Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Unisca framing
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply
Published

 

Published in Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
929
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Framing the news Lecture at the UNISCA Summer Academy Damian Trilling d.c.trilling@uva.nl @damian0604 Afdeling Communicatiewetenschap Universiteit van Amsterdam 16-07-2013 Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 2. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions 1 What’s framing? Different examples. . . . . . and their communalities 2 Towards a definition Beyond the transmission belt Definitions, definitions, definitions How many news frames are there? 3 The process of framing How do frames emerge? What communicators hope 4 Cases Case 1: Frame adoption on Twitter Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Case 3: Framing Immigration 5 Questions Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 3. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . What’s framing? Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 4. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . Edward Snowden Traitor http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=i5Ft_crmhDw Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 5. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . Edward Snowden Traitor http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=i5Ft_crmhDw Loser, Highschool dropout, louche figure Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 6. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . Edward Snowden Traitor http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=i5Ft_crmhDw Loser, Highschool dropout, louche figure Hero http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=gmt9Y2T5_ow Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 7. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . Edward Snowden Traitor http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=i5Ft_crmhDw Loser, Highschool dropout, louche figure Hero http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=gmt9Y2T5_ow Defender of 4th amendment, Teller of the Truth Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 8. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . Abortus Own choice Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 9. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . Abortus Own choice Murder Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 10. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . What would you choose? 600 people suffer from a serious illness: Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The Framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211 (4481), 453–458. doi:10.1126/science.7455683. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 11. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . What would you choose? 600 people suffer from a serious illness: Positive framing: Treatment A: saves 200 lives Treatment B: 33% chance of saving all 600 people, 66% chance of saving no one. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The Framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211 (4481), 453–458. doi:10.1126/science.7455683. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 12. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . What would you choose? 600 people suffer from a serious illness: Positive framing: Treatment A: saves 200 lives Treatment B: 33% chance of saving all 600 people, 66% chance of saving no one. Negative framing Treatment A: 400 People will die Treatment B: 33% chance that no people will die, 66% chance that all will die. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The Framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211 (4481), 453–458. doi:10.1126/science.7455683. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 13. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Different examples. . . What would you choose? 600 people suffer from a serious illness: Positive framing: Treatment A: saves 200 lives Treatment B: 33% chance of saving all 600 people, 66% chance of saving no one. Negative framing Treatment A: 400 People will die Treatment B: 33% chance that no people will die, 66% chance that all will die. Treatment A was chosen by 72% of participants when it was presented with positive framing (“saves 200 lives”) dropping to only 22% when the same choice was presented with negative framing (“400 people will die”). Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The Framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211 (4481), 453–458. doi:10.1126/science.7455683. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 14. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions . . . and their communalities What do we see? It is . . . Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 15. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions . . . and their communalities What do we see? It is . . . • not (primarily) about contesting facts Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 16. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions . . . and their communalities What do we see? It is . . . • not (primarily) about contesting facts • but about highlighting certain aspects. . . Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 17. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions . . . and their communalities What do we see? It is . . . • not (primarily) about contesting facts • but about highlighting certain aspects. . . • . . . and neglecting others Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 18. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions . . . and their communalities What do we see? It is . . . • not (primarily) about contesting facts • but about highlighting certain aspects. . . • . . . and neglecting others ⇒ The topic is framed in a different way Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 19. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions . . . and their communalities What do we see? In these examples, the case was framed as Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 20. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions . . . and their communalities What do we see? In these examples, the case was framed as • treason vs. heroic whistle-blowing Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 21. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions . . . and their communalities What do we see? In these examples, the case was framed as • treason vs. heroic whistle-blowing • murder vs. self-determination Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 22. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions . . . and their communalities What do we see? In these examples, the case was framed as • treason vs. heroic whistle-blowing • murder vs. self-determination • gains vs. losses Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 23. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Towards a definition Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 24. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Beyond the transmission belt Beyond the transmission belt “Old” models of mass communication saw mass communication as a transmission belt or a hypodermic needle: messages would influence the innocent public, everyone in largely the same way Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 25. