Operation “Wetback” 1954 <ul><li>project of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to remove about four million illegal immigrants from the southwestern United States, with a focus on Mexican nationals. </li></ul><ul><li>Started in California and Arizona, random ID checks of “Mexican looking” people </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated one million people rounded up. </li></ul><ul><li>To discourage re-entry, deportees were taken hundreds of miles (500-1000) south of the border </li></ul>
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 <ul><li>Video Clip: Chinese Immigration and Nativism </li></ul><ul><li>First (and only) explicitly race-based immigration act </li></ul><ul><li>Followed revisions in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. </li></ul><ul><li>Those revisions allowed for U.S. to suspend, but not prohibit Chinese immigration. </li></ul><ul><li>Act made Chinese immigrants permanent aliens by excluding them from U.S. citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted over 60 years </li></ul>
1898 – Spanish-American War p 148 CoW On April 25, 1898, the United States declared war with Spain. The war followed a Cuban Insurrection, the Cuban War of Independence against Spanish rule and the sinking of the USS Maine in the harbor at Havana.
United States takes possession of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. Foraker Act of 1900 Puerto Rico: “ 10 member upper legislative chamber, all appointed by the U.S. President.” Beginning of a policy known as: “ Dollar Diplomacy” Use of the military to protect U.S. investments
Foraker Act of 1900, p 148 CoW “ This period (1900 – 1930) allowed for the massive switch of assets out of Puerto Rican hands and into American industrial control, which by 1930 monopolized at least 60 percent of sugar production, 80 percent of the tobacco industry, 60 percent of all public services and banks, and 100 percent of the maritime lanes.”
California Alien Land Law of 1913 <ul><li>prohibits "aliens ineligible for citizenship" (i.e., all Asian immigrants) from owning land or property </li></ul><ul><li>Does permit 3 year leases </li></ul><ul><li>Passed 35-2 in Senate and 72-3 in Assembly </li></ul>
Socialism and Communism <ul><li>1877, Socialist Labor Party formed </li></ul><ul><li>1897, Socialist Democratic Party </li></ul><ul><li>1901, Socialist Party of America </li></ul><ul><li>1905, Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies) </li></ul><ul><li>1900, 1904, 1908, 1912, 1920 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Socialist parties run candidates for President </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1912, Eugene V. Debs receives 900,000 or 6% of popular vote. </li></ul><ul><li>1912, Thirty-Three cities have socialist mayors. </li></ul><ul><li>1917, U.S. Government passes the Espionage Act </li></ul><ul><li>1918, passage of the Sedition Act . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 100 Wobblies convicted in Chicago for opposing the war. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eugene Debs receives a 20 year sentence for encouraging people to resist the draft (later pardoned by President Taft) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1919, left abandons Socialist Party to form the Communist and Communist Labor Parties. They unite in 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>1919, “Red Scare” U.S. Department of Justice begins keeping files on “radicals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>249 leftists, including Anarchist Emma Goldman, deported to Russia without a hearing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1920, New York Legislature expels five duly elected Socialist members. </li></ul><ul><li>1921, conviction and execution of Italian Anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti </li></ul>
Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), as well as candidate for President of the United States as a member of the Social Democratic Party in 1900, and later as a member of the Socialist Party of America in 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920.
Mass immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe causes great deal of fear about losing the nations “ethnic purity” along with anxieties about political radicalism. The derogatory term, WOP for Italian immigrants stands for: With Out Papers
Emergency Quota Act of 1921 <ul><li>limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 3% of the number of persons from that country living in the United States in 1910, according to U.S census. </li></ul><ul><li>Passed 78-1 in Senate, represents post WWI isolationism </li></ul><ul><li>The main reason given for passing the Act was that the flood of immigrants in recent years had negative wage effects on native-born Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>In truth it was designed to prevent radical changes in the nation’s racial and ethnic makeup </li></ul>
Immigration Act of 1924 <ul><li>Superseded Emergency Quota Act of 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, according to the Census of 1890 . It excluded immigration of Asians. </li></ul><ul><li>Imposed a quota on immigration of 165,000 people, which is less than 20 percent of the pre-World War I average </li></ul><ul><li>The act based its admittance of a particular number of people from each nation based upon the 1890 census </li></ul><ul><li>This was an effort to limit Southern and European immigrants from entering the country </li></ul>
Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 Limits New Visas to 300,000 170,000 from Eastern Hemisphere 120,000 from Western Hemisphere Effectively overturns 1924 Act
Harvest of Empire <ul><li>Backlash of Immigration: </li></ul><ul><li>Each major immigration wave has provoked a backlash among previous settlers (Irish, Scottish, German, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Americans are different types of immigrants because they are closer to their homeland and they go back and forth the most </li></ul><ul><li>Forces bringing more Latin American immigrants are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrible economy in Latin America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Globalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining birth rate and rise of age of white Americans keep the market open for more labor </li></ul></ul>
Gen. Rafael Trujillo, 1891 - 1961 Military Dictatorship that ruled the Dominican Republic From: 1930 – 1961 Color of Wealth p 153
Trujillo: “El Jefe” With Joaquin Balguer With Vice President Richard Nixon
Juan Bosch of the Dominican Revolutionary Party and Joaquin Balguer
Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986 <ul><li>Went after the source: EMPLOYERS and JOBS. </li></ul><ul><li>I-9 audits of business through an intensive inspection program. </li></ul><ul><li>Employer Sanctions. </li></ul><ul><li>Contained Amnesty Provisions for undocumented workers already living in the U.S. </li></ul>
Proposition 187 1993 <ul><li>Passed overwhelmingly by California Legislature in 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Denied benefits to “Illegal Aliens” and criminalized those with forged green cards, I.D. cards and Social Security Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted access to public services </li></ul><ul><li>Among other things, this led to a steep rise in Naturalization applications </li></ul>
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 <ul><li>Previously, immediate deportation was triggered only for offences that could lead to five years or more in jail. Under the Act, minor offences such as shoplifting , may make an individual eligible for deportation. The Act also applies to residents who have married American citizens and have American-born children. </li></ul><ul><li>The Act was originally applied retroactively to all those convicted of deportable offenses. Including Naturalized Citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, the Supreme Court overruled this retroactive application of the law as Unconstitutional . </li></ul><ul><li>The Act doubled the U.S. Border Patrol to 10,000 agents over five years (2001) and mandated the construction of fences at the most heavily trafficked areas of the U.S.-Mexico border. </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed for the “incarceration of all arriving foreigners without a Visa. </li></ul>
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a private international organization that oversees the global financial system by following the macroeconomic policies of its member countries, in particular those with an impact on exchange rates and the balance of payments. It is an organization formed to stabilize international exchange rates and facilitate development. It also offers financial and technical assistance to its members, making it an international lender of last resort. Its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C., USA.
