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    test test Presentation Transcript

    • Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction Elaine Hall and Karen Taylor
    • What is the Constructivist View of Learning?
    • The Constructivist View of Learning
      • Teachers cannot simply give students knowledge. Students must construct knowledge in their own minds.
        • Information should be meaningful and relevant to students,
        • opportunities to discover or apply ideas themselves,
        • and by teaching students to use their own strategies  
      • A revolution! (Beatles song in background – time for a revolution!- well)
      • = constructivist theories of learning
      • learners discover and transform complex information, check new information against old and revise as necessary
      •  
      • Teacher is the “guide on the side” instead of the “sage on the stage”.
    • Historical roots of Constructivism
      • Draws heavily on the work of Piaget and Vygotsky,
        • cognitive change takes place only when previous conceptions go through a process of disequilibration in light of new information.
        • social nature of learning,
        • use mixed-ability learning groups
      • Social learning – Cooperative projects – children learn through interaction with adults and more capable peers.
      • Zone of Proximal Development – when a child can figure out a task with the help of an adult or a more knowledgeable peer.
      • Cognitive Apprenticeship
        • engaging students in complex tasks and then helping them through these tasks
        • engaging students in heterogeneous, cooperative learning groups in which more advanced students help less advanced ones through complex tasks.
      • Mediated Learning – emphasis on scaffolding, or mediated learning. Students should be given complex, difficult realistic tasks and then be given enough help to achieve these tasks. Real life – authentic tasks.
    • Top-Down Processing
      •  
      • Students being with complex problems to solve and then discover or work out the basic skills required.
      • The tasks students begin with are complex, complete, and authentic, meaning that they are not parts or simplifications of the tasks that students are ultimately expected to perform but are the actual tasks.
    • Cooperative Learning
      • Students will more easily discover and comprehend difficult concepts if they can talk with each other about the problems.
    • Discovery Learning
      •  
      • “ We teach a subject not to produce little living libraries on that subject, but rather to get a student to think for himself, to consider matters as an historian does, to take part in the process of knowledge-getting.”
      • Knowing is a process, not a product.
    • Self-Regulated Learner
      • Ones who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them – breaking complex problems into simpler steps or to test out alternative solutions.
      • Motivated by learning itself, not only by grades or others’ approval
      • They are able to stick to a long-term task until its done.
    • Scaffolding
      • Higher mental functions, including the ability to direct memory and attention in a purposeful way and to think in symbols are mediated behaviors. Mediated externally by culture, these and other behaviors become internalized in the learner’s mind as psychological tools.
      • Early in the scaffolding process, the teacher may provide more structure and then gradually turn responsibility over to the student .
      • Scaffolding is closely related to cognitive apprenticeship; experts working with apprentices typically engage them in complex tasks and then give them decreasing amounts of advice and guidance over time.
    • APA’s Learner-Centered Psychological Principles
      • Written in 1992 and revised in 1997, the American Psychological Association’s Task Force on Psychology in Education published a document called Learner-Centered Psychological Principles: Guidelines for School Redesign and Reform.
      • Following table has the principles:
    •  
    • Constructivist Methods in the Content Areas – reading science math examples
      • Reciprocal teaching (reading) - a small-group teaching method based on principles of question generation; through instruction and modeling, teachers foster metacognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension.
      •  
      • Teacher models behaviors and then changes her role to that of facilitator and organizer as the students (small groups) begin to generate the actual questions. Helps low-achievers in reading comprehension.
      • Questioning the Author (reading) – so they understand it rather than just memorize it. Students engage in simulated “dialogues” with the authors. “What is author trying to say” etc. Again, the teacher starts off asking the questions and then the students take over.
      •   Constructivist Approaches to Mathematics Teaching in the Primary Grades – Emphasis beginning with real problems for students to solve intuitively and letting students use their existing knowledge of the world to solve problems any way they can. Only at the end of the process, when students have achieved a firm conceptual understanding, are they taught formal, abstract representations of the mathematical processes they have been working with.
    • Supporting Ten-Structured Thinking (STST),
      • children use base-10 blocks to invent procedures for adding and subtracting large numbers.
    • Historical roots of Constructivism.
