1.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................2
1.2 Statement of The Research Problem...............................................................4
1.3 Research Objectives ........................................................................................6
1.4 Research Questions .........................................................................................6
1.5 Operational Definitions...................................................................................7
1.6 Limitation of The Study ..................................................................................9
1.7 Significant of The Study ...............................................................................10
2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................12
2.2 The Concept of Inquiry Approach ................................................................12
2.3 Learning Theory............................................................................................15
2.4 Dreikur‘s Principal Teaching (Classroom Management Theory).................22
2.5 Summary of Survey about Theory ................................................................23
2.6 Previous Studies Review...............................................................................24
2.7 Level of Knowledge of Children Aged Six Years Against Inquiry Finds....25
3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................29
3.2 Resource Study..............................................................................................29
3.3 Scope of The Study .......................................................................................30
3.4 Research Design............................................................................................30
3.5 Place of Research ..........................................................................................31
3.8 Research Instruments ....................................................................................32
3.9 Validity and Reliability .................................................................................37
3.10 Procedure Review........................................................................................37
3.11 Methods of Data Analysis...........................................................................38
Education in early childhood, particularly in pre-school is to provide a strong foundation for
children before entering the stage of formal education. National Standard Curriculum for
Preschool (NPCS) 2010 will allow children aged six years, has earned a solid foundation in
communication skills, social, and other skills in preparation for primary school . This program
is also the basis for the development and progression of cognitive domain, affective and
psychomotor line with the National Education Philosophy.
Education program in the early stages of children in Malaysia was first introduced in
1950. Originally, the program is available to children from middle and upper class. This
program is designed as an education for the growth and development of the body and spirit of
children outside the family before entering primary education. According to Farah Wahilda
(2006), Preschool Education Program seeks to help the foundation lay towards the
development of attitudes, knowledge, skills, competitive and creative needs of children in
adapting before going to primary education.
According to Dato Dr Hj Bujang Hj Julaihi, Director of Curriculum Development
Centre, Ministry of Education in 2010, NPCS formulated based on standards-based
curriculum design, modular and centered on six spikes which will be continued in primary
and secondary schools. NPCS formulation is based on the principles of practice matches the
Child Development ( ABP ) and the theory of children's learning. Student -centered learning
approach, inkuri discovery, learning through play, thematic approach , an integrated approach
According Hunsburger & Winifred Frances (2008) in their paper work entitled
'Inquiry Learning : A Narrative Inquiry into the Experiences of teacher stated that inquiry
learning a philosophical approach through a lesson which allows students to participate in the
construction of knowledge base and understanding of the cause questions through theory,
research, testing and evaluation and to answer the question posed. Moreover, Bereiter &
Scardamalia , 1993: Cadwell , 2002: Edwards Gandini & Forman , 1998 also states that, in
the inquiry learning approach through the project, the construction of knowledge based on the
Reggio Emilia program also allows children to continue their learning through asking
questions, discussions, field studies, research, reflect , conduct investigations , collaboration
and reflection among them. Therefore, a study conducted by researchers emphasis on inquiry
approach to help children with six years old age in increasing their cognitive level. This
approach is more focused on the basic knowledge of science and technology that encourages
curiosity of children to a higher level. It is recognized by Renate and Geoffrey Caine in his
book Making the Connection which states:
" The solution ... for teachers initiated efforts to create harmony with the walls of a hindrance
to students . When we respect their latest views and providing them with appropriate levels of
security and the opportunity to explore creatively, then we can take them beyond their
boundaries and limits. This is the nature of the challenge is made by good teachers . "
Inquiry approach is an approach that emphasizes learning through experience.
Generally, children will find the information or knowledge, to question and investigate a
phenomenon that is happening around her , especially in the classroom as well as during the
process of teaching and learning takes place. Learning through discovery occurs when the
main concepts and principles investigated and discovered by the children themselves.
Normally, children will explore through activities such as experiments, which will investigate
a phenomenon and reach our own conclusions.