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Beyond the transmission belt Beyond the transmission belt “Old” models of mass communication saw mass communication as a transmission belt or a hypodermic needle: messages would influence the innocent public, everyone in largely the same way “Newer” models of mass communcation focus on the circumstances under which messages have some (intendend or unintended) effects Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 26. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions What are frames? De Vreese, C. H. (2005). News framing: Theory and typology. Information design journal+ document design, 13(1), 51-62. Scheufele, B. (2004). Framing-effects approach: A theoretical and methodological critique. Communications, 29(4), 401–428. doi:10.1515/comm.2004.29.4.401 Strömbäck, J. & Van Aelst, P. (2010). Exploring some antecedents of the media’s framing of election news: A comparison of Swedish and Belgian election news. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 15(1), 41-59. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 27. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions What are frames? • “patterns of interpretation through which people classify information in order to handle it efficiently” (Scheufele, 2004) De Vreese, C. H. (2005). News framing: Theory and typology. Information design journal+ document design, 13(1), 51-62. Scheufele, B. (2004). Framing-effects approach: A theoretical and methodological critique. Communications, 29(4), 401–428. doi:10.1515/comm.2004.29.4.401 Strömbäck, J. & Van Aelst, P. (2010). Exploring some antecedents of the media’s framing of election news: A comparison of Swedish and Belgian election news. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 15(1), 41-59. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 28. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions What are frames? • “patterns of interpretation through which people classify information in order to handle it efficiently” (Scheufele, 2004) • “[. . . ] framing is concerned with how events, issues, or social actors are organized in communicative messages and the thinking of individuals” (Strömbäck & Van Aelst, 2010) De Vreese, C. H. (2005). News framing: Theory and typology. Information design journal+ document design, 13(1), 51-62. Scheufele, B. (2004). Framing-effects approach: A theoretical and methodological critique. Communications, 29(4), 401–428. doi:10.1515/comm.2004.29.4.401 Strömbäck, J. & Van Aelst, P. (2010). Exploring some antecedents of the media’s framing of election news: A comparison of Swedish and Belgian election news. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 15(1), 41-59. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 29. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions What are frames? • “patterns of interpretation through which people classify information in order to handle it efficiently” (Scheufele, 2004) • “[. . . ] framing is concerned with how events, issues, or social actors are organized in communicative messages and the thinking of individuals” (Strömbäck & Van Aelst, 2010) • “an emphasis in salience of different aspects of a topic” (De Vreese, 2005) De Vreese, C. H. (2005). News framing: Theory and typology. Information design journal+ document design, 13(1), 51-62. Scheufele, B. (2004). Framing-effects approach: A theoretical and methodological critique. Communications, 29(4), 401–428. doi:10.1515/comm.2004.29.4.401 Strömbäck, J. & Van Aelst, P. (2010). Exploring some antecedents of the media’s framing of election news: A comparison of Swedish and Belgian election news. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 15(1), 41-59. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 30. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions Entman’s definition Framing is Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 31. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions Entman’s definition Framing is • “to select some aspects of a perceived reality Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 32. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions Entman’s definition Framing is • “to select some aspects of a perceived reality • and make them more salient in a communicating text Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 33. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions Entman’s definition Framing is • “to select some aspects of a perceived reality • and make them more salient in a communicating text • in such a way as to promote a particular Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 34. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions Entman’s definition Framing is • “to select some aspects of a perceived reality • and make them more salient in a communicating text • in such a way as to promote a particular 1 problem definition, Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 35. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions Entman’s definition Framing is • “to select some aspects of a perceived reality • and make them more salient in a communicating text • in such a way as to promote a particular 1 problem definition, 2 causal interpretation, Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 36. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions Entman’s definition Framing is • “to select some aspects of a perceived reality • and make them more salient in a communicating text • in such a way as to promote a particular 1 problem definition, 2 causal interpretation, 3 moral evaluation, Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 37. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions Entman’s definition Framing is • “to select some aspects of a perceived reality • and make them more salient in a communicating text • in such a way as to promote a particular 1 problem definition, 2 causal interpretation, 3 moral evaluation, 4 and/or treatment recommendation Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 38. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Definitions, definitions, definitions Definitions, definitions, definitions Entman’s definition Framing is • “to select some aspects of a perceived reality • and make them more salient in a communicating text • in such a way as to promote a particular 1 problem definition, 2 causal interpretation, 3 moral evaluation, 4 and/or treatment recommendation for item described” Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 39. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions How many news frames are there? How many news frames are there? Semetko & Valkenburg (2000) Five dominant news frames: 1 conflict frames 2 human interest frames 3 morality frames 4 attribution of responsibility frames 5 economic consequences frames Semetko, H.A., & Valkenburg, P.M. (2000). Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news. Journal of Communication, 50(2), 93-109. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02843.x Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 40. