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Chapter 1 introduction

  1. 1. CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE....................................................................................................2 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................2 1.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................2 1.2 Statement of The Research Problem...............................................................4 1.3 Research Objectives ........................................................................................6 1.4 Research Questions .........................................................................................6 1.5 Operational Definitions...................................................................................7 1.6 Limitation of The Study ..................................................................................9 1.7 Significant of The Study ...............................................................................10 1.8 Conclusion.....................................................................................................11 CHAPTER TWO.................................................................................................12 LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................................................12 2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................12 2.2 The Concept of Inquiry Approach ................................................................12 2.3 Learning Theory............................................................................................15 2.4 Dreikur‘s Principal Teaching (Classroom Management Theory).................22 2.5 Summary of Survey about Theory ................................................................23 2.6 Previous Studies Review...............................................................................24 2.7 Level of Knowledge of Children Aged Six Years Against Inquiry Finds....25 2.8 Conclusion.....................................................................................................28 CHAPTER 3........................................................................................................29 METHODOLOGY..............................................................................................29 3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................29 3.2 Resource Study..............................................................................................29 3.3 Scope of The Study .......................................................................................30 3.4 Research Design............................................................................................30 3.5 Place of Research ..........................................................................................31 3.6 Population......................................................................................................31
  2. 2. 3.7 Sample...........................................................................................................31 3.8 Research Instruments ....................................................................................32 3.9 Validity and Reliability .................................................................................37 3.10 Procedure Review........................................................................................37 3.11 Methods of Data Analysis...........................................................................38 3.12 Conclusion...................................................................................................38 REFERENCES....................................................................................................39
  3. 3. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Education in early childhood, particularly in pre-school is to provide a strong foundation for children before entering the stage of formal education. National Standard Curriculum for Preschool (NPCS) 2010 will allow children aged six years, has earned a solid foundation in communication skills, social, and other skills in preparation for primary school . This program is also the basis for the development and progression of cognitive domain, affective and psychomotor line with the National Education Philosophy. Education program in the early stages of children in Malaysia was first introduced in 1950. Originally, the program is available to children from middle and upper class. This program is designed as an education for the growth and development of the body and spirit of children outside the family before entering primary education. According to Farah Wahilda (2006), Preschool Education Program seeks to help the foundation lay towards the development of attitudes, knowledge, skills, competitive and creative needs of children in adapting before going to primary education. According to Dato Dr Hj Bujang Hj Julaihi, Director of Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education in 2010, NPCS formulated based on standards-based curriculum design, modular and centered on six spikes which will be continued in primary and secondary schools. NPCS formulation is based on the principles of practice matches the Child Development ( ABP ) and the theory of children's learning. Student -centered learning approach, inkuri discovery, learning through play, thematic approach , an integrated approach is emphasized. According Hunsburger & Winifred Frances (2008) in their paper work entitled 'Inquiry Learning : A Narrative Inquiry into the Experiences of teacher stated that inquiry learning a philosophical approach through a lesson which allows students to participate in the construction of knowledge base and understanding of the cause questions through theory, research, testing and evaluation and to answer the question posed. Moreover, Bereiter & Scardamalia , 1993: Cadwell , 2002: Edwards Gandini & Forman , 1998 also states that, in
  4. 4. the inquiry learning approach through the project, the construction of knowledge based on the Reggio Emilia program also allows children to continue their learning through asking questions, discussions, field studies, research, reflect , conduct investigations , collaboration and reflection among them. Therefore, a study conducted by researchers emphasis on inquiry approach to help children with six years old age in increasing their cognitive level. This approach is more focused on the basic knowledge of science and technology that encourages curiosity of children to a higher level. It is recognized by Renate and Geoffrey Caine in his book Making the Connection which states: " The solution ... for teachers initiated efforts to create harmony with the walls of a hindrance to students . When we respect their latest views and providing them with appropriate levels of security and the opportunity to explore creatively, then we can take them beyond their boundaries and limits. This is the nature of the challenge is made by good teachers . " Inquiry approach is an approach that emphasizes learning through experience. Generally, children will find the information or knowledge, to question and investigate a phenomenon that is happening around her , especially in the classroom as well as during the process of teaching and learning takes place. Learning through discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles investigated and discovered by the children themselves. Normally, children will explore through activities such as experiments, which will investigate a phenomenon and reach our own conclusions.
  5. 5. 1.2 Statement of The Research Problem According to a study, conducted by Applebee et al (2003 ), involving 1400 students find appropriate inquiry approach in schools for students with high achievement and students who have low grades. Studies conducted in California, Florida, New York, Texas and Wisconsin clearly showed an increase in student achievement when the inquiry approach applied in the teaching and learning process. However, the adaptation of this approach for children in Malaysia is still new . Application still not fully implemented at each center of early childhood development and pre-school due to other constraints that occur in the process of teaching and learning. A study was conducted by Richard and Kiza (2006) about teaching using inquiry and the effect of increasing the understanding of children. They stated that the inquiry is central to science learning. This approach involves a process of exploration towards the question, do discovery, and investigation findings to gain a new knowledge. Their findings show for the inquiry approach to learning, an environment with elements of the inquiry should be included. Nevertheless, it is a challenge for teachers on how they want to make an inquiry learning environment. Approach and teacher-centered teaching methods solely between factors identified cause children quickly lose focus while studying. Although various methods have been disclosed, but there are still a large number of kindergarten teachers who use traditional methods such as approach drills without explaining the concept enough to produce a child who can not think critically and creatively. Teaching and learning science involves a lot of science process skills and manipulative requires thinking and creativity (Sim Siew Ling, 2008). Learning requires greater understanding of the concepts. Teachers need to better understand this problem. In addition, there is a kindergarten or preschool newly established and managed by a novice " fresh graduates ". Teachers are there who have been exposed to a variety of teaching science and mathematics before they were absorbed into the kindergarten teacher or preschool teacher. However, not all methods are disclosed that can be mastered and applied well in teaching the science of early childhood. This is because teachers are still raw in the field of teaching in terms of teaching experience. They are likely to face problems such as the selection of appropriate teaching methods and teaching aids are not appropriate in the teaching of science. Although teachers were exposed to the micro-teaching and practical
  6. 6. training, but that all is not enough to obtain teaching experience. Therefore, teachers are likely to face problems in the application of science teaching methods, resulting in a lack of experience ( Sim Siew Ling, 2008). According to Zahara (1998) in his master's thesis entitled "Inquiry Teaching in Schools in Malaysia", lists the factors that lead to poorly executed direction teaching in the classroom. The first factor is the perception. According to him, the inquiry is easy to apply in the subject. Teachers thought that the role of a facilitator in the inquiry findings only motivate and lead students toward a broader exploration of knowledge as not working. The culture of teaching and learning that are now, considered as meeting the academic disciplines. The next factor is the learning time, which is the process of inquiry learning sometimes requires long hours and endless. Although introduced a flexible schedule, timetable is still not encouraged and not attract teachers to incriminate change the approach, methods and techniques of teaching and learning . While in the pre-school, the teachers have to teach according to the themes that have been planned . Typically , the activities planned are based on the theme of the time. Teachers should be wise to organize learning activities through exploration and inquiry, for example, can be carried out smoothly, orderly and meaningful to students. In addition, factors such as the manner in which the implementation of inquiry in the curriculum requires a change in management attitude towards the concept of curriculum and teacher education and learning style. This paradigm shift resulted in the refusal of education last long and this will ultimately benefit anyone, particularly students . NPCS through 2010, the inquiry approach, including as one of the measures that must be implemented in preschool and this should be given by the teacher to always be alert and increase knowledge in the field of technology to the activities carried out in class more innovative and up to date as well as provide space for children to explore in more detail later. Other factors include the skills, concepts and ways of application inquiry approach in children. Given this important inquiry approach to improve the thinking skills of children and to give birth to children who are not so dependent on the teacher , the study was conducted to determine whether this approach can improve children's cognitive, through its applications in the teaching of science and technology in the center of the early development of children .