1.2 Statement of The Research Problem
According to a study, conducted by Applebee et al (2003 ), involving 1400 students find
appropriate inquiry approach in schools for students with high achievement and students who
have low grades. Studies conducted in California, Florida, New York, Texas and Wisconsin
clearly showed an increase in student achievement when the inquiry approach applied in the
teaching and learning process. However, the adaptation of this approach for children in
Malaysia is still new . Application still not fully implemented at each center of early
childhood development and pre-school due to other constraints that occur in the process of
teaching and learning. A study was conducted by Richard and Kiza (2006) about teaching
using inquiry and the effect of increasing the understanding of children. They stated that the
inquiry is central to science learning. This approach involves a process of exploration towards
the question, do discovery, and investigation findings to gain a new knowledge. Their
findings show for the inquiry approach to learning, an environment with elements of the
inquiry should be included. Nevertheless, it is a challenge for teachers on how they want to
make an inquiry learning environment.
Approach and teacher-centered teaching methods solely between factors identified
cause children quickly lose focus while studying. Although various methods have been
disclosed, but there are still a large number of kindergarten teachers who use traditional
methods such as approach drills without explaining the concept enough to produce a child
who can not think critically and creatively. Teaching and learning science involves a lot of
science process skills and manipulative requires thinking and creativity (Sim Siew Ling,
2008). Learning requires greater understanding of the concepts. Teachers need to better
understand this problem.
In addition, there is a kindergarten or preschool newly established and managed by a
novice " fresh graduates ". Teachers are there who have been exposed to a variety of teaching
science and mathematics before they were absorbed into the kindergarten teacher or preschool
teacher. However, not all methods are disclosed that can be mastered and applied well in
teaching the science of early childhood. This is because teachers are still raw in the field of
teaching in terms of teaching experience. They are likely to face problems such as the
selection of appropriate teaching methods and teaching aids are not appropriate in the
teaching of science. Although teachers were exposed to the micro-teaching and practical
training, but that all is not enough to obtain teaching experience. Therefore, teachers are likely
to face problems in the application of science teaching methods, resulting in a lack of
experience ( Sim Siew Ling, 2008).
According to Zahara (1998) in his master's thesis entitled "Inquiry Teaching in
Schools in Malaysia", lists the factors that lead to poorly executed direction teaching in the
classroom. The first factor is the perception. According to him, the inquiry is easy to apply in
the subject. Teachers thought that the role of a facilitator in the inquiry findings only motivate
and lead students toward a broader exploration of knowledge as not working. The culture of
teaching and learning that are now, considered as meeting the academic disciplines.
The next factor is the learning time, which is the process of inquiry learning
sometimes requires long hours and endless. Although introduced a flexible schedule,
timetable is still not encouraged and not attract teachers to incriminate change the approach,
methods and techniques of teaching and learning . While in the pre-school, the teachers have
to teach according to the themes that have been planned . Typically , the activities planned are
based on the theme of the time. Teachers should be wise to organize learning activities
through exploration and inquiry, for example, can be carried out smoothly, orderly and
meaningful to students.
In addition, factors such as the manner in which the implementation of inquiry in the
curriculum requires a change in management attitude towards the concept of curriculum and
teacher education and learning style. This paradigm shift resulted in the refusal of education
last long and this will ultimately benefit anyone, particularly students . NPCS through 2010,
the inquiry approach, including as one of the measures that must be implemented in preschool
and this should be given by the teacher to always be alert and increase knowledge in the field
of technology to the activities carried out in class more innovative and up to date as well as
provide space for children to explore in more detail later.
Other factors include the skills, concepts and ways of application inquiry approach in
children. Given this important inquiry approach to improve the thinking skills of children and
to give birth to children who are not so dependent on the teacher , the study was conducted to
determine whether this approach can improve children's cognitive, through its applications in
the teaching of science and technology in the center of the early development of children .
1.3 Research Objectives
The purpose of the study is to examine the effectiveness of inquiry approach in improving
classroom management for children aged six years. Teaching effectiveness is measured by
how well the learning outcomes achieved through the process of teaching and learning is
planned and implemented (Shahabuddin , 2003). The main focus of this Research Project
1.3.1 To identify the cognitive level of children with aged six years about the inquiry
approach through effective classroom management.
1.3.2 To determine whether the teachers use an inquiry approach in managing multiple tasks
and situations that occur during teaching Science in the classroom every day.
1.3.3 To implement the inquiry approach to improve the understanding of Science concepts
among children aged six through the effectiveness of classroom management.
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the research objectives , a number of research questions were identified , namely :
1.4.1 What is the cognitive level of children aged six years about the inquiry approach
through effective classroom management?
1.4.2 Are teachers using an inquiry approach in managing multiple tasks and situations that
occur during teaching Science in the classroom every day?
