Good afternoon everyone, and thank you for coming to the seminar. Today I will be presenting a topic which is a variation from the theme of this fall’s Horticulture seminar . However, I have attempted to keep in line with the overall goal of using the Internet as a tool to help in research and teaching . I will have John post my presentation on the NetVibes website, where you will be able to explore on your own some of the sources I have used for the presentation. There are many credible resources online regarding climate change and phenology, so please take some time to review them. There should also be time at the end of the presentation to ask questions and have a discussion.
Plant Phenological Responses to Climate Change a presentation by: Daniel T. Dalton Oregon State University Department of Horticulture 21 October 2008
Climate Change Defined “ Change in the state of the climate that can be identified… by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period” ( IPCC 2007 ) hprechtb Georgie Sharp Enzo D.
Effects of Elevated CO 2 ( Erhardt and Rusterholz 1997 ) Varying species responses to atmospheric changes Species Impacts on Flowers Nectar volume Nectar sugar Notes Lotus corniculatus 60% increase in number of flowers unchanged n.s. Legume Trifolium pratense 35% decrease in number of flowers unchanged n.s. Legume Betonica officinalis 7.8 days earlier bloom 28% reduction n.s. 27% fewer amino acids per flower Scabiosa columbaria n.s. 50% reduction 45% decrease per flower 40% fewer amino acids per flower Centaurea jacea 35% more likely to flower 38% reduction 31% decrease per flower 39% fewer amino acids per flower
Phenology studies as both evidence and a predictor of future change
A call for immediate action
Resources and Phenological Networks Phenological Networks Project Budburst: http:// www.windows.ucar.edu/citizen_science/budburst/index.html USA National Phenology Network: http:// www.usanpn.org / NatureWatch (Canada): http:// www.naturewatch.ca/english / Nature’s Calendar (UK): http:// www.naturescalendar.org.uk / Climate Watch Networks GLOBE: http:// www.globe.gov/r The Alliance for Climate Protection: http:// www.wecansolveit.org / NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory Global Monitoring Division: http:// www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: http:// www.ipcc.ch General Websites Flickr: http:// www.flickr.com Wikipedia: http:// www.wikipedia.com
Articles Cited Bokhorst, S., J.W. Bjerke, F.W. Bowles, J. Melillo, T.V. Callaghan, and G.K. Phoenix. 2008. Impacts of Extreme Winter Warming in the Sub-Arctic: growing season responses of dwarf shrub heathland. Global Change Biology 14: 1-10 Erhardt, A. and H-P. Rusterholz. 1997. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Flowering Phenology and Nectar Production. Acta Oecologica 18(3): 249-253 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Allali, A., R. Bjariu, S. Diaz, I. Elgizouli, D. Griggs, D. Hawkins, O. Hohmeyer, B.P. Jallow, L. Kajfez-Bogataj, N. Leary, H. Lee, and D. Wratt, eds. Accessed 10/8/2008 online: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr.pdf Orr, J.C., V.J. Fabry, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, S.C. Doney, R.A. Feely, A. Gnanadesikan, N. Gruber, A. Ishida, F. Joos, R.M. Key, K. Lindsay, E. Maier-Reimer, R. Matear, P. Monfray, A. Mouchet, R.G. Najjar, G-K. Plattner, K.B. Rodgers, C.L. Sabine, J.L. Sarmiento, R. Schlitzer, R.D. Slater, I.J. Totterdell, M-F. Weirig, Y. Yamanaka, and A. Yool. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437 (7059):681-686 Post, E.S., C. Pedersen, C.C. Wilmers, and M.C. Forchhammer. 2008. Phenological Sequences Reveal Aggregate Life History Response to Climatic Warming. Ecology 89(2): 363-370 Sherry, R.A., X. Zhou, S. Gu, J.A. Arnone III, D.S. Schimel, P.S. Verburg, L.L. Wallace, and Y. Luo. 2007. Divergence of Reproductive Phenology Under Climatic Warming. PNAS 104(1): 198-202 Sitch, S., C. Huntingford, N. Gedney, P.E. Levy, M. Lomas, S.L. Piao, R. Betts, P. Ciais, P. Cox, P. Friedlingstein, C.D. Jones, I.C. Prentice, and F.I. Woodward. 2008. Evaluation of the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle, Future Plant Geography and Climate-Carbonn Cycle Feedbacks Using Five Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). Global Change Biology 14: 2015-2039` Wiegolaski, F.E. 2001. Phenological Modifications in Plants by Various Edaphic Factors. International Journal of Biometeorology 45: 196-202
Farming Futures. 2008. Nitrogen Cycle of a Farm. Accessed 10/15/2008 online: http://www.farmingfutures.org.uk/x509.xml
Keeling, R.F., SC. Piper, A.F. Bolllenbacher, and S.J. Walker. 2008. Atmospheric CO2 Values (ppmv) Derived from In Situ Air Samples Collected at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, USA. Accessed 10/13/2008 online: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/co2/maunaloa.co2