      • Draws heavily on the work of Piaget and Vygotsky, both of whom emphasized that cognitive change takes place only when previous conception go through a process of disequilibration in light of new information. Also emphasized the social nature of learning, and both suggested the use of mixed-ability learning groups to promote conceptual change.
      • Social learning – Cooperative projects – children learn through interaction with adults and more capable peers.
      • Zone of Proximal Development – when a child can figure out a task with the help of an adult or a more knowledgeable peer.
      • Cognitive Apprenticeship – engaging students in complex tasks and then helping them through these tasks, and by engaging students in heterogeneous, cooperative learning groups in which more advanced students help less advanced ones through complex tasks.
      • Mediated Learning – emphasis on scaffolding, or mediated learning. Students should be given complex, difficult realistic tasks and then be given enough help to achieve these tasks. Real life – authentic tasks.
    • Conceptually Based Instruction (CBI),
      • makes extensive use of physical, pictorial, verbal, and symbolic presentations of mathematical ideas and gives students opportunities to solve complex problems using these representations and to contrast different representations of the same concepts.
    • Problem Centered Mathematics Project (PCMP),
      • leads children through stages, from modeling with counters to solving more abstract problems without counters.
    • Cognitively guided Instruction (CGI)
      • does not have a specific curriculum or recommended set of activities, but provides extensive professional development for teachers of primary mathematics, focusing on principles similar to those used in the other programs. – focuses on measures related to higher-level thinking in mathematics.
      • Constructivist Approaches in Science – Emphasis on hands-on, investigative laboratory activities; identifying misconceptions and using experimental approaches to correct these misconceptions and cooperative learning.
    • Research on Constructivist Methods
      • Much more research is needed to establish the conditions under which constructivist approaches are effective for enhancing student achievement. Hard to measure success – although studies show significant gains in achievement levels in high-poverty schools.
    • How is Cooperative Learning Used in Instruction?
    • How is Cooperative Learning Used in Instruction?
      • Cooperative Learning = Students work in small mixed-ability groups.
      • Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)
        • Students are assigned to four-member learning teams
        • The teacher presents a lesson
        • Students work within their teams to make sure that all team members have mastered the lesson.
        • Individual quizzes on material after (cannot help each other during the quizzes).
        • Quiz scores are compared to their own past averages, and points are awarded on the basis of the degree to which students meet or exceed their own earlier performance.
        • Summed up into team points.
      • Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT)
        • Similar to STAD – students play games with other teams to add points to their team scores.
      • There is a section in the book that tells you blow by blow how to set up a lesson for the STAD method .
      •  
      • Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)
        • Used for teaching reading and writing in the upper elementary grades;
        • students work in four-member teams
        • summarizing, reading to each other, correcting each other’s drafts etc.
        • Studies show that CIRC programs have positive effects on students’ reading skills and improved scores on standardized tests.
    • How is Cooperative Learning Used in Instruction? (Continued)
      • Jigsaw
        • Students are assigned to six-member teams
        • Topic is broken down into sections for each member
        • The teams regroup into “expert” groups, where the members who have studied the same section meet.
        • The team members regroup into original groups and each member reports back what they learned from their “expert” groups.
        • Everyone is eventually individually tested.
      • Learning Together
        • students in four or five-member groups work together on assignments
        • one group paper, one group grade.
        • Emphasizes team-building activities.
      • Group Investigation
        • Students choose their own groups; two to six member s
        • Groups choose a subtopic of a unit class is studying
        • Subtopic is split into tasks for each member
        • Group presents to entire class
      •  
      • Cooperative Scripting
        • students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned.
        • The students who are teaching their partners usually learn more than their listeners.
    • Research on Cooperative Learning
      • Two broad categories -
        • Group Study Methods – students work together to master a relatively well-defined body of information or skills - “well-structured problems”
      •  
        • Project-based Learning/Active Learning – students work in groups to create a report, experiment, mural, or other product.
      • Studies of cooperative learning methods that incorporate group goals and individual accountability show substantial positive effects.
        • There has to be some kind of reward/incentive
        • Each member of group has to have a specific role that is integral to the success of the group
    • How Are Problem-Solving and Thinking Skills Taught?