  7. 7. 1.3 Research Objectives The purpose of the study is to examine the effectiveness of inquiry approach in improving classroom management for children aged six years. Teaching effectiveness is measured by how well the learning outcomes achieved through the process of teaching and learning is planned and implemented (Shahabuddin , 2003). The main focus of this Research Project were : 1.3.1 To identify the cognitive level of children with aged six years about the inquiry approach through effective classroom management. 1.3.2 To determine whether the teachers use an inquiry approach in managing multiple tasks and situations that occur during teaching Science in the classroom every day. 1.3.3 To implement the inquiry approach to improve the understanding of Science concepts among children aged six through the effectiveness of classroom management. 1.4 Research Questions Based on the research objectives , a number of research questions were identified , namely : 1.4.1 What is the cognitive level of children aged six years about the inquiry approach through effective classroom management? 1.4.2 Are teachers using an inquiry approach in managing multiple tasks and situations that occur during teaching Science in the classroom every day? 1.4.3 How the inquiry approach can be implement to improve the understanding of Science concepts among children six years old through the effectiveness of classroom management?
  8. 8. 1.5 Operational Definitions Some terms used in this study to define that is easily understood by the reader. Some of the terms used in this study are as follows : 1.5.1 Effectiveness According Student Dictionary Second Edition, effectiveness or thing means the effective ( not the action , regulations, etc. ). Effectiveness is a derivative of the root word of " impact ". In general, effectiveness the extent to which stated objectives are met which is what it intended to achieve. The goal can be as broad or as narrow as is deemed appropriate — a continuum exists, ranging from achieving very specific outputs to very general outcomes. 1.5.2 Approach Approach is the way a subject is taught based on the objective (Edward M. Anthony , 1963). It is a large frame contains the strategies, methods and techniques ( Institute of Teacher Education , Ministry of Education in June 2011 ) . This means that approach refers to the way teachers teach their subject matter in order to manage long-term objectives that can be achieved. (Source : WordPress 2010 Weaver by ) 1.5.3 Inquiry Philip (2004 ) states : " If we ask 10 different educators to define " inquiry ", we would get eleven different definitions of it ― . Carin and Sund ( 1971) defines inquiry as indirect learning that involves exploration and discovery related to the process of obtaining information. It is based on questioning and problem solving in teaching and learning activities. In short statement, inquiry is the concept of learning refers to the active learning.
  9. 9. 1.5.4 Cognitive According to Mok Soon Sang (2009), the term cognitive refers to mental activities such as thinking, reasoning, form concepts and solve problems. In other words, psychologists state that cognitive is ‗the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired.‘ Cognitive psychologists study internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking (Neisser, U (1967)) . Generally, cognitive focuses on the way humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person (what behaviorists would call stimuli), and how this treatment leads to responses. In other words, they are interested in the variables that mediate between stimulus/input and response/output. 1.5.5 Child The word "child" is a derivative of the word "children". Child can be defined as a person under the age of 18 years ( Children Act 2001 ). The legal definition of child generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. Biologically, a child is generally anyone between birth and puberty or in the developmental stage of childhood, between infancy and adulthood. In other word, child is generally a human between the stages of birth and puberty. Child may also describe a relationship with a parent (such as sons and daughters of any age) or, metaphorically, an authority figure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion; it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time, place, or circumstance, as in "a child of nature" or "a child of the Sixties". 1.5.6 Classroom Management According to the written by Melissa Kelly (2013), classroom management is the term educators use to describe methods of preventing misbehaviour and dealing with it if it arises. Classroom management refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on task, and academically productive during a class (Great School Partnership, 2013).
  10. 10. In other words, it is the techniques teachers use to maintain control in the classroom. Classroom management is one of the most feared parts of teaching for new teachers. For the students, lack of effective classroom management can mean that learning is reduced in the classroom. For the teacher, it can cause unhappiness and stress and eventually lead to individuals leaving the teaching profession. 1.5.7 Preschool Preschool is derived from the pre-school English, is an education for the children before they enter school . Preschool is part of the education system in Malaysia that allows children aged four to six years of entering school early, especially children from low-income group (Ministry of Education). Basically, a preschool is an educational establishment offering early childhood education to children between the ages of three and five, or seven, prior to the commencement of compulsory education at primary school. They may be privately operated or government- run, and the costs may be subsidized. 1.6 Limitation of The Study The data obtained from the study subjects was limited and not suitable for generalization to all conditions of education system in Malaysia. This study is only suitable as a guide for similar cases. Finally, the long time required to carry out the study considered running out to researchers find answers to the research questions.
  11. 11. 1.7 Significant of The Study Inquiry -based learning approach is not new. Teaching science as inquiry findings make a fun lesson because the children themselves are actively involved in the investigation and search for information. Therefore, the Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education (MOE ) in 2001, choosing inquiry approach as the primary approach in the science curriculum of primary and secondary schools in Malaysia. However, this strategy requires skills and their ability to cope. The teacher is no longer the informant but rather a facilitator of learning, question asker , prescriber of appropriate activities, stimulators of curiosity, challenger idea of children and referral sources ( resources person). Learning science inquiry finds that teacher‘s need who are able to plan a systematic and focused questions. Teachers should be seen as a person who acts as a question asker and problem solver, but one that acts as a stimulant of ideas, testing ideas and construction concepts using questions as a mechanism to achieve that goal. Teaching using an inquiry approach can improve the performance of children and bridge the gap between children of low achievement and high expectations of children. Kahle, Meece and Scantleburye (2000), conducted a study and found that teachers who use inquiry approach to teach and learning has improved student achievement scores for African- Americans, bridging the gap in achievement between boys and girls and that they were more shows interest in the teaching and learning process. It also can be applied in Malaysia that has a multi-racial society will be better able to create a harmonious learning environment inquiry to enhance academic achievement through the exchange of new ideas from students of all races, particularly in the national pre-school . Inquiry approach is the approach that is actively engaged in scientific thinking, inquiry and knowledge building. Fatimah Hishamuddin (2000) said that, teachers believe through inquiry, children can develop their scientific attitude. In addition, this approach also allows children to master science concepts effectively (Thangevola et al , 1990) . Suchmann ( 1996) introduced the Development Inquiry that allows children to test their own theories and self - aware learning process takes place. In this way, children can cultivate curiosity, build confidence and have a strong scientific concepts. According to Schwab (1966), the nature of science is a process of inquiry that seeks to find the cause and
  12. 12. reason. Inquiry approach can help children improve their own understanding of how to plan their own learning. 1.8 Conclusion Inquiry discovery approach is one of the approaches listed in the National Standard Curriculum for Preschool (2010). Thus, researchers began to look at aspects of defining and overall information related inquiry discovery approach in improving the cognitive level of children aged six years. Inquiry approach is a new and fresh alternative to the practice by teachers in early childhood . It is one of the potential approaches and provide opportunities for children to explore new knowledge to be learned by way of attempting to resolve the issues or concerns related. Many past studies indicate inquiry approach to improve performance and enhance the ability to provide arguments among students ( Ivins , 1986 ; McComas , 1992). Thus, in making this approach more effective, teachers must undertake more exploration, questioning and applications to ensure that learning becomes more meaningful.