1.4.3 How the inquiry approach can be implement to improve the understanding of Science
concepts among children six years old through the effectiveness of classroom management?
1.5 Operational Definitions
Some terms used in this study to define that is easily understood by the reader. Some of the
terms used in this study are as follows :
According Student Dictionary Second Edition, effectiveness or thing means the effective
( not the action , regulations, etc. ). Effectiveness is a derivative of the root word of
" impact ". In general, effectiveness the extent to which stated objectives are met which is
what it intended to achieve. The goal can be as broad or as narrow as is deemed appropriate
— a continuum exists, ranging from achieving very specific outputs to very general
Approach is the way a subject is taught based on the objective (Edward M. Anthony ,
1963). It is a large frame contains the strategies, methods and techniques ( Institute of
Teacher Education , Ministry of Education in June 2011 ) . This means that approach refers to
the way teachers teach their subject matter in order to manage long-term objectives that can
(Source : WordPress 2010 Weaver by Wpweaver.info )
Philip (2004 ) states : " If we ask 10 different educators to define " inquiry ", we would get
eleven different definitions of it ― . Carin and Sund ( 1971) defines inquiry as indirect learning
that involves exploration and discovery related to the process of obtaining information. It is
based on questioning and problem solving in teaching and learning activities. In short
statement, inquiry is the concept of learning refers to the active learning.
According to Mok Soon Sang (2009), the term cognitive refers to mental activities such as
thinking, reasoning, form concepts and solve problems. In other words, psychologists state
that cognitive is ‗the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired.‘ Cognitive
psychologists study internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and
thinking (Neisser, U (1967)) .
Generally, cognitive focuses on the way humans process information, looking at how
we treat information that comes in to the person (what behaviorists would call stimuli), and
how this treatment leads to responses. In other words, they are interested in the variables that
mediate between stimulus/input and response/output.
The word "child" is a derivative of the word "children". Child can be defined as a person
under the age of 18 years ( Children Act 2001 ). The legal definition of child generally refers
to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. Biologically, a
child is generally anyone between birth and puberty or in the developmental stage of
childhood, between infancy and adulthood. In other word, child is generally a human
between the stages of birth and puberty.
Child may also describe a relationship with a parent (such as sons and daughters of
any age) or, metaphorically, an authority figure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe,
or religion; it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time, place, or
circumstance, as in "a child of nature" or "a child of the Sixties".
1.5.6 Classroom Management
According to the http://educators.about.com written by Melissa Kelly (2013), classroom
management is the term educators use to describe methods of preventing misbehaviour and
dealing with it if it arises. Classroom management refers to the wide variety of skills and
techniques that teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on task,
and academically productive during a class (Great School Partnership, 2013).
In other words, it is the techniques teachers use to maintain control in the classroom.
Classroom management is one of the most feared parts of teaching for new teachers. For the
students, lack of effective classroom management can mean that learning is reduced in the
classroom. For the teacher, it can cause unhappiness and stress and eventually lead to
individuals leaving the teaching profession.
Preschool is derived from the pre-school English, is an education for the children before they
enter school . Preschool is part of the education system in Malaysia that allows children aged
four to six years of entering school early, especially children from low-income group
(Ministry of Education).
Basically, a preschool is an educational establishment offering early childhood
education to children between the ages of three and five, or seven, prior to the commencement
of compulsory education at primary school. They may be privately operated or government-
run, and the costs may be subsidized.
1.6 Limitation of The Study
The data obtained from the study subjects was limited and not suitable for generalization to all
conditions of education system in Malaysia. This study is only suitable as a guide for similar
cases. Finally, the long time required to carry out the study considered running out to
researchers find answers to the research questions.
1.7 Significant of The Study
Inquiry -based learning approach is not new. Teaching science as inquiry findings make a fun
lesson because the children themselves are actively involved in the investigation and search
for information. Therefore, the Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education
(MOE ) in 2001, choosing inquiry approach as the primary approach in the science curriculum
of primary and secondary schools in Malaysia.
However, this strategy requires skills and their ability to cope. The teacher is no longer
the informant but rather a facilitator of learning, question asker , prescriber of appropriate
activities, stimulators of curiosity, challenger idea of children and referral sources ( resources
person). Learning science inquiry finds that teacher‘s need who are able to plan a systematic
and focused questions. Teachers should be seen as a person who acts as a question asker and
problem solver, but one that acts as a stimulant of ideas, testing ideas and construction
concepts using questions as a mechanism to achieve that goal.
