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  1. 1. What is APA format and who cares anyway ? APA Publication Manual 5 th Edition! Barbara Mitchell, CCACC, 2001
  2. 2. Updated to 5 th Edition <ul><li>Disclaimer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This powerpoint presentation (95-97) has been updated to the new American Psychological Association Publication Manual, 5 th edition, released in July 2001. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The APAStyle website contains a list of the enhancements and changes from APA 4 th ed. As always consult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>your professor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The APA Style web page- where you can purchase a copy of the APA Publication Manual. Purchase a copy from the APA, your bookstore, or online. </li></ul></ul></ul>Please address all corrections to profbarb @hotmail.com
  3. 3. APA Format is a standardized way of presenting research results <ul><li>Consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Indexed (of sorts) </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabetical </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological </li></ul><ul><li>Identifiable </li></ul>Find more at www. apastyle .org
  4. 4. Outline of Presentation <ul><li>General Format of Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Each major section </li></ul><ul><li>In-text Referencing </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Section </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Grading Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>An asterick (*) indicates professor choice </li></ul>
  5. 5. General Requirements <ul><li>White paper </li></ul><ul><li>12 point black type </li></ul><ul><li>One-inch margin all around (minimum *) </li></ul><ul><li>Page Header is a brief title with the number of the page at the top right hand corner (in a word processing header) </li></ul><ul><li>double spaced (quote exceptions allowed *) </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedias (paper, cd-rom, web) are prohibited! Seek the original source! * </li></ul>
  6. 6. Major Sections <ul><li>Title Page </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract page (< 120 words) </li></ul><ul><li>Title again over start of body of paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subheadings allowed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body of paper </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Appendixes </li></ul><ul><li>Author note, footnotes, tables, figure captions, figures follow main paper </li></ul>Perhaps the most important chapter in the manual is the chapter on student papers!
  7. 7. Title Page – TOP! Brief descriptor + 5-7 spaces + Number Causes of Stress 1 Running Head(CAPS): + Second Descriptor app 2” from top edge of paper R unning h ead: PHYSICAL COMPONENTS OF STRESS The running head identifies the article for the reader. Fifty characters max . Appears only on the title page Put in word processor “header”. Select “insert page number to autocount the pages
  8. 8. Title Page - middle Full title of Paper Your Name Your Institution Centered on Paper
  9. 9. Title Page – bottom* Name of Class Class Time Semester Instructor Name Centered on Paper at bottom of page
  10. 10. Title Page - Full Layout 1 Page Header Running Head Title, subtitle, Author, Institution Preferred CCACC data: Class name, date, professor
  11. 11. Page 2 - Abstract <ul><li>An abstract is a summary of the problem (issue), findings, and recommendations made throughout the entire paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstracts are available of EbscoHost and at ERIC Inf. On the web. </li></ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul>
  12. 12. Abstract - Format Abstract The causes of stress are as many and varied as the people who experience the symptoms of stress. Stress is one of the leading reasons that people seek medical help. In 1997, over 41% of physician visits were related to stress (Winsome, 1998). Blah, Blah, Blah. <ul><li>The problem or topic </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose </li></ul><ul><li>The findings </li></ul><ul><li>The sources used </li></ul><ul><li>The conclusion </li></ul>
  13. 13. Body of Paper - Content <ul><li>Thesis - main idea </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of Evidence, </li></ul><ul><li>Use of research to support ideas - data - enough and accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Argument </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and conclusion </li></ul>
  14. 14. Body of Paper - Content <ul><li>Organization - structured </li></ul><ul><li>Outline apparent through paper </li></ul><ul><li>In-text referencing (Author’s Last Name, year of publication) </li></ul><ul><li>Correct written grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Spell-checked! </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Alphabetical by last name (letter by letter) </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological within author (earliest is first) </li></ul><ul><li>If same year, add = a,b,c to citation </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous only used if signed as such </li></ul><ul><li>Web based journal articles & books require full citation plus the web address and other identifying information. </li></ul>
  16. 16. References References Able, C. (1991). XXXXXXX Able, C. (1995a). YYYYYYY Able, C. (1995b). ZZZZZZZZ
  17. 17. Two Main Types of References <ul><li>Periodical References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Periodical References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brochures </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 5 th Edition Change: Writing a Reference <ul><li>Published Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First line is backspaced (5-7) spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second and consecutive lines are indented 5 spaces from the left margin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Word, Type the reference, then select ‘hanging indent”. It should automatically move the second line in. (customize by putting hanging indent on the task bar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book titles and Journal names are italicized. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Writing A Reference <ul><li>PUBLISHED STYLE </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, J. (1999). The bell curve. Boston: West Publishing. </li></ul>Margin
  20. 20. 1. Author Lastname, First Initial. (period!) <ul><li>Things to Note: </li></ul><ul><li>Only the initial of the author’s first and second name... </li></ul><ul><li>Only an “&” ampersand is used with multiple authors in the reference section. If used as part of a sentence the word ‘and’ is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Edition is abbreviated ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Editor is abbreviated Ed. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 2. Date <ul><li>Parentheses placed around the date, a period at the end. </li></ul>(1999). YEAR, MONTH, DAY format is used Ex. A magazine in the reference section: (2000, July 23).