  13. 13. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction In this chapter, researchers have examined some reading resources that includes several key components in this writing. These components are discussed by researchers as Inquiry Approach Concept, Definition of Inquiry, the Purpose of Inquiry Approach, Type and Level of Inquiry, Characteristics of Inquiry Discovery Approach, Learning Theory, History of Inquiry Approach and knowledge level of the child on the inquiry findings. 2.2 The Concept of Inquiry Approach Inquiry is the process of rational thinking and surprises (enjoyfull) in discussions about science (Ting, 2001). In a scientific perspective, the concept of an inquiry approach is the process of learning that involves research to be done by a student or a child. Through a pedagogical perspective, the concept of an inquiry learning refers to the constructivist model and active learning. 2.2.1 Definition According to Meyer (2005), the National Science Education Standards also state of inquiry in science. The statement from the National Science Education Standards are as follows : Students at all grade levels and every domain of science should have the opportunity to use scientific inquiry and develop the ability to think and act in ways associated with inquiry, keep asking questions, planning and conducting investigations, using appropriate tools and techniques to gather data, thinking critically and logically about relationships between evidence and explanations, constructing and analyzing alternative explanations and communicating scientific arguments. Based on the statement of the National Science Education Standards students have given the opportunity to develop the skills to think and act with using inquiry. Inquiry
  14. 14. approach involves the asking of questions, plan and conduct experiments using appropriate tools and techniques to collect data. 2.2.2 Purpose of Inquiry Approach Based on Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996), learning science through inquiry refers to activities performed by the students in build their knowledge and understanding scientific ideas such methods, that have been done by scientists who make research in this nature . According to Collins, A. & Stevens , A.L. (1983), the purpose of the inquiry discovery approach is to allow children or students looking for experience through their own exploration. Inquiry is an active process of discovery involved in scientific thinking, inquiry and knowledge building, Collins (1983) . Teaching using inquiry can encourage children to learn many thing, or something and learn in more depth, (Stevens, 1983). 2.2.3 Type and Level of Inquiry Review inquiry is not limited to any level or stage of inquiry as described by Herron ( 1971). According to Herron (1971), inquiry learning can be divided into four different levels (Table 1). Levels are depend on how much of a role that is given to children in their learning process. The many roles given by the children in their learning activities, the higher level of inquiry - based learning and vice versa. Each inquiry approach below, of course, has its own advantages and drawbacks. Inquiry approach to be used should be tailored to the scope and level of thinking involved by children.
  15. 15. Table 2.1 : Four Level of Learning Inquiry (Herron, 1971) Level Type Of Inquiry Explanation 0 Verify ( Confirmation ) Children validate certain principles based on the activities described by the teacher and the results of an investigation have been known in advance. 1 Structured Inquiry Children do research on the question and the steps that have been determined by the teacher. 2 Guided Inquiry Children do research on the questions provided by the teacher and the selection of exploratory steps defined by the child. 3 Open Inquiry Children do research on the questions and steps built and defined by them based on specific topics. (Source : Irfan Naufal Umar , and Sajap Maswan in a paper entitled Application of Inquiry Approach in a Web-based Learning Environment, 2004) 2.2.4 Characteristics of Inquiry Discovery Approach The National Science Teachers Association of United States find the characteristics of inquiry approach as : a. Questioning and formulating problems solving. b. Reflecting on, and constructing knowledge from data. c. Collaborating and exchanging information while seeking solutions. d. Developing concepts and relationships from empirical data.
  16. 16. 2.3 Learning Theory Tajularipin Solomon & Maria Chong Abdullah, (2004) in his book titled "Creative Approaches in Learning Science" state that learning theory can be divided into two major section or group and denominations cognitive behaviorism. Humanist approach was a learning theory that exist after behaviorism and cognitive approaches. The approach covers the latest learning which are cooperative learning and constructivism learning. Indeed, all of the theories and approaches learning has given an invaluable contribution in the field of education as well as help to provide an effective teaching and learning for students. 2.3.1 Cognitive Development Theory According to Mok Soon Sang (2008), cognitive learning theory focuses on the cognitive processes in learning approach advocated. Members of cognitive focus on the internal processes that occur in the human mind. They focus on processes such as problem solving, insight, perception, expectations, and creativity in describing the learning process. There are four approaches that belong to the section of cognitive such as social cognitive learning, information processing, cognitive constructivism and social constructivism (Santrock, 2004). Among the important learning theories in cognitive section is Cognitive Theory (Piaget) , Cultural Context Theory (Vygotsky) , Cognitive Theory, the Theory of Bloom's Taxonomy and Information Processing Theory by Gagne. Further discussion will allow us to see the impact and the extent to which these theories can answer the following questions (a) the knowledge base (what kind of knowledge from the child), (b) learning and knowledge development through inquiry approach (how children acquire knowledge and how knowledge is growing), (c) educational applications (how theory can be applied through the inquiry approach). Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Theory Piaget's cognitive theory has dominated the field of psychology and education in the 1960 's and early 1970 's. His theory gave a lot of impact on the discussion in the inquiry approach through the process of teaching and learning in schools. Piaget study, focused on a number of important processes, the construction of the scheme or schematic, assimilation and accommodation . Piaget uses three words when referring to the children's knowledge: scheme or schematic, concepts and structures. Schematic of an action or process either mentally or
  17. 17. physically used to achieve an objective or solve a problem. The scheme is a characteristic, that actions are used to achieve the objectives and situation. Scheme can be moved and made generalizations. Piaget also studying children's learning about the concept and found that the conception of a child to be built gradually and take a long time. Moreover, the concept of "real" that appears only true concept stage children over adults, teens and adults. Piaget saw concepts (time, space, number, cause and effect, classification and seriation) and mental relationship through exploration and investigation of the child after the lesson progresses. Other schemes and concepts, Piaget also used the word " structure " to describe knowledge. The structure of this knowledge is something that has the settings and content as well as the restructuring of certain ideas (Piaget , 1970). In essence, the Piaget‘s cognitive theory saw the child as an active student, improvement of cognitive development of children is through the process of assimilation and accommodation . The increase of cognitive development is influenced by the interaction of children and the environment in the exploration and discovery of ideas actively . Process maturity mental systems biology and cognitive developmental level of the child is in the order of the sensory motor stage, pre - operational, concrete operational stage and formal operational. However, many researchers argue that the theory of the cognitive level is too tight. They argue that there are also children who are at a lower level are able to develop cognitive to a higher level. However, Piaget's theory remains a powerful influence on the minds of children through inquiry approach. Piaget pointed out that the level of difficulty of the planned activities should not be above or below the level of the child's ability. Piaget's theory has implications for learning and teaching through inquiry approach through the following aspects : a. Planned learning activities based on the level of mental development and maturity of biological systems that do not exceed the limits of the ability of children in data processing and problem solving. b. Planned learning activities based on historical experiences of children. Even, new ideas ( precusory ideas ) should be provided to serve as a knowledge base for further learning. c. Children need to use schema or skemata and always practice through questioning to ensure that the construction and the structure of knowledge been used. If teachers want students to master a skill, the question should be presented with more training