Teaching using an inquiry approach can improve the performance of children and
bridge the gap between children of low achievement and high expectations of children. Kahle,
Meece and Scantleburye (2000), conducted a study and found that teachers who use inquiry
approach to teach and learning has improved student achievement scores for African-
Americans, bridging the gap in achievement between boys and girls and that they were more
shows interest in the teaching and learning process. It also can be applied in Malaysia that has
a multi-racial society will be better able to create a harmonious learning environment inquiry
to enhance academic achievement through the exchange of new ideas from students of all
races, particularly in the national pre-school .
Inquiry approach is the approach that is actively engaged in scientific thinking, inquiry
and knowledge building. Fatimah Hishamuddin (2000) said that, teachers believe through
inquiry, children can develop their scientific attitude. In addition, this approach also allows
children to master science concepts effectively (Thangevola et al , 1990) .
Suchmann ( 1996) introduced the Development Inquiry that allows children to test
their own theories and self - aware learning process takes place. In this way, children can
cultivate curiosity, build confidence and have a strong scientific concepts. According to
Schwab (1966), the nature of science is a process of inquiry that seeks to find the cause and
reason. Inquiry approach can help children improve their own understanding of how to plan
their own learning.
Inquiry discovery approach is one of the approaches listed in the National Standard
Curriculum for Preschool (2010). Thus, researchers began to look at aspects of defining and
overall information related inquiry discovery approach in improving the cognitive level of
children aged six years. Inquiry approach is a new and fresh alternative to the practice by
teachers in early childhood . It is one of the potential approaches and provide opportunities for
children to explore new knowledge to be learned by way of attempting to resolve the issues or
concerns related. Many past studies indicate inquiry approach to improve performance and
enhance the ability to provide arguments among students ( Ivins , 1986 ; McComas , 1992).
Thus, in making this approach more effective, teachers must undertake more exploration,
questioning and applications to ensure that learning becomes more meaningful.
In this chapter, researchers have examined some reading resources that includes several key
components in this writing. These components are discussed by researchers as Inquiry
Approach Concept, Definition of Inquiry, the Purpose of Inquiry Approach, Type and Level
of Inquiry, Characteristics of Inquiry Discovery Approach, Learning Theory, History of
Inquiry Approach and knowledge level of the child on the inquiry findings.
2.2 The Concept of Inquiry Approach
Inquiry is the process of rational thinking and surprises (enjoyfull) in discussions about
science (Ting, 2001). In a scientific perspective, the concept of an inquiry approach is the
process of learning that involves research to be done by a student or a child. Through a
pedagogical perspective, the concept of an inquiry learning refers to the constructivist model
and active learning.
According to Meyer (2005), the National Science Education Standards also state of inquiry in
science. The statement from the National Science Education Standards are as follows :
Students at all grade levels and every domain of science should have the opportunity to use
scientific inquiry and develop the ability to think and act in ways associated with inquiry,
keep asking questions, planning and conducting investigations, using appropriate tools and
techniques to gather data, thinking critically and logically about relationships between
evidence and explanations, constructing and analyzing alternative explanations and
communicating scientific arguments.
Based on the statement of the National Science Education Standards students have
given the opportunity to develop the skills to think and act with using inquiry. Inquiry
approach involves the asking of questions, plan and conduct experiments using appropriate
tools and techniques to collect data.
2.2.2 Purpose of Inquiry Approach
Based on Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996), learning science
through inquiry refers to activities performed by the students in build their knowledge and
understanding scientific ideas such methods, that have been done by scientists who make
research in this nature .
According to Collins, A. & Stevens , A.L. (1983), the purpose of the inquiry discovery
approach is to allow children or students looking for experience through their own
exploration. Inquiry is an active process of discovery involved in scientific thinking, inquiry
and knowledge building, Collins (1983) . Teaching using inquiry can encourage children to
learn many thing, or something and learn in more depth, (Stevens, 1983).
2.2.3 Type and Level of Inquiry
Review inquiry is not limited to any level or stage of inquiry as described by Herron ( 1971).
According to Herron (1971), inquiry learning can be divided into four different levels
(Table 1). Levels are depend on how much of a role that is given to children in their learning
process. The many roles given by the children in their learning activities, the higher level of
inquiry - based learning and vice versa. Each inquiry approach below, of course, has its own
advantages and drawbacks. Inquiry approach to be used should be tailored to the scope and
level of thinking involved by children.