The Election of 1992 Video Link: Ross Perot and The Election of 1992 Video Link: Ross Perot and Al Gore Debate on Larry King
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement Goes into effect, January 1, 1994
Zapatista Uprising, January 1, 1994 Video Link: EZLN : Our Word is our Weapon
Zapatista Community of Chiapas, Mexico Photos by sebastiao salgado
Sprawling Barrio: Greater Mexico City, sebastiao salgado
Homeless Youth: Mexico City, sebastiao salgado
Fallen Electric Lines: Chimaluhacan, Mexico, 1998, sebastiao salgado
Garbage Dumps II: Mexico City by sebastiao salgado
Garbage Dumps I: Mexico City, sebastiao salgado
Young Yanomami Woman, sebastiao salgado “ Each village has 30 to 150 inhabitants…Just under half the 22,000 surviving Yanomami live in Brazil, the rest in Venezuela. In Brazil they live in some 200 communities, spread over a 42,000-square mile territory” “… there is enormous resistance to ‘giving away’ valuable land to Indians, with powerful business groups, mainly cattle ranchers and timber and mining industries, paying off politicians to look after their interests.”
Abandoning the Land in Ecuador “ A recent study by Ecuador’s Center for Study of Population and Social Development (CEPAR) shhowed that between 1990 and 1997 around 15 % of the country’s rural population (mainly men) migrated to Ecuador’s cities or left the country. The study said that men leave at a young age (more than half of them are under 20). Another study showed that 19% of the rural population has abandoned the countryside in recent years.” Sheep Farming
ECUADOR by sebastiao salgado “ Around the town of Pungala, all the fieldwork is done by women. Twenty years ago, family responsibilities were divided quite differently: women ran the households and men worked the fields. Today, the men have migrated to cities and return here at most once a year, while women are now in charge of both the farming and the community.”
The Landless Movement in Brazil: MST Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra
MST: Landless peasants takeover the 200,000-acre Giacometti Plantation, the largest private holding in the state of Parana. This occupation climaxed a long struggle for land by the peasants. In the early 1980s, the government decreed the expropriation of the estate as a latifundio, or excessively large unproductive property. However, thanks to the political connections of the Giacometti Group, which owned the land, the expropriation was never carried out. After repeated legal efforts went nowhere, the peasants began applying pressure on the authorities by encircling the disputed land with settlements. With 3,000 families entering the land, they have created a situation that forcees the National Institute of Agrarian Reform to reopen the case.” sebastiao salgado
Squatters on the Cuiaba Plantation: May 6, 1996 victory celebration by sebastiao salgado
<ul><li>Operation Rio Grande, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>August 1998 with a focus to decrease the number of illegal immigrants entering the country and to hinder the transportation of narcotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Added over 1,000 new boarder patrol agents to the U.S. – Mexican boarder in Texas and New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in noticeable decrease in illegal immigration and crime rate, while at the same time having negative effects on the wildlife in these areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration advocacy groups complain that this operation is causing more immigrants to hide in the bushes, and die from dehydration or starvation. </li></ul>
Department of Homeland Security, 2003 http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm <ul><li>Cabinet level office </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for preventing and responding to Terrorist Attacks and Natural Disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbed the now defunct U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service in March, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprised of three separate agencies: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, or, ICE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Federal Protective Service </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Customs and Border Protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Customs Service </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 200,000 Employees. Third largest branch of government after Dept. of Defense and Dept. of Veterans Affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest reorganization of government since National Security Act of 1947 </li></ul>
Border Protection, Anti-terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005 Or, Link: HR4437 Or Sensenbrenner Bill <ul><li>Passed House of Representatives in December, 2005. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>92% Republican support, 82% Democrats opposed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sparked massive pro-immigrant Rallies throughout the country. </li></ul>
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