  18. 18. or investigation should be conducted, so that is consistent with the idea of learning "hands-on " . In summary, according to Piaget, children construct knowledge through their experience with concrete objects and continuous exploration by the level of cognitive ability in four different stages. The learning process is active and the children learn by doing themselves. Lev Vygotsky’s Theory Lev Vygotsky (1962) considers the cognitive development of children occurs in a social context. He refers to two entities knowledge of concepts / categories and functions. However, Vygotsky (1962) found that children do not understand the true concept / notion of science up to the early teens. Apart from the concept, he also discusses the five cognitive functions, language, thought, perspective, attention and memory. According to Vygotsky, the integration of the five cognitive function will lead to better performance on cognitive tasks and problem solving. Vygotsky and his followers say that children acquire knowledge during problem solving using symbols, such conversations through interactions with their peers. Moreover, Vygotsky (1962) construct the notion of "Zone of proximal Development" (ZOPD) which shows a gap between the actual development level of the child and the level of development that may be achieved by a child if there use a teacher or adult guidance (scaffolding). Even so, children do not imitate the behaviour of a teacher or an adult directly as Piaget's view, imitative behavior requires a qualitative transformation and requires a level of current developments as scaffolding or foundation for growth (Vygotsky, 1978). Thus, Vygotsky's theory has implications for teaching and learning through inquiry approach as follows : a. Teachers as scaffolds to provide adequate guidance during the exploration that carried out. This is because the child can do it alone and find solutions arise. For example, the teacher will provide guidance and tips in solving problems, but instead of showing each step of solving the problem. b. Teaching must always precede the current level of cognitive development. This means that teachers should use an inquiry approach to teach children in the environment (ZOPD). If the materials used is lower than the level ZOPD, nothing will happen, but if it is too high, then confusion and boredom in learning will occur.
  19. 19. c. To ensure that the children internalized the knowledge, the educational process is carried out in four phases, namely i . The first phase of teacher who wants to show the skills taught to give a verbal description. ii . Phase two : Children try to imitate the skill shown in creative and original with a verbal explanation was given. iii . Phase three : Children master the knowledge or skills and find solutions without the presence of teachers. iv . The fourth phase (final) : Children will act as teachers and peer group learning specific skills by taking turns. This teaching method known as reprocal teaching. Overall, Vygotsky's theory focuses on the socio-cultural learning. Social interaction is an essential to improve children's cognitive, while teachers and more competent peers act as scaffolds in learning - based inquiry approach undertaken by the children themselves. Bloom’s Taxonomy Theory According to Bloom (1956), the cognitive domain consists of six levels according to Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy : knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and finally evaluation. Cognitive outcome also means the acquisition of knowledge. It is also related to empirical terms, a procurement process based on experience (especially those obtained through discovery, trial and observational). Thus, this theory has implications for teaching and learning through inquiry approach based on the following stages :
  20. 20. Table 2.2 : The Six Stages of Cognitive Bloom's Taxonomy ( Bloom , 1956 ) Stage Explanation Knowledge Knowledge is the most basic level of this taxonomy. Knowledge means to recall everything that has been learned, the recall of facts, data , theory, and so on. Children acquire knowledge by means of recall, naming, organizing, reviewing and identifying. Comprehension At this point, the children were able to understand what you have learned and remembered. For example, he has to understand the concept of numbers, colour and space. Commission of such children describe, discuss, vote, report, and present them to develop a hypothesis of an inquiry carried out early during the investigation. Use At this level, children can not only remember and understand what they have learned, but have been able to use that knowledge. They can use that knowledge to a new situation in a real situation. Learned was no longer a mere theory but it can be done. At this stage, children can interpret, demonstrate, operate, troubleshoot, provide and so on . Analysis At this point, not all children are able to describe or analyze something to the parts. This level is the level of intellectual ability is quite high when compared to the ability to understand and applications. Treatment at this stage is to assess, discriminate, test, compare, and criticize. This stage requires children to get the help of a teacher or an adult to assess the information that has been discovered. Synthesis Synthesis means the ability or the ability of someone to build something from small parts to be something big and new. Acts such as managing, propose, create, compose and design the show abilities at level synthesis. Children can build their creativity while at this point. This level will test the effectiveness of the exploration / investigation performed by the children. Evaluation This level is the highest level of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive. At this stage, a child could have been evaluating based on certain criteria. Between treatments at the evaluation stage is like arguing, estimating, selecting and interpreting. This level has yet to be mastered by children of pre-school age level. (Source : Abd . Ghafar Md . Din , 2003 )
  21. 21. Overall, Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Theory focuses on the stages of cognitive development in the child's ability in understanding the current inquiry approach to teach and learning take place. Not all children are able to achieve the highest level of evaluation, and it is possible there are also children who have yet to grasp the concept of the knowledge level. Thus teachers play from the beginning to guide the children to be able to do their own investigation. Information Processing Theory This theory examines how information obtained from the environment and stored in long term memory. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) introduced the most influential model which is a model of processing and storage of information. In this model, the human memory is divided into three stores (stores). Information, for example stimulation from the environment will be delivered to the store sensory (sensory store), then the short-term store (short -term store) and finally to long-term store (long-term store). Based on this theory, when the stimulus received by the senses (sensory register) , the stimulus will be received by the sensory store as an icon. This icon only exists for a while besides the attention had been given before. Information received will first be encoded into the receiver senses and perception of information received will determine what needs to be stored in short-term memory that can be used later. The information stored in short-term memory expire and lose if it is not activated often. On the other hand, if the information stored in the short term is always activated by a process of exploration and maintenance training (maintainance rehersal) or memory is transferred to long-term by linking it with other information in short-term memory, this knowledge will be retained throughout life as long-term memory. Learning the theory of information processing through an inquiry approach focuses more attention is given to how the information in the child's environment and the way they transfer the new information from short term memory into long term memory . Based on this theory, there are implications for teaching and learning through inquiry approach in the classroom are: a. Teachers have to recognize that children have limitations in information processing. Therefore, teachers can distribute information or knowledge divide the complex into segments that are simpler to process memory more easily addressed. Children will more easily understand the concepts and build curiosity in them.