Table 2.1 : Four Level of Learning Inquiry (Herron, 1971)
Level Type Of Inquiry Explanation
( Confirmation )
Children validate certain principles based
on the activities described by the teacher
and the results of an investigation have
been known in advance.
1 Structured Inquiry Children do research on the question and
the steps that have been determined by
2 Guided Inquiry Children do research on the questions
provided by the teacher and the selection
of exploratory steps defined by the child.
3 Open Inquiry Children do research on the questions
and steps built and defined by them
based on specific topics.
(Source : Irfan Naufal Umar , and Sajap Maswan in a paper entitled Application of Inquiry
Approach in a Web-based Learning Environment, 2004)
2.2.4 Characteristics of Inquiry Discovery Approach
The National Science Teachers Association of United States find the characteristics of inquiry
approach as :
a. Questioning and formulating problems solving.
b. Reflecting on, and constructing knowledge from data.
c. Collaborating and exchanging information while seeking solutions.
d. Developing concepts and relationships from empirical data.
2.3 Learning Theory
Tajularipin Solomon & Maria Chong Abdullah, (2004) in his book titled "Creative
Approaches in Learning Science" state that learning theory can be divided into two major
section or group and denominations cognitive behaviorism. Humanist approach was a
learning theory that exist after behaviorism and cognitive approaches. The approach covers
the latest learning which are cooperative learning and constructivism learning. Indeed, all of
the theories and approaches learning has given an invaluable contribution in the field of
education as well as help to provide an effective teaching and learning for students.
2.3.1 Cognitive Development Theory
According to Mok Soon Sang (2008), cognitive learning theory focuses on the cognitive
processes in learning approach advocated. Members of cognitive focus on the internal
processes that occur in the human mind. They focus on processes such as problem solving,
insight, perception, expectations, and creativity in describing the learning process.
There are four approaches that belong to the section of cognitive such as social
cognitive learning, information processing, cognitive constructivism and social constructivism
(Santrock, 2004). Among the important learning theories in cognitive section is Cognitive
Theory (Piaget) , Cultural Context Theory (Vygotsky) , Cognitive Theory, the Theory of
Bloom's Taxonomy and Information Processing Theory by Gagne.
Further discussion will allow us to see the impact and the extent to which these
theories can answer the following questions (a) the knowledge base (what kind of knowledge
from the child), (b) learning and knowledge development through inquiry approach (how
children acquire knowledge and how knowledge is growing), (c) educational applications
(how theory can be applied through the inquiry approach).
22.214.171.124 Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Theory
Piaget's cognitive theory has dominated the field of psychology and education in the 1960 's
and early 1970 's. His theory gave a lot of impact on the discussion in the inquiry approach
through the process of teaching and learning in schools. Piaget study, focused on a number of
important processes, the construction of the scheme or schematic, assimilation and
Piaget uses three words when referring to the children's knowledge: scheme or
schematic, concepts and structures. Schematic of an action or process either mentally or
physically used to achieve an objective or solve a problem. The scheme is a characteristic,
that actions are used to achieve the objectives and situation. Scheme can be moved and made
Piaget also studying children's learning about the concept and found that the
conception of a child to be built gradually and take a long time. Moreover, the concept of
"real" that appears only true concept stage children over adults, teens and adults. Piaget saw
concepts (time, space, number, cause and effect, classification and seriation) and mental
relationship through exploration and investigation of the child after the lesson progresses.
Other schemes and concepts, Piaget also used the word " structure " to describe knowledge.
The structure of this knowledge is something that has the settings and content as well as the
restructuring of certain ideas (Piaget , 1970).
In essence, the Piaget‘s cognitive theory saw the child as an active student,
improvement of cognitive development of children is through the process of assimilation and
accommodation . The increase of cognitive development is influenced by the interaction of
children and the environment in the exploration and discovery of ideas actively . Process
maturity mental systems biology and cognitive developmental level of the child is in the order
of the sensory motor stage, pre - operational, concrete operational stage and formal
However, many researchers argue that the theory of the cognitive level is too tight.
They argue that there are also children who are at a lower level are able to develop cognitive
to a higher level. However, Piaget's theory remains a powerful influence on the minds of
children through inquiry approach. Piaget pointed out that the level of difficulty of the
planned activities should not be above or below the level of the child's ability.
