Water is the best of all things. Pindar, 500 BC When the wells dry, we know the worth of water. Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richards Almanac, 1746Whiskey is for drinking; water is forfighting over Mark Twain ca 1881
Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water.“ But Jack fell down when tests came back showing a high count of two water-borne parasites known as cryptosporidia and giardia lamblia in his restaurants water. Its the water, stupid. Sorry about that, but it is. If we dont pay attention to the water, its going to bite us big time.“ 21st Century BlogsTomorrow Is Not Going to Be Like Yesterday
The 21st Century "Toto, Ive a feeling were not in Kansas anymore”
The 21st Century• Population Explosion• Pressures for Development• Scarce Resources• Technological Surge• Change• Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous National and World Situations
CLIMATE CHANGE! A strong, credible body of scientific evidence shows that climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and posessignificant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems, 7
It is virtually certain that increases in the frequency and magnitude of warm daily temperature extremes and decreases in cold extremes will occur in the 21st century at the global scale. It is very likely that the length, frequency, and/or intensity of warm spells or heat waves will increase over most land areas. It is likely that the frequency of heavy precipitation or the proportion of total rainfall from heavy falls will increase in the 21st century over many areas of the globe.
Ten Warmest 12-month consecutive periods of the CONUSRecordThese are the warmest 12-month periods on record for the contiguous United States. The record beginsJanuary 1895 . Temperature Departure Consecutive 12-monthRank (from 20th Century Period Average)Warmest May 2011 – April 2012* +2.80°F November 1999 – October2nd Warmest +2.70°F 2000 October 1999 – September3rd Warmest +2.65°F 20004th Warmest April 2011 – March 2012* +2.61°F September 2005 – August5th Warmest +2.56°F 20066th Warmest August 2005 – July 2006 +2.54°F September 1999 – August +2.54°F 20008th Warmest July 1999 – June 2000 +2.51°F9th Warmest June 1999 – May 2000 +2.46°F August 1999 – July 2000 +2.46°F
Water Security:Flash Points and Challenges Ahead Dallas, Texas 2 April 2013 Gerald E. Galloway, Jr., PE, PhD Water Policy Collaborative, University of Maryland
The World and the US Face MajorWater Challenges
Water Security• The reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods and production, and• An ability to deal with water-related disasters such as floods, hurricanes and drought Adapted from David Gray and Claudia Sadoff
US Water ChallengesDrought and WaterDemand • 2002 - 49 percent of the contiguous United States in moderate to extreme drought • 2005-2007 Drought Grows in West and Southeast • 2011 – Texas ‘On Fire” • Uncertainty - Climate Change
US Water ChallengesWater Quality • 55% of the nation’s river and stream miles do not support healthy populations of aquatic life • Non-point source pollution not yet controlled (TMDLs?) • Number of new contaminants on rise
US Water ChallengesWater Quality• Alien Invasive Species (AIS)growing threat • Airborne pollution increasing • Fracking
US Water Challenges Floods• 76 Years of Flood Control• 44 Years of Flood Insurance• Increasing Flood Damages • Average annual losses - $8 Billion Inadequate Protection• Inadequate Maintenance
city of Dallas/ David Mimlitch City of Dallas/ David Mimlitch
Illustrative Result – Changes to Flood AreasClimate Change and the NFIP AECOM 20
Coastal Flood Area Change Gulf of Mexico (Illustrative, not final)Climate Change and the NFIP 21
US Water Challenges Ports , Harbors and Waterways in Transition• Limiting Port Depths • US Ports ~45 foot depths • International Ports > 60 foot depths –Panamax II Capable• Inland Waterway System • Limited Size Locks • Traffic Congestion • Age • Economic Viability
US Water ChallengesProtecting the Environment• Wetland and Species Losses • ~ 60,000 acres annual wetland loss • >1370 threatened or endangered plants and animals (1100 plans)• Need for minimum instream flows and flood pulses
SHARING WATER RESOURCES• There are 263 transboundary basins• 145 nations have territory within a transboundary basin, and 21 lie entirely within one.• 12 countries have more than 95% of their territory within one or more transboundary basins.• On third of the transboundary basins are shared by more than two countries.
Good Neighbors?• 97% of Egypt’s Nile Water dependent on 8 other nations• 66% of Iraq’s Water dependent on Turkey• 19 Countries rely on Imported Water for > 50% of renewable resources Source: SEI, Polestar Series, Report 4
Impediments to Progress• Lack of Policy – US Internal – US Foreign Policy • Little Interest in Water • Denial of Change Impacts • Focus on Small Projects • Nervousness about Major Projects • Limited Funding
The Challenge• Involve All Elements of Society and All Nations in a Complex Political, Social and Technical Process• Export Our Lessons Learned, Not Our Mistakes Are We Ready?