  22. 22. b. Adequate time should be given to the children to learn the information. Children should be given the opportunity to ask as many questions and find solutions to the questions raised. c. Learning a lot of exposure and practical activities. The experiment is a major activity of children in developing cognitive knowledge remain in their long - term memory. Overall, the transfer of information from short-term memory until it stays in long-term memory requires effective teaching approaches by teachers for children aged six years. They need to be taught the concept of right and facts to enable them to keep the knowledge acquired throughout their life. 2.3.2 Constructivism Theory Constructivism is a teaching based on research about how people learn (McBrien and Brant, 1997). During the learning process, each child will build their own knowledge actively where children not only passively receive knowledge from others. Children build knowledge and actively concept based on existing knowledge and experience. Through the inquiry approach , children will always communicate and explore the material to obtain the data or information that allows them to learn from a variety of perspectives. Constructivist theory focuses on student behaviour (hands-on) as well as emphasizing mental activity (Minds on) students. Therefore, the main activities, experiments and science of early childhood must diverge and emphasize hands-on and minds activities on children. Such activities are applying constructivist theory allows children to have their own ideas about the occurrence of a phenomenon before going through the process of teaching and learning. Children will build their own reality or perception of reality interpret their experiences (Good and Brophy, 1990) . To integrate the theory of Constructivitism, George Bodner (1986) suggest that knowledge can not simply be delivered by teachers to students, but students need to develop knowledge of new information and experience of their existing knowledge Sanger (1996). Students should use their existing knowledge, knowledge is assimilated. However, if new information is different, the information will need to be modified to be accommodated by the new knowledge. Learning through inquiry provide children with problem solving skills. Children will be exposed to learning that involves a process of exploring the natural life and will encourage
  23. 23. questioning, investigation and conduct experiments to obtain new knowledge. Learning provides an effective situation for students (Onyancha, Armour and Endrizzi, 2006) . Some of the impact of constructivist theory - based inquiry approach is as follows : a. Planned activities based on constructivist theory involves a lot of intellectual work requires problem solving and is suitable for generating highly motivated generation and have a high level of thinking (She, 2005). When giving assignments, many teachers use cognitive terminology such as "classification" , "analysis", "predict" and "innovating" . This is because the children are more willing to use methods of investigation (inquiry method) in solving tasks. b. Teachers encourage the initiative and accept the autonomy of children in their learning. Children have the power to change the strategy of learning and teaching content. c . Teachers use the raw data and the natural resources and the physical tools of manipulation and interaction in teaching and encouraging children questions that are open and critical. The interaction between the child and the teacher, the child with the child, are strongly encouraged to exchange ideas and discover new knowledge. 2.4 Dreikur’s Principal Teaching (Classroom Management Theory) According to Dreikur, discipline at its best is defined as self-control, based on social interest. Self-controlled students are able to show initiative, make reasonable decisions, and assume responsibility in ways that benefit both themselves and others. While social interest refers to student‘s efforts to make the classroom comfortable and productive, based on understanding that such classrooms better meet their personal needs. Basically, good discipline occurs best in a democratic classroom. A democratic classroom is one in which teacher and students work together to make decisions about how the class will function. Good discipline cannot occur in autocratic or permissive classrooms. In autocratic classrooms, the teacher makes all decisions and imposes them on students, leaving no opportunity for student initiative and responsibility. In permissive classrooms, the teacher fails to require that students comply with rules, conduct themselves humanely, or endure consequences for their misbehavior. Almost all students have a compelling desire to feel they are a valued member of the class, that they belong. Students
  24. 24. sense belonging when the teacher and others give them attention and respect, involve them in activities, and do not mistreat them. When students are unable to gain a sense of belonging in the class, they often turn to the mistaken goals of attention, power, revenge, and inadequacy. When seeking attention, students talk out, show off, interrupt others, and demand teacher attention. When seeking power, they drag their heels, make comments under their breath, and sometimes try to show that the teacher can't make them do anything. When seeking revenge, they try to get back at the teacher and other students, by lying, subverting class activities, and maliciously disrupting the class. When seeking to display inadequacy, they withdraw from class activities and make no effort to learn. Teachers should learn how to identify mistaken goals and deal with them. When teachers see evidence that students are pursuing mistaken goals, they should point out the fact by identifying the mistaken goal and discussing the faulty logic involved. They should do this in a friendly, non-threatening manner. Teachers should learn how to identify mistaken goals and deal with them. When teachers see evidence that students are pursuing mistaken goals, they should point out the fact by identifying the mistaken goal and discussing the faulty logic involved. They should do this in a friendly, non-threatening manner. Rules for governing class behavior should be formulated jointly by teacher and students. Tied to those rules should be the logical consequences of compliance or violation. It is the teacher's responsibility to see that stipulated consequences are invoked. Good behavior (following the rules) brings pleasant consequences such as enjoyment of learning and associating positively with others. Misbehavior brings unpleasant consequences such as having to complete work at home or being excluded from normal class activities. Punishment should never be used in the classroom. Punishment is just a way for teachers to get back at students and show them who's boss, and is usually humiliating to the student. Punishment has many bad side effects and therefore should be supplanted with logical consequences agreed to by the class. 2.5 Summary of Survey about Theory Based on all of the cognitive learning theory and classroom mangement theory that have been discussed, there are many similarities in the perception of different theoretical approaches in terms of inquiry in the early stages of children. For example, Piaget and Vygotsky states that children build new knowledge through interaction with the environment and peers.
  25. 25. Informational processing theory and Piaget will highlight skemata construction and process of relating new concepts with old knowledge in the acquisition of new knowledge. Both of these theories emphasize a child's learning is effectively a "hands on" and in exploration. The emphasis on active learning and the use of the senses to the maximum given in children's cognitive learning through inquiry approach. Smith - Gratto, (2000) states that any theory of learning has its own advantages and disadvantages, the combination of all of these theories will provide us with new approaches and a more comprehensive strategy. This view has also been expressed by Reynolds (1994), which integrates an understanding of Piaget and Vygotsky to see children's cognitive learning through interaction with the environment and social development. Furthermore, Smith - Gratto, (2000) also showed that the combination of the "Programme Instruction" presented by Skinner (1968) and constructivism allows us to see the children's learning based inquiry approach from a different angle. "Instruction Programme" more focused on learning the basic construction and constructivism improve problem - solving abilities in the learning process through the approach used. 2.6 Previous Studies Review In review of previous studies, researchers have obtained information about the history of inquiry approach put forward by researchers in the field of science and education, including the study at home and abroad. 2.6.1 Historical of Inquiry Approach Science Curriculum (K - 12) stressed the investigation was suggested by Jown Dewey in 1910 in New York. John Dewey was a science teacher and considered indivdual emphasize the fact that the science of testing the strength of a person's mind (Lloyd H. Barrow, 2006). According to Lloyd (2006), John Dewey encourages educators in science investigations using the inquiry as a teaching strategy. This is because the scientific method is rigid and has six steps in the concept of K - 12 science curriculum that emphasized the use of sensory adaptation situations, problem solving, develop, test and revise hypotheses through the test done and act to resolve them. However in 1944, K - 12 modified by new scientific methods to achieve the goal of reflective thinking through discussion of problems, formation of hypothesis, experiment and collect data during the formulation of conclusions. According to Dewey, problem of studies
  26. 26. must be related to the student experience and still in their intellectual ability to make students active in seeking answers to the solution of the problems raised, according to Lloyd (2006). According to the National Science Teachers Association Southwest Regional Conference in Tucson, Arizona (1965), inquiry approach is an approach to get feedback and it is through a change of behaviour and thinking of students. This means that the inquiry approach requires exploration and acquisition of information through teachers and students, and students with the studied materials. Based on a study conducted by Ben Strasser (2007) on teacher's self-assessment of their teaching, there are two main aspects to be considered. First, aspects of the student's own needs which is what will be received by students when they use these findings inquiry approach? The second aspect is that students need to be aware and prepared for any behaviour as well as data acquisition made and are willing to take a risk on him. This suggests, this inquiry approach can be a dynamic process of teaching done. The teacher's role is as an observer and make diagnostic studies based on the ability of students, the situation and the teaching and learning objectives to be achieved. Researcher Ben Strasser (2007) also have suggested in the evaluation of the perform, a way for teachers to begin self - assessment conducted inquiry approach, by giving full attention, especially during the currency question and answer session with the children of teachers. How to design the questions, so feedback from the teacher that will be accepted by the children through their exploration results. Usually, children are still in the kindergarten and preschool often ask questions that range and test their thinking processes, through their observations and feedback received by the teacher or an adult on their answers. Ben Strasser (2007) also noted the inquiry approach in teaching science will never end. When a child begins to understand his behaviour and what he thinks, then increasing the goals and how they solve problems through their research. The process of questioning a dynamic and interactive approach will make inquiry as an approach that can not be separated in the process of teaching the science of early childhood. 2.7 Level of Knowledge of Children Aged Six Years Against Inquiry Finds Researchers have examined the matters to be discussed in identifying the level of knowledge of children aged six years of inquiry approach includes descriptions of science and science inquiry and learning through this approach.