Piaget's theory has implications for learning and teaching through inquiry approach
through the following aspects :
a. Planned learning activities based on the level of mental development and maturity
of biological systems that do not exceed the limits of the ability of children in data
processing and problem solving.
b. Planned learning activities based on historical experiences of children. Even, new
ideas ( precusory ideas ) should be provided to serve as a knowledge base for further
c. Children need to use schema or skemata and always practice through questioning to
ensure that the construction and the structure of knowledge been used. If teachers
want students to master a skill, the question should be presented with more training
or investigation should be conducted, so that is consistent with the idea of learning
"hands-on " .
In summary, according to Piaget, children construct knowledge through their
experience with concrete objects and continuous exploration by the level of cognitive ability
in four different stages. The learning process is active and the children learn by doing
126.96.36.199 Lev Vygotsky’s Theory
Lev Vygotsky (1962) considers the cognitive development of children occurs in a social
context. He refers to two entities knowledge of concepts / categories and functions. However,
Vygotsky (1962) found that children do not understand the true concept / notion of science up
to the early teens.
Apart from the concept, he also discusses the five cognitive functions, language,
thought, perspective, attention and memory. According to Vygotsky, the integration of the
five cognitive function will lead to better performance on cognitive tasks and problem
solving. Vygotsky and his followers say that children acquire knowledge during problem
solving using symbols, such conversations through interactions with their peers.
Moreover, Vygotsky (1962) construct the notion of "Zone of proximal Development"
(ZOPD) which shows a gap between the actual development level of the child and the level of
development that may be achieved by a child if there use a teacher or adult guidance
(scaffolding). Even so, children do not imitate the behaviour of a teacher or an adult directly
as Piaget's view, imitative behavior requires a qualitative transformation and requires a level
of current developments as scaffolding or foundation for growth (Vygotsky, 1978). Thus,
Vygotsky's theory has implications for teaching and learning through inquiry approach as
a. Teachers as scaffolds to provide adequate guidance during the exploration that
carried out. This is because the child can do it alone and find solutions arise. For
example, the teacher will provide guidance and tips in solving problems, but
instead of showing each step of solving the problem.
b. Teaching must always precede the current level of cognitive development. This
means that teachers should use an inquiry approach to teach children in the
environment (ZOPD). If the materials used is lower than the level ZOPD, nothing
will happen, but if it is too high, then confusion and boredom in learning will
c. To ensure that the children internalized the knowledge, the educational process is
carried out in four phases, namely
i . The first phase of teacher who wants to show the skills taught to give a
ii . Phase two : Children try to imitate the skill shown in creative and original
with a verbal explanation was given.
iii . Phase three : Children master the knowledge or skills and find solutions
without the presence of teachers.
iv . The fourth phase (final) : Children will act as teachers and peer group
learning specific skills by taking turns. This teaching method known as
Overall, Vygotsky's theory focuses on the socio-cultural learning. Social interaction is
an essential to improve children's cognitive, while teachers and more competent peers act as
scaffolds in learning - based inquiry approach undertaken by the children themselves.
188.8.131.52 Bloom’s Taxonomy Theory
According to Bloom (1956), the cognitive domain consists of six levels according to Bloom's
Cognitive Taxonomy : knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and finally
evaluation. Cognitive outcome also means the acquisition of knowledge. It is also related to
empirical terms, a procurement process based on experience (especially those obtained
through discovery, trial and observational). Thus, this theory has implications for teaching and
learning through inquiry approach based on the following stages :
Table 2.2 : The Six Stages of Cognitive Bloom's Taxonomy ( Bloom , 1956 )
Knowledge Knowledge is the most basic level of this taxonomy. Knowledge means to
recall everything that has been learned, the recall of facts, data , theory, and
so on. Children acquire knowledge by means of recall, naming, organizing,
reviewing and identifying.
Comprehension At this point, the children were able to understand what you have learned
and remembered. For example, he has to understand the concept of
numbers, colour and space. Commission of such children describe, discuss,
vote, report, and present them to develop a hypothesis of an inquiry carried
out early during the investigation.
Use At this level, children can not only remember and understand what they
have learned, but have been able to use that knowledge. They can use that
knowledge to a new situation in a real situation. Learned was no longer a
mere theory but it can be done. At this stage, children can interpret,
demonstrate, operate, troubleshoot, provide and so on .
Analysis At this point, not all children are able to describe or analyze something to
the parts. This level is the level of intellectual ability is quite high when
compared to the ability to understand and applications. Treatment at this
stage is to assess, discriminate, test, compare, and criticize. This stage
requires children to get the help of a teacher or an adult to assess the
information that has been discovered.
