Jacksonian Democracy and 19th c Indian RemovalPresentation Transcript
Thomas Jefferson, 1743 - 1826
The Sally Hemings Affair Video Clip: Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings Eugene A. Foster, 81, Dies; Linked Jefferson to Slave Descendents of Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings pose for a group photograph at Monticello in 1999.
Declaration of Independence, 1776 We hold these truths to be self-evident , that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
Naturalization Act of 1790 Color of Wealth p 236
Limited to “free white persons”
“ good moral character”
2 years in the country, 1 year in the state
Could be granted by any common law court of record
Naturalization Act of 1795
Increased period of residence in the country from 2 to 5 years.
Declaration of Intention followed by a three year waiting period
Required to take an oath not only of allegiance to the United States but also of renunciation of his former sovereign.
Tecumseh 1768 - October 5, 1813 Shawnee chief who lead his warriors against American troops and formed a confederacy of all the western and southern tribes to hold the Ohio river valley as the permanent boundary. In 1812 he was commissioned as a brigadier general by the British. "He was noted for his humane character and success in persuading his tribe to discontinue the practice of torturing prisoners. At the battle of Fort Meigs he saved the American prisoners from massacre.” http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/tecumseh/tecumseh.html
Three Central Factors in the Accumulation of White Wealth during the 19 th Century p. 239 – 243 Color of Wealth 1. Indian Removal 2. Land Distribution 3. Railroad Subsidies
Andrew Jackson, 1767 - 1845
Seventh President of the United States, 1829 – 1837
Hero of the War of 1812 against the British
Defeated the “Red Stick Creek” Indians at the
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Primary Architect of INDIAN REMOVAL
An “anti-elitist” who rode a wave of populism which arose after passage of the Salary Act of 1816.
Born on the Carolina frontier he represents the “Man Who Knows Indians.”
The first “Common Man” to rise to the Presidency.
Expanded White American Suffrage
Promoted “Manifest Destiny” in Western Expansion
Advocated “Free-Market” Laissaz Faire Economics
Firm Believer in Limited Federal Government
Image from 1845
Battle of Horseshoe Bend, p 240 CoW
Battle of Horseshoe Bend “[Jackson’s soldiers] and Cherokee warriors surrounded and massacred eight hundred Creek men, women and children.” p 240 Color of Wealth
“ Jackson personally benefited from these treaties…” CoW p 240
Beechcraft U-8D Seminole
Monroe Central High School Seminoles Fight Song We are the red and gold and black and white. The Seminoles of Monroe Central High. We shine with pride and might throughout the fight. We'll show the other team that we are out of sight. We will prove to you that our school is the best. We will conquer and rise above the rest. The spirit of the Noles we cannot hide, share our pride, NOLES, NOLES, NOLES, HEY
1832 Supreme Court ruling, Worcester v. Georgia in favor of Cherokee land rights.
Indian Removal Act, 1830, The Trail of Tears, 1838 - 39 p 41 - 46
Cherokee 15, 000 Cherokee, Men, Women and Children, marched 1,200 from Appalachia to Oklahoma “Indian Territory” Why I Would Never Buy a Jeep Cherokee
Choctaw Indians “ Once the Choctaws arrived in Indian Territory, they discovered that their new reservation consisted of 6.8 million acres of which were virgin territory…Today the tribe owns only 65,000 acres of their original reservation, and the Weyerhauser Paper Company is currently the single largest private landowner in the ten-county region, owning over 1.8 million acres of land that formerly belonged to the Choctaw.” CoW p 44
Black Elk, 1863 - 1950
Homestead Act of 1862 “ Any white male adult eligible for citizenship could claim 160 acres of government-surveyed western land.” p 44 Color of Wealth
“ One study estimates the number of Americans living today who are descendants of homestead recipients at forty-six million.” p 241 CoW
The Pacific Railway Act of 1862
Chief Joseph Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce (1840?-1904) was known to his people as "Thunder Traveling to the Loftier Mountain Heights." He led his people in an attempt to resist the takeover of their lands in the Oregon Territory by white settlers. In 1877, the Nez Perce were ordered to move to a reservation in Idaho. Chief Joseph agreed at first. But after members of his tribe killed a group of settlers, he tried to flee to Canada with his followers, traveling over 1500 miles through Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana. Along the way they fought several battles with the pursuing U.S. Army. Chief Joseph spoke these words when they finally surrendered on October 5, 1877. http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/joseph.htm
Frederick Jackson Turner Proposed the Frontier Thesis in 1893 Portrait of Daniel Boone Crossing into Kentucky
Eastern North America, 1812 Thirteen Colonies Spanish Territory British North America
1845 – 1848 Texas in 1845 Mexico in 1848
Wounded Knee Massacre, 1890 Poverty USA
Dawes Act, 1887 Allotment and Assimilation “ In just one year, 1891, Indian Commissioner Thomas Morgan sold off one-seventh of all Indian lands in the United States to white settlers, over 17.4 million acres.” p 46 Color of Wealth Land Sale, Circa 1911 ->