  27. 27. 2.7.1 Science and Inquiry Finding Science is knowledge gained through structured and active, dynamic and explorative through inductive activity (Carin, 1997). In the implementation of science lessons, children as young as six years in the early stages of pre - school to develop the skills required in the process of science, inductive thinking, scientific attitudes, skills using tools and materials and skills in communicating all of which are integrated in the construction of knowledge through reflection (Rustaman, 2003). Most of the knowledge obtained from a child as young as this, will be stored longer and easily applied in accordance with their cognitive ability (Tobin, 1995). When children begin to engage in the activity by itself it will encourage the development of their thinking at a higher level (Costa , 1985). According to the National Science Education Standards (The National Research Council / NRC, 1996), teachers need to apply their knowledge in the teaching of science through research and inquiry. Although the inquiry learning has different levels, teachers need to guide, direct, a facilitator and drive the children to learn (NRC, 1996). Beyer (1971) states that learning involves the processes, outcomes and knowledge (content knowledge ) and the context (context, values, affective) is through the inquiry. According to Trowbridge et al (1981), a close relationship can be forged through the questions, and then served about demonstrations, experiments and discussions. Based on the studies mentioned above, clearly show that learning science provide many benefits to children as young as six years in developing their cognitive ability or thinking through an inquiry approach. Inquiry approach is only suitable to be implemented through assignments, practical activities or activities. Various methods can also be used as lecture, discussion, experimentation and research and role - play method to solve the problem in the form of tasks such as (1) drawing, (2) retail (3) express themselves with words , (4) composing (5) simulation and (6) trial (Nuryani, 2005). 2.7.2 Learning Science Through Inquiry Approach Based on the findings of the reviewed models in the Models of Teaching (Joyce , et al. 2000), the inquiry model of teaching is one of the cognitive model is taught through science learning in schools. The role of inquiry in science education has been expressed by Rutherford in :
  28. 28. " ... The Emphasis has been on viewing scientific inquiry as part of the content of science , LTD " Teachers need to plan the program for learning science inquiry approach as this has long been emphasized by educational experts specifically science education (NRC, 1996: Roth , 1996: Rutherford & Ahlgreen , 1990, Kaplan , 1963). According to the National Science Education Standards (NRC , 1996), instructional planning can be done by way of inquiry ; a. Providing long - term framework and purpose for children. b. Selecting the contents of the teaching of science, adapting and designing curricula that meet the interests, knowledge, understanding, skills and experience of children. c. Choosing strategies or teaching methods that develop their understanding of children and their impact on learning through science. d. Working in discipline in the classroom. In this case, the inquiry into authentic questions that are given through the experience of children and made the key strategies in the teaching of science, ( Nuryani, 2005). In the inquiry approach in teaching science, Fish & Goldmark in (Romey, 1968) introduced three interpretations of the method of self - directed inquiry, inquiry into science teaching and teaching science as method selection. Inquiry approach requires the ability of children to ask questions, pick a tool or method, and achieve the desired results as components. Learning in preschool or kindergarten can be done by incorporating inquiry approach problem - solving activities. According to Yager (1991). the learning of science, the theory of constructivism that is commonly used by the characteristics of the focus on learning and specific problem. The problems related to the curriculum developed is occurring, prompting the development of inquiry skills of children, Education oriented philosophy, science learning activities and the relationship between Science, Mathematics, Technology and society. In the inquiry approach, learning is done in small groups, in order to build knowledge, thinking skills, attitude and communication skills. Features found in the inquiry approach is
  29. 29. more geared to the questioning of children and teachers, and ending with an uncertainty (NSTA & AETS, 1998). According to (Trowbridge & Bybee , 1990), there are three different levels of inquiry in accordance with levels of difficulty. In the first stage, is discovery learning (discovery inquiry), the second is a guided inquiry (guided inquiry) and the last stage of the inquiry is open or free (open inquiry). In discovery learning, children are taught to search concepts through activities that involve query, inference, prediction, communication, interpretation and inference. In guided inquiry learning, the problem is given by counselors or teachers themselves. While in the open or free inquiry learning, the problems identified from the children, with the help and direction from the teacher to the children discover what is asked and ended with questions or new problems that need to be extended to subsequent learning. The similarities between the three levels is the three of them involve science process skills and the ability of children to do science activities. According Hebrank (2000), inquiry is the art of asking about the problems in the environment and find an answer to every question. This is to expand the knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas in the learning problems of the environment. Inquiry requires identification to think logically and critically and to consider alternative explanations (NRC, 1999). 2.8 Conclusion The process of learning is an active process that involves the mind and heart to build the knowledge, skills or behaviour. Inquiry approach based on the theory that has been discussed clearly indicating the relationship between the acquisition of information, the adaptation of children with the environment during exploration activities conducted. This is a bit much to foster the ability to think creatively and be nourished student's thinking skills. Creative thinking ability is competence to use the mind to explore the many possibilities, creating something new, original, unusual and unique whether it is concrete, abstract, idea or concept. It also involves the expansion of an existing idea in more detail (Som and Dahlan, 1998). In creative learning through inquiry approach, children will be able to produce a wide range of ideas put forward ideas though sometimes a bit less logical. This is in line with the opinion of Prof . Ungku Aziz " If everyone thought the same way, no one's thinking actually."
  30. 30. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter describes in detail the steps taken in the course of this study which are the content of the study, scope of study and lesson plans that have been designed by the teacher for teaching science in Dzul Iman Kindergarten. The researcher also noted how the collection of data through observation of the activities will carry out, recording interviews with respondents, preparing the cognitive checklist of children aged six and case study for four children with six years old. 3.2 Resource Study Researchers have examine the literatures of interest. There are two main sources identify by the researcher which are the primary source and the secondary sources. Primary source are first or natural resource, which have not been assessed, processed and printed. For example, papers, artifacts or oral evidence. Meanwhile, secondary sources, or known as the second source is the material that have been studied, by reading or written material. For example, books, encyclopedias, newspapers, etc. (Source: History Form 1 - 2009 ) . 3.2.1 Primary Source The primary source for this research is Mr. Ahmad Fauzi HA Rahman, who are highly experienced in the field of Science and Mathematics. He received initial approval in the B. Sc (Hons), Physics & Mathematics, Dip. Edu. (UKM), M. Ed . (UCLA) , Exc . Cert . in Strategic Leadership (Templeton College, Oxford) , and experienced being Science teacher for three years, before becoming a lecturer for the Science of Early Childhood at the University of Malaya. 3.2.2 Secondary Sources The secondary sources that researcher use in the research are from resource books, educational journals, articles, theses and dissertations and through websites. Most of the books are used more focus on teaching the inquiry, which is applied in education in the West, Early Science Education of children in pre - schools in Malaysia and the syllabus of the National Pre - School Curriculum Standards (NPCS ) 2010, which is used as the main reference.