Synthesis Synthesis means the ability or the ability of someone to build something
from small parts to be something big and new. Acts such as managing,
propose, create, compose and design the show abilities at level synthesis.
Children can build their creativity while at this point. This level will test the
effectiveness of the exploration / investigation performed by the children.
Evaluation This level is the highest level of Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive. At this
stage, a child could have been evaluating based on certain criteria. Between
treatments at the evaluation stage is like arguing, estimating, selecting and
interpreting. This level has yet to be mastered by children of pre-school age
(Source : Abd . Ghafar Md . Din , 2003 )
Overall, Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Theory focuses on the stages of cognitive
development in the child's ability in understanding the current inquiry approach to teach and
learning take place. Not all children are able to achieve the highest level of evaluation, and it
is possible there are also children who have yet to grasp the concept of the knowledge level.
Thus teachers play from the beginning to guide the children to be able to do their own
184.108.40.206 Information Processing Theory
This theory examines how information obtained from the environment and stored in long term
memory. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) introduced the most influential model which is a
model of processing and storage of information. In this model, the human memory is divided
into three stores (stores). Information, for example stimulation from the environment will be
delivered to the store sensory (sensory store), then the short-term store (short -term store) and
finally to long-term store (long-term store).
Based on this theory, when the stimulus received by the senses (sensory register) , the
stimulus will be received by the sensory store as an icon. This icon only exists for a while
besides the attention had been given before. Information received will first be encoded into
the receiver senses and perception of information received will determine what needs to be
stored in short-term memory that can be used later.
The information stored in short-term memory expire and lose if it is not activated
often. On the other hand, if the information stored in the short term is always activated by a
process of exploration and maintenance training (maintainance rehersal) or memory is
transferred to long-term by linking it with other information in short-term memory, this
knowledge will be retained throughout life as long-term memory.
Learning the theory of information processing through an inquiry approach focuses
more attention is given to how the information in the child's environment and the way they
transfer the new information from short term memory into long term memory . Based on this
theory, there are implications for teaching and learning through inquiry approach in the
a. Teachers have to recognize that children have limitations in information
processing. Therefore, teachers can distribute information or knowledge divide the
complex into segments that are simpler to process memory more easily addressed.
Children will more easily understand the concepts and build curiosity in them.
b. Adequate time should be given to the children to learn the information. Children
should be given the opportunity to ask as many questions and find solutions to the
c. Learning a lot of exposure and practical activities. The experiment is a major
activity of children in developing cognitive knowledge remain in their long - term
Overall, the transfer of information from short-term memory until it stays in long-term
memory requires effective teaching approaches by teachers for children aged six years. They
need to be taught the concept of right and facts to enable them to keep the knowledge
acquired throughout their life.
2.3.2 Constructivism Theory
Constructivism is a teaching based on research about how people learn (McBrien and Brant,
1997). During the learning process, each child will build their own knowledge actively where
children not only passively receive knowledge from others. Children build knowledge and
actively concept based on existing knowledge and experience. Through the inquiry approach ,
children will always communicate and explore the material to obtain the data or information
that allows them to learn from a variety of perspectives.
Constructivist theory focuses on student behaviour (hands-on) as well as emphasizing
mental activity (Minds on) students. Therefore, the main activities, experiments and science
of early childhood must diverge and emphasize hands-on and minds activities on children.
Such activities are applying constructivist theory allows children to have their own ideas
about the occurrence of a phenomenon before going through the process of teaching and
learning. Children will build their own reality or perception of reality interpret their
experiences (Good and Brophy, 1990) .
To integrate the theory of Constructivitism, George Bodner (1986) suggest that
knowledge can not simply be delivered by teachers to students, but students need to develop
knowledge of new information and experience of their existing knowledge Sanger (1996).
