie3ntific and so you should not even consider theories.
      Wanted psychology to move to more experimental
    • Watson conrtinued…
      Developed the idea of behaviorism
      Behaviorism- the theory that psychology should only study observable behaviors not mental processes
      Utilized scientific methods
      Watson’s ideas where most dominant thought in schools.
      Promoted the study of learned reflexes orignially developed by Pavlov
    • Watson
      Developed experimentation on human reactions to stimuli in their environment
      Famous presentation of white furry object paired with a loud noise
      Fear of furry white object similar to Pavlov’s dog
    • BF Skinner and albertbandura
      BF Skinner(1904-1990)
      American Psychologist whose brand of behaviorism focused on the role of responses in learning
      Utilized operant conditioning(will cover in later chapters)
      Albert Bandura(1925-)
      Utilized idea that people learned by watching others
    • Abraham Maslow, carlrogersand humanistic psychology
      Behaviorism and psychoanalysis was strong in the field of psychology till the 1960’s
      Humanistic psychology- school of thought that focuses on the study of consncious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and the capacity for personal growth
      Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers rejected the idea thaqt humans are controlled by a series of rewards and reinforcements they instead emphasized conscious experience and “ FREE WILL”
    • Humanistic cont.
      Gestalt theory was idea based on humanistic experience
      CON-did not have enough scientific research to back up ideas
      Jean Piaget(1896-1980)Swiss biologist and psycholigist.
      Pioneer for children devleopment on their thinking abilities
      Worked at a school that administered intelligence testing and noticed that younger kids made mistakes that on tests that older children did not make
    • Piagets work
    • Psychology’s american groundbreakers
      G. Stanley Hall was student of Wundt and first american to receive Ph.D.
      First American to open up laboratory at John Hopkins and first APA president in 1895
      Women in psychology was unheard of due to discrimination.
      Mary Whiton Calkins first women to get Ph.D from Harvard but they did not give it to her.
      APA president in 1905
      Margaret Floy Washburn was Titchener’s first grad student at Cornell and wrote first textbook in 1908 about animal behavior
      Francis Cecil Sumner was the first African American in 1920 to receive Ph.D.
      Wrote many articles about racism, prejudice and nature nurture issues.
      Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark were deucational psychologists whose research was presented as evidence to the US Supereme Court during the landmark case of desegregating schools Brown V board of education.
      Lead to separate but equal clause
    • Amerikan cont.
      Inez Beverly Prosser first AA woman to receive Ph.d in 1933 studided development of AA in segregated and integrated schools
    • Six conteporarypsychological perspectives
      Thinking critically: how do current psychological theories explain thinking and behavior?
      Perspectives have come and go
      People view one way look that way: behaviorist looks at behavioral perspectives
      Behavioral perspective-observable responsesto rewards and punishments
      Humanistic-how people strive to reach full potential
      Psychodynamic perspective-behavior springs from unconcious drives and conflicts
    • cont
      Cognitive perspective-thought that focuses on how people think
      Structuralism fuctionalism and gestalt psychology follow this style
      Biological perspective-thought that focuses on physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior
      Chemical responses in the bran
      Social-cultural perspective:thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in situations.
      Psychologists today focus on all 6 perspectives
    • Psychology in 21st century
      Thinking critically: what are the basic ideas behind the 3 of psychology’s developing areas?
      Psychology continues to grow
      Developing areas
      Genetics, evolutionary psychology and positive psychology