  22. 22. 3. Book Name / Article Title <ul><li>Only the first letter is Capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>First letter of subtitle is Capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>Book & Journal titles are italicized but the (3 rd . ed.) is not. </li></ul><ul><li>Books always use a period. </li></ul><ul><li>Journals are followed with a comma, vol, nnn-nnn(page numbers). See details later… </li></ul>
  23. 23. 4. Book - City of Publisher <ul><li>City: </li></ul><ul><li>If City is not well know, then add a comma and the State (and Country if needed). </li></ul><ul><li>State uses standard postal abbreviations (PA, WI, OH): </li></ul>
  24. 24. 5: Book - Publisher <ul><li>The name of the Publisher and a period. </li></ul>Author, M. (1999). This is the book title. Johnstown, PA: Wilson Publishers.
  25. 25. 4. Journal Article <ul><li>Journals are followed with a comma, volume (Number), pages . </li></ul><ul><li>The words Volume & Number are never used. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. - each issue starts with page 1 Monitor on Psychology, 32 (7), 17. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. – each issue continues the paging from the beginning of the volume American Psychologist, 56, 585-586. </li></ul><ul><li>Only use p. or pp. when a periodical does not have a volume number - ref: http://www. apastyle .org/ faqs .html#6 </li></ul>Italicize! Red text is italicized
  26. 26. Documents from the Internet <ul><li>Many different documents are available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brochure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>garbage </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. On the Net II <ul><li>APA Minimums: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document title, a date, a source location (URL), and the author(s). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Determine the type of web page. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Find the title, the date, the author, the publisher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Hint: If you can’t find the above information you must question the source !!!!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Hint: back up through the URL to find the needed information: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http:/www.publishername.com/~author/date/title.html </li></ul>
  28. 28. On the Net III <ul><li>An article published on the web: </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy Eating. (1999, July 17). Barriers to closing the diet gap . Retrieved July 22, 2001 from http://www.eatright.org/ articles/july01/dietgap.html </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: No period after the URL! </li></ul>
  29. 29. On the Net IV <ul><li>Electronic copy of a journal on the net: </li></ul><ul><li>Whitcome, R., List, T., Wilson, K. & rogers, J. (2001). A snitch in time: A review of the proximity of a Crimestopper reporter to the perpetrator. Journal of Criminal Behavior, 66, 222-243. Retrieved September 4, 2001 from Ebscohost database [Masterfile] at http://www.ebscohost.com </li></ul>Note that the article includes the printed page numbers
  30. 30. On the Net V <ul><li>A message posted to a list (even though you get it in email form): </li></ul><ul><li>Russet, P. (1998, October 12). TLRT: Messaging across the internet [Message AAHESGIT #119]. Message posted to http://www.cren.net:8080/guest/archives/AAHESGIT/log0110/ </li></ul><ul><li>Great Article - but no author, no date (help!) APA writes: </li></ul><ul><li>GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/ </li></ul>Above retrieved October 24, 2001 from http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html#78
  31. 31. On the Net VI <ul><li>An abstract retrieved from the web, a summary, a review: </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieved from… becomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract retrieved from… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary retrieved from… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review retrieved from…. etc. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Finding the Author! <ul><li>A URL can often yield up the author of the article if you do a little searching: </li></ul><ul><li>http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au / v2/ psyche-2-10-cytowic.html </li></ul><ul><li>The Article is titled: </li></ul><ul><li>Synesthesia: Phenomenology and neuropsychology. </li></ul><ul><li>A review of current knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Back up through the directories – each directory on the computer is separated with a slash. The Author’s name, the date it was published to the web, and the web publisher can be found on the pages in the directory above the directory that holds your article. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Sample Grading Sheet <ul><li>Title Page – Complete - 5 pts. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract – Accurate & Comprehensive – 5 pts. </li></ul><ul><li>Layout – meets requirements – 10 pts. </li></ul><ul><li>In-Text citation – accurate – 10 pts. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar – 10 pts. </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis and Problem statements – 10 pts </li></ul><ul><li>Argument and Analysis – 10 pts </li></ul><ul><li>Data Support & Accuracy - 10 pts. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure (Outline apparent) – 10 pts </li></ul><ul><li>References - 10 pts. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Defense – 10 points. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Post Note <ul><li>If you are serious about getting APA format down to a science (sorry!) you should purchase you very own copy of the 5 th edition of the APA Publication Manual. It will serve you well over the next 4-7 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not get confused by looking at the edition date of another English or research reference book that contains a summary of the elements of the APA publication manual. Often these books have APA 4 th or worse APA 3 rd edition information. Look for this black & red book… </li></ul>