Students should use their existing knowledge, knowledge is assimilated. However, if new
information is different, the information will need to be modified to be accommodated by the
Learning through inquiry provide children with problem solving skills. Children will
be exposed to learning that involves a process of exploring the natural life and will encourage
questioning, investigation and conduct experiments to obtain new knowledge. Learning
provides an effective situation for students (Onyancha, Armour and Endrizzi, 2006) . Some of
the impact of constructivist theory - based inquiry approach is as follows :
a. Planned activities based on constructivist theory involves a lot of intellectual work
requires problem solving and is suitable for generating highly motivated
generation and have a high level of thinking (She, 2005). When giving
assignments, many teachers use cognitive terminology such as "classification" ,
"analysis", "predict" and "innovating" . This is because the children are more
willing to use methods of investigation (inquiry method) in solving tasks.
b. Teachers encourage the initiative and accept the autonomy of children in their
learning. Children have the power to change the strategy of learning and teaching
c . Teachers use the raw data and the natural resources and the physical tools of
manipulation and interaction in teaching and encouraging children questions that
are open and critical. The interaction between the child and the teacher, the child
with the child, are strongly encouraged to exchange ideas and discover new
2.4 Dreikur’s Principal Teaching (Classroom Management Theory)
According to Dreikur, discipline at its best is defined as self-control, based on social interest.
Self-controlled students are able to show initiative, make reasonable decisions, and assume
responsibility in ways that benefit both themselves and others. While social interest refers to
student‘s efforts to make the classroom comfortable and productive, based on understanding
that such classrooms better meet their personal needs. Basically, good discipline occurs best
in a democratic classroom. A democratic classroom is one in which teacher and students work
together to make decisions about how the class will function. Good discipline cannot occur in
autocratic or permissive classrooms.
In autocratic classrooms, the teacher makes all decisions and imposes them on
students, leaving no opportunity for student initiative and responsibility. In permissive
classrooms, the teacher fails to require that students comply with rules, conduct themselves
humanely, or endure consequences for their misbehavior. Almost all students have a
compelling desire to feel they are a valued member of the class, that they belong. Students
sense belonging when the teacher and others give them attention and respect, involve them in
activities, and do not mistreat them.
When students are unable to gain a sense of belonging in the class, they often turn to
the mistaken goals of attention, power, revenge, and inadequacy. When seeking attention,
students talk out, show off, interrupt others, and demand teacher attention. When seeking
power, they drag their heels, make comments under their breath, and sometimes try to show
that the teacher can't make them do anything. When seeking revenge, they try to get back at
the teacher and other students, by lying, subverting class activities, and maliciously disrupting
the class. When seeking to display inadequacy, they withdraw from class activities and make
no effort to learn.
Teachers should learn how to identify mistaken goals and deal with them. When
teachers see evidence that students are pursuing mistaken goals, they should point out the fact
by identifying the mistaken goal and discussing the faulty logic involved. They should do this
in a friendly, non-threatening manner. Teachers should learn how to identify mistaken goals
and deal with them. When teachers see evidence that students are pursuing mistaken goals,
they should point out the fact by identifying the mistaken goal and discussing the faulty logic
involved. They should do this in a friendly, non-threatening manner.
Rules for governing class behavior should be formulated jointly by teacher and
students. Tied to those rules should be the logical consequences of compliance or violation. It
is the teacher's responsibility to see that stipulated consequences are invoked. Good behavior
(following the rules) brings pleasant consequences such as enjoyment of learning and
associating positively with others. Misbehavior brings unpleasant consequences such as
having to complete work at home or being excluded from normal class activities.
Punishment should never be used in the classroom. Punishment is just a way for
teachers to get back at students and show them who's boss, and is usually humiliating to the
student. Punishment has many bad side effects and therefore should be supplanted with
logical consequences agreed to by the class.
2.5 Summary of Survey about Theory
Based on all of the cognitive learning theory and classroom mangement theory that have been
discussed, there are many similarities in the perception of different theoretical approaches in
terms of inquiry in the early stages of children. For example, Piaget and Vygotsky states that
children build new knowledge through interaction with the environment and peers.
Informational processing theory and Piaget will highlight skemata construction and process of
relating new concepts with old knowledge in the acquisition of new knowledge. Both of these
theories emphasize a child's learning is effectively a "hands on" and in exploration. The
emphasis on active learning and the use of the senses to the maximum given in children's
cognitive learning through inquiry approach.
Smith - Gratto, (2000) states that any theory of learning has its own advantages and
disadvantages, the combination of all of these theories will provide us with new approaches
and a more comprehensive strategy. This view has also been expressed by Reynolds (1994),
which integrates an understanding of Piaget and Vygotsky to see children's cognitive learning
through interaction with the environment and social development. Furthermore, Smith -
Gratto, (2000) also showed that the combination of the "Programme Instruction" presented by
Skinner (1968) and constructivism allows us to see the children's learning