  31. 31. 3.3 Scope of The Study The researcher conduct this study for children six years old at Dzul Iman Kindergarten, Menara Telekom Malaysia (TM), Kuala Lumpur. The study period is for one month, including social visits a week before start the research by recording the interview and teaching Science for children. The case study is conduct in qualitative approach regarding inquiry approach in teaching and learning process for Science subject in class six years old. Children are expose to Science activities, once a week every Wednesday, while teacher using the inquiry approach during the teaching process. This study focuses on aspects of the ongoing inquiry approach in the classroom during the teaching and learning of Science. It focuses on understanding the scientific concept of early childhood as well as the ability of children to ask questions, engage in small groups and try to solve the problems. Moreover, to keep abreast of cognitive among children, skills and abilities to solve individual problems will be emphasized by applying an inquiry approach to Science activities in the classroom. 3.4 Research Design In this research, researcher try to obtain adequate information, and make observations by providing checklist of Science subject for children with aged six in Dzul Iman Kindergarten. Researcher use qualitative research for this study. A checklist is use to obtain information about the ability, general knowledge and cognitive achievements of children aged six of teaching Science concepts that obtain before the study is done. In addition, the interview method (orally) perform on a respondent of six years old classroom teacher, Mrs. Hasmawati binti Abdul Hamid. The interview is conduct to obtain detailed information about the background of kindergarten, child population, the background of the children studied, child gender, and achievement as well as their involvement in the classroom. The researcher also use the video to record the teaching and learning process. The video lasts for about 5 to 20 minutes per session, including the initial set up to the induction of strengthening exercises conducted by the teacher in the classroom. The process of teaching will record for three times, on every Wednesday, for the whole month. All data will collect in records and will translate into verse (in writing) for each teaching session. This is to enable the researcher to make generalizations about cognitive achievement in the subjects of the study. The researcher also sought Lesson Plans of Science Subjects (Little Scientist Lesson Plan) for class six years. This lesson plan covers all scientific activities that will carry out every year for children in class six years at Dzul Iman Kindergarten.
  32. 32. 3.5 Place of Research Researcher start to obtain a bit of information about the inquiry approach for children aged six years, by interview Mr HA Rahman Ahmad Fauzi Faculty of Education, University of Malaya. Next, the researchers will conduct a study on " Effectiveness of Inquiry Approach for Enhancing Cognitive Discovery Children Aged Six Years fully in class six, Dzul Iman Kindergarten (Smart Caliph), Menara Telekom Malaysia (TM), Kg Kerinchi, Kuala Lumpur. Kindergarten has been operating since 1995. Dzul Iman Kindergarten Program focuses on teaching Islamic and comprehensive cover for the development of early childhood and learning methods through the Prophet Muhammad SWT. Some of the subjects that have been teach at Dzul Iman Kindergarten are Malay language, English, Science, Mathematics, Creative Arts, Qiraati Fardhu Ain, Arabic and Amma Al -Quran and Hadith . 3.6 Population In the Dzul Iman Kindergarten, Kuala Lumpur, the total number of children aged four to six years old is 70 children. 19 children are aged four years and 25 children are aged five years. However, children with six years old consist 26 children. 26 children consist of 14 boys and 12 girls. All of them were Muslims, and children of TM 's own staff . 3.7 Sample The sample for this study include a kindergarten teacher (female ) and four children aged six years in Dzul Iman Kindergarten (Smart Caliph ), Kuala Lumpur. The teacher‘s name is Mrs. Hasmawati Binti Abdul Hamid is the class teacher for six years in this kindergarten. She is 33 years old. She received her bachelor's degree at Universiti Sains Malaysia in the field of Humanities. She also attended the Smart Reader program in Bangi, Selangor from 2005 to 2007. Her experience as a teacher and taught at Dzul Iman Kindergarten almost five years since 2009 until present. The subject of the case study consist of four children from class six years Dzul Iman Kindergarten. Subjects consist of two boys and two girls who reach the age of six years. The researcher choose children with six years old because they have learned the concept of Science as young as five years old again and be able listen to instructions teacher better than children aged five years.
  33. 33. 3.8 Research Instruments The researcher collect the data by using observation instruments in the classroom for four weeks (including a week for social week), Science Lesson Plans instruments, the subject of the instrument of four case studies of children aged six years based on anecdotal records and interview instruments to the respondent about perceptions of teaching and learning and inquiry approach specific for cognitive components. 3.8.1 Observation The first instrument is the checklist for Science subjects for class six year old. This checklist will use by researcher to study the level of cognitive knowledge of children aged six years before conducting the study. The content of the checklist is based on the cognitive content of the standards that contained in the thrust of Science and Technology - Early Science, National Standard Curriculum for Preschool, (2010). There are six sections in cognitive checklist for Science and Technology (ST), a scientific attitude (ST 1.0), skill (ST 2.0), investigating the nature wildlife (ST 3.0), investigating the nature of material (ST 4.0) , to investigate the physical (ST 5.0) and the use of ICT (ST 6.0). Here is the content that contained in these six areas : Part I - Scientific Attitude (ST 1.0) This section contains elements of how the child with six years old that exhibit systematic scientific attitude, curiosity and responsibility in the conduct of activities in the classroom. Part II - Scientific Skills (ST 2.0) This section contains the elements of the children's knowledge in making observations of objects and phenomena in the environment, making measurements using non-standard units, comparing and classifying objects, make predictions based on past experience and solve problems of daily life by hands on. Part III - Investigate Nature Wildlife (ST 3.0) In this section, element centric knowledge children acquire basic knowledge about the body, explore the environment using sensory organs, explore the parts of a plant leaf, flower, fruit and seed growth and carry out exploration on its habitat, how movement and the type of food commonly domesticated animals they encountered.