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions How many news frames are there? How many news frames are there? Matthes & Kohring (2008) Limitations of the deductive approach: • inflexible • not possible to identify new emerging frames Matthes, J., & Kohring, M. (2008). The content analysis of media frames: Toward improving reliability and validity. Journal of Communication, 58(2), 258-279. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.00384.x Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 41. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions How many news frames are there? How many news frames are there? Matthes & Kohring (2008) Limitations of the deductive approach: • inflexible • not possible to identify new emerging frames ⇒ Frames as clusters of frame elements (→ Entman’s definition) Matthes, J., & Kohring, M. (2008). The content analysis of media frames: Toward improving reliability and validity. Journal of Communication, 58(2), 258-279. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.00384.x Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 42. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions How many news frames are there? How many news frames are there? Matthes & Kohring (2008) Limitations of the deductive approach: • inflexible • not possible to identify new emerging frames ⇒ Frames as clusters of frame elements (→ Entman’s definition) Example: Framing of biotechnology in the NYT: economic prospect frame, genetic identity frame, research benefit frame. Matthes, J., & Kohring, M. (2008). The content analysis of media frames: Toward improving reliability and validity. Journal of Communication, 58(2), 258-279. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.00384.x Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 43. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions The process of framing Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 44. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions How do frames emerge? How do frames emerge? Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 45. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions How do frames emerge? How do frames emerge? Frame building “the question of how frames get established in societal discourse and how different frames compete for adoption by societal elites and journalists” (Tewksbury & Scheufele, 2009) Tewksbury, D., & Scheufele, D.A. (2009). News framing theory and research. In J. Bryant & M.B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects. Advances in theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 17– 33). New York, NY: Routledge. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 46. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions How do frames emerge? How do frames emerge? The strategic framing by spin doctors • In professional campaigning, deliberate framing was introduced in the understanding that “the effort of the messages was not a function of content differences but of differences in the modes of presentation” (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007, p. 9) • Frames as “social stereotypes”: political actors have to address the media or the audience corresponding to the “structured set of cognitions, emotions, and evaluations at the individual level” (Nelson, 2011, p. 195) Nelson, T. E. (2011). Issue framing. In J. Lawrence & R. Y. Shapiro (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of American public opinion and the media (pp. 188–203). Oxford Handbooks Online. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199545636.001.0001 Scheufele, D.A., & Tewksbury, D. (2007). Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: The evolution of three media effects models. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 9–20. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00326.x Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 47. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions How do frames emerge? How do frames emerge? What influences journalists’ frame choices? • Individual journalist’s influences: ideological background, social values and norms, . . . • Organizational routines of the medium: type of medium, political orentation, culture, processes, . . . • External influences: market forces, pressure by political actors, elite groups, . . . Scheufele, D.A. (1999). Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication, 49, 101–120. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 48. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions What communicators hope What communicators hope A PR guy’s dream politician’s/organization’s frame ⇒ journalist’s frame ⇒ public’s frame Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 49. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Cases Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 50. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 1: Frame adoption on Twitter Case 1: Frames in US presidential candidate debate Schulze, H., & Trilling, D. (2013, February). Of binders and bayonets: Measuring the adoption of frames from the US Presidential Debates on Twitter. Paper presented at the Etmaal van de Communicatiewetenschap, Rotterdam. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 51. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 1: Frame adoption on Twitter Case 1: Frames in US presidential candidate debate Schulze, H., & Trilling, D. (2013, February). Of binders and bayonets: Measuring the adoption of frames from the US Presidential Debates on Twitter. Paper presented at the Etmaal van de Communicatiewetenschap, Rotterdam. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 52. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 1: Frame adoption on Twitter Case 1: Frame adoption What can we learn? • Actors are not always succesfull in setting a frame • Some frames are “sexier” than others • If a frame is adopted, it is more likely to be accepted than rejected ⇒ Try to establish your own frame rather than challenge your competitor’s frame! Schulze, H., & Trilling, D. (2013, February). Of binders and bayonets: Measuring the adoption of frames from the US Presidential Debates on Twitter. Paper presented at the Etmaal van de Communicatiewetenschap, Rotterdam. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 53. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Dominant frames in political news coverage Politics can – broadly spoken – be framed in two ways: • as a game: who is winning? who has the better strategy? ... • substantially: what are the arguments? what is the best solution? Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 54. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Dominant frames in political news coverage Politics can – broadly spoken – be framed in two ways: • as a game: who is winning? who has the better strategy? ... • substantially: what are the arguments? what is the best solution? The first is obviously more fun. . . Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 55. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Dominant frames in political news coverage Politics can – broadly spoken – be framed in two ways: • as a game: who is winning? who has the better strategy? ... • substantially: what are the arguments? what is the best solution? The first is obviously more fun. . . . . . but is it the best solution Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 56. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Dominant frames in political news coverage Politics can – broadly spoken – be framed in two ways: • as a game: who is winning? who has the better strategy? ... • substantially: what are the arguments? what is the best solution? The first is obviously more fun. . . . . . but is it the best solution for political actors Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 57. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Dominant frames in political news coverage Politics can – broadly spoken – be framed in two ways: • as a game: who is winning? who has the better strategy? ... • substantially: what are the arguments? what is the best solution? The first is obviously more fun. . . . . . but is it the best solution for political actors and for democracy? Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 58. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Horse-race framing in US media in 2010 http://www.journalism.org/analysis_report/frame_coverage Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 59. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing In Europe, strategic frames (as opposed to issue frames) are present in between a third and half of the election coverage. Strömbäck, J. & Van Aelst, P. (2010). Exploring some antecedents of the media’s framing of election news: A comparison of Swedish and Belgian election news. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 15(1), 41-59. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 60. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing In Europe, strategic frames (as opposed to issue frames) are present in between a third and half of the election coverage. Strömbäck, J. & Van Aelst, P. (2010). Exploring some antecedents of the media’s framing of election news: A comparison of Swedish and Belgian election news. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 15(1), 41-59. Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 61. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Is this bad news? Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 62. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Is this bad news? Maybe. De Vreese, C. H. (2005). The Spiral of Cynicism Reconsidered. European Journal of Communication, 20(3), 283–301. doi:10.1177/0267323105055259 Valkenburg, P.M., Semetko, H.A., & De Vreese, C.H. (1999). The effects of news frames on readers’ thoughts and recall. Communication Research, 26(5), 550-569. doi:10.1177/009365099026005002 Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 63. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Is this bad news? Maybe. Strategic news frames can (in some cases) increase cynicism De Vreese, C. H. (2005). The Spiral of Cynicism Reconsidered. European Journal of Communication, 20(3), 283–301. doi:10.1177/0267323105055259 Valkenburg, P.M., Semetko, H.A., & De Vreese, C.H. (1999). The effects of news frames on readers’ thoughts and recall. Communication Research, 26(5), 550-569. doi:10.1177/009365099026005002 Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 64. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Is this bad news? Maybe. Strategic news frames can (in some cases) increase cynicism But: One can also think of positive outcomes: For example, conflict framing might aid recall De Vreese, C. H. (2005). The Spiral of Cynicism Reconsidered. European Journal of Communication, 20(3), 283–301. doi:10.1177/0267323105055259 Valkenburg, P.M., Semetko, H.A., & De Vreese, C.H. (1999). The effects of news frames on readers’ thoughts and recall. Communication Research, 26(5), 550-569. doi:10.1177/009365099026005002 Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 65. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 2: Strategic framing vs Issue framing Is this bad news? Maybe. Strategic news frames can (in some cases) increase cynicism But: One can also think of positive outcomes: For example, conflict framing might aid recall And also, certain frames might help motivate people to participate De Vreese, C. H. (2005). The Spiral of Cynicism Reconsidered. European Journal of Communication, 20(3), 283–301. doi:10.1177/0267323105055259 Valkenburg, P.M., Semetko, H.A., & De Vreese, C.H. (1999). The effects of news frames on readers’ thoughts and recall. Communication Research, 26(5), 550-569. doi:10.1177/009365099026005002 Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 66. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 3: Framing Immigration Case 3: Framing Immigration Frames in Press and Parliament Vliegenthart, R., & Roggeband, C. (2007). Framing immigration and integration: Relationships between press and parliament in the Netherlands. International Communication Gazette, 69(3), 295-319. doi: 10.1177/1748048507076582 Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 67. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 3: Framing Immigration Case 3: Framing Immigration Frames in Press and Parliament • Frames in press coverage and parliamentary debates: multicultural frame, emancipation frame, restriction frame, victimization frame, islam-as-threat frame Vliegenthart, R., & Roggeband, C. (2007). Framing immigration and integration: Relationships between press and parliament in the Netherlands. International Communication Gazette, 69(3), 295-319. doi: 10.1177/1748048507076582 Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 68. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 3: Framing Immigration Case 3: Framing Immigration Frames in Press and Parliament • Frames in press coverage and parliamentary debates: multicultural frame, emancipation frame, restriction frame, victimization frame, islam-as-threat frame • “An increase in the use of a frame in one arena leads to an increase in the other arena only if this frame has already been used regularly in the latter arena. External events have more considerable and consistent impact on issue salience and framing in both arenas.” Vliegenthart, R., & Roggeband, C. (2007). Framing immigration and integration: Relationships between press and parliament in the Netherlands. International Communication Gazette, 69(3), 295-319. doi: 10.1177/1748048507076582 Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 69. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Case 3: Framing Immigration Case 3: Framing Immigration Vliegenthart, R., & Roggeband, C. (2007). Framing immigration and integration: Relationships between press and parliament in the Netherlands. International Communication Gazette, 69(3), 295-319. doi: 10.1177/1748048507076582 Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 70. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions To conclude Framing . . . • means that certain aspects of a topic are highlighted • a frame implies specific interpretation (and different actions) • can be deliberatively chosen by political actors • but their acceptance by journalists or public is subject to a lot of factors • establishing an own frame can be a key to succes Framing the News Damian Trilling
  • 71. What’s framing? Towards a definition The process of framing Cases Questions Any questions? Damian Trilling d.c.trilling@uva.nl @damian0604 Framing the News Damian Trilling