    • The Problem-Solving Process
      • General Problem-Solving Strategies – and example would be the 5-step Strategy called IDEAL
      •  
      • I Identify problems and opportunities
      • D Define goals and represent the problem
      • E Explore possible strategies
      • A Anticipate outcomes and act 
      • L Look back and learn
      • Strategies like IDEAL begin with figuring out what problem needs to be solved, what information is available, and how problem can be represented (i.e., flowchart, drawing). Then it is broken into steps that lead to a solution.
    • The Problem-Solving Process (continued)
      • Means-ends Analysis - Deciding what the problem is and what needs to be done.
      • Extracting Relevant Information - Realistic problems are rarely neat and tidy. Clear away all the extraneous information to get to the important facts.
      • Representing the Problem - Graphics, diagrams, outlines etc.
      • Teaching Creative Problem Solving
      • Problems similar to those we face in life, as opposed to the cut-and-dried problems students mostly get in school.
      • Incubation - avoid rushing to a solution; instead, pause and reflect on the problem and think through or incubate several alternative solutions before choosing a course of action.
      • (give an example similar to the book)
    • The Problem-Solving Process (continued)
      • Suspension of Judgment - brainstorm, no matter how ridiculous some of the answers may seem at first. Purpose is to avoid focusing on one solution and perhaps ignoring better ways to proceed.
      • Appropriate Climates - Environment must be relaxed and students must feel their ideas will be accepted.
      • Analysis - Analyze major elements and specifics of the problem.
      • (example in the book? – confusing to me)
      • Engaging Problems – the motivational value of connecting problem solving to real life or simulations of real life has been demonstrated many times.
      • Feedback – Provide practice and feedback. Feedback should be not only on correctness of solutions but also on the process by which they arrived at the solutions.
    • Teaching Creative Problem Solving (continued)
      • Problems similar to those we face in life, as opposed to the cut-and-dried problems students mostly get in school.
      • Incubation - avoid rushing to a solution; instead, pause and reflect on the problem and think through or incubate several alternative solutions before choosing a course of action.
      • (give an example similar to the book)
      • Suspension of Judgment - brainstorm, no matter how ridiculous some of the answers may seem at first. Purpose is to avoid focusing on one solution and perhaps ignoring better ways to proceed.
      • Appropriate Climates - Environment must be relaxed and students must feel their ideas will be accepted.
      • Analysis - Analyze major elements and specifics of the problem.
      • (example in the book? – confusing to me)
      • Engaging Problems – the motivational value of connecting problem solving to real life or simulations of real life has been demonstrated many times.
      • Feedback – Provide practice and feedback. Feedback should be not only on correctness of solutions but also on the process by which they arrived at the solutions.
    • Teaching Thinking Skills
      • Instrumental Enrichment
        • Students work through a series of paper-and-pencil exercises that are designed to develop various intellectual exercises.
        • It is administered for 3 to 5 hours per week over a period of at least 2 years
        • usually to underachieving or learning-disabled adolescents.
        • Studies show positive effects on tests of aptitude ( IQ tests) but not on achievement.
      • Show example in book (scan for slide)
      • Other examples similar to Instrumental Enrichment have been equally unsuccessful. Making these skills more topic specific, like reading comprehension and math problems solving are more encouraging.
      • Scan and Show slide of thinking skills Strategy building blocks .
      • (Badly formatted section – outcome? - teach strategy skills since those are used in everyday life)
    • Critical Thinking (Continued)
      • The ability to make rational decisions on what to do or what to believe.
      • Examples include: identifying misleading advertisements, weighing competing evidence, identifying assumption or fallacies in arguments.
        • requires practice – students should be given dilemmas and illogical situations
        • classroom tone should encourage free discussions and divergent perspectives
        • emphasis should be on giving reasons for opinions, not correct answers
        • should relate to topics with which students are familiar
    • Critical Thinking (Continued)
      • Beyer identified 10 critical-thinking skills:
      • 1.      Distinguishing between verifiable facts and value claims
      • 2.      Distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, claim, or reasons
      • 3.      Determining the factual accuracy of a statement
      • 4.      Determining the credibility of a source
      • 5.      Identifying ambiguous claims or arguments
      • 6.      Identifying unstated assumptions
      • 7.      Detecting bias
      • 8.      Identifying logical fallacies
      • 9.      Recognizing logical inconsistencies in a line of reasoning
      • 10.  Determining the strength of an argument or claim.
      • Students should not only learn how to sue each of these strategies but also how to tell when each is appropriate.