  34. 34. Part IV - Investigate Nature Materials (ST 4.0) This element is more focus on the children to explore the nature of the material as up and down and by magnetic attraction. Part V - Investigate the Physical Environment (ST 5.0) In cognitive checklist for Science teaching, there are elements in the physical environment to investigate how a child six years old can explore phenomena that are commonly found, example cloud, weather, rainbows and shadows. Part VI - Use of ICT (ST 6.0) Elements in this section focuses on the description of the child using information and communication technologies and ethically accountable, selecting and applying appropriate ICT resources and use ICT to improve learning for children six years old. 3.8.2 Lesson Plans for Teaching Science This lesson plan is a specific lesson plans for children six years old, which was designed by the classroom teacher of six years and has been agreed by Dzul Iman Kindergarten Principals. It is named Little Scientist Lesson Plan. However, the researchers only conduct the case study using this lesson plan for three weeks. Here is the lesson plan:
  35. 35. First Week Lesson Plan Review Table 3.1: Animal’s Life Cycle Objectives To learn about the life cycles of animals and understand that some animals experience a great change in the enlargement process . Set Induction ( Introduction ) Tell us about life , and food habits of butterflies with posters " Butterfly Life Cycle " . Tell us about the process of growth of a butterfly. The female moth lays its eggs under the leaf surface . The eggs hatch into larvae ( caterpillars ) . Larvae spend the time to eat , grow and change the skin . Pupa is the stage where the larvae pupate and grow through metamorphosis to become adults, wing shaped, finally a butterfly shape. Butterflies do not eat , they suck the liquid ( flower nectar ) through a long tube ( proboscis ) . Steps (Activities) By using a jigsaw , ( jigsaw puzzle) . Divide the children into four groups and ask them to take turns to build a tiled image . Teachers teach children that the baby will grow up to be adults. Then the teacher tells that there is a baby animal that looks very different from her parents , eg caterpillars . Closing / Strengthening Activity (Creeping Caterpillars) 1. Assign each child make a caterpillar equipment. Glue the leaves on using a glue stick. 2. Roll toilet paper around a pencil and glue the ends with glue. 3. Emphasize both ends against the middle of the toilet paper. 4. Draw spots along toilet paper to make it a body of the caterpillar. 5. Leechers Put water into a wooden stick provided in step one. 6. Attach one end of the caterpillar on leechers water and the other end into the end of the sticks. (Source: Little Scientists, Level 3 Book 1, Lesson Plan - Fun Science Sdn. Bhd)
  36. 36. Second Week Lesson Plan Review Table 3.2: Animal’s Nutrition Objectives 1. To enable the child to know its animal‘s nutrition. 2. To classify animals into groups of carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Set Induction (Introduction) Start by asking the child "What is your food?". Answer the child, such as rice, noodles, vegetables and so on. "How about a tiger? What is food? "- Meat / small animals. "How about a cow? What is food? "- Grass" How about a dog? What is food? "- Meat / rice / food animals. * Animals need food for energy and survival. Different animals eat different foods. Teacher told the children that: Carnivores - Animals that eat meat such as lion, tiger, eagle, snake. Herbivores - Animals that eat plants such as cow, giraffe, elephant, rabbit, grasshopper. Omnivores - animals that eat both (meat and plants) such as cats, dogs, and so on. Steps (Activities) Teachers hold animal nutrition chart and discuss with the child what is consumed by the animals. Next, the teacher indicates the nature of animal nutrition markers provided. Attach a marker of meat for the carnivores, herbivores and markers for marker leaves the meat and leaves for omnivores. Closing / Strengthening Activities Divide the children into four groups. Then, teachers provide science training book (Little Scientist) to each child. Children are asked marking self-adhesive (sticker) that is on the last page, on the Animal Nutrition column in an exercise book. The activity test my children individually. (Source: Little Scientists, Level 3 Book 1, Lesson Plan - Fun Science Sdn. Bhd)
  37. 37. Third Week Lesson Plan Table 3.3: Classification of Animals (Insects) Objectives 1. To allow children to classify animals according to physical characteristics. 2. Knowing the physical characteristics of insects Set induction (Introduction) Starting with children asking questions to find out what they know about the animals. Teachers introduce body parts and animal skins to cover children. Children learn the fur, hair, scales, and so on. Then,. Teacher will explain the "backbone" of the child by touching their spine. Steps (Activities) Teacher told the children that the insects are not vertebrate animals. Teacher insect model and ask them to name the insect. This is to identify the bodies of insects and teach children about the characteristics of the insect. 1. Insects have six legs and three body parts. 2. Most insects have two pairs of wings and a pair of tentacles. 3. Spiders are not insects. It has eight legs and only two parts of the body. Children do exploration outside the classroom to find examples of insects in the environment. Conclusion (Rewards) Kids will get an insect toys and brought back to the house. (Source: Little Scientists, Level 3 Book 1, Lesson Plan - Fun Science Sdn. Bhd)
  38. 38. 3.8.3 Subject of Research In this case study, the researcher has been chosen four children aged six years old as research subjects. They consist of two boys and two girls. Researcher has put the letter symbol to represent the actual names of the subjects (Child A, Child B, Child C and Child D). After obtaining permission from the teachers and parents of the child, then study and observation can be carried out smoothly with the cooperation of them. In addition, this study also will be proceeded as planned from the six years old class teacher, Mrs Hasmawati. The researcher use anecdotal records to detect cognitive abilities for the four children. Data will be obtained through a video camera for teaching and learning Science aorund 5 to 20 minutes. 3.8.4 Interview Record The researcher has been interviewed Mrs Hasmawati on her own perception of teaching and learning and also about inquiry approach focusing on cognitive components. The recording will be taken aorund 20 minutes and will be conducted in Dzul Iman kindergarten. The researcher also provided a set of interview questions and record using mp3 video. 3.9 Validity and Reliability Validity refers to the ability of a measurement which is performed to measure the true value of concept hypotheses. Validity has to be high if the instrument is actually measuring the concepts stated in the hypothesis. Meanwhile, the reliability of the research refers to the ability to obtain similar values when the measurement has been repeated. If the measurement on a second (and third or subsequent time) has been done, the values obtained are similar, the study is said to have high reliability. (Source: Bobby Yan Piaw, 2011, the Second Edition of Research Methodology.) 3.10 Procedure Review Researcher has been identified places and locations that highlight kindergarten which teaching inquiry-based discovery in Kuala Lumpur. Once the researcher has been identified, Dzul Iman Kindergarten (Smart Caliph), Menara TM Kuala Lumpur has been chosen. Then, the researcher has been sent a letter of authorization to the Dzul Iman Kindergarten principals, and get her permission to conduct a study for a month in the kindergarten. The researcher use "Purposive Sampling" for this case study. The researcher obtained the classroom teacher to nominate four children of her class that suit the criteria needed. Then, the researcher has provided a letter of parental consent, and given to the parents of the four subjects to conduct the study.
  39. 39. The researcher conduct the observations for four times (one is for a social visit and three times for teaching) within a month in this kindergarten. Firstly, researcher conduct the interview of the respondent who is Mrs Hasmawati, in order to learn more about her background. In addition, researcher also briefly review and make observations on the study subjects using a checklist and cognitive Science instruction before the study has been conducted. Observations in the classroom for the first time, researcher only focus on the identification of four children and their general knowledge about Science. After that, the three-time observation of teaching and learning in the classroom using the checklist was followed by individual interviews with the teacher. Teaching and learning process was recorded using a video camera and mp3 video record. 3.11 Methods of Data Analysis Once the data has been collected, the researcher begin to analyze for each the data obtained. All data will be analyzed qualitatively, using the anecdote, which shows the behaviour of the cognitive aspects of teaching and learning activities in the classroom which are described based on the cognitive abilities of children with aged six years. To determine the effectiveness of teaching, cognitive checklist for teaching and learning Science will be compiled for each child after the teaching and learning take place. 3.12 Conclusion Based on a complete description of this chapter, the researcher clearly explained in detail the steps taken in the course of this study. The researcher also noted the study procedures and methods used to analyze data. All the finding and discussion, collected and described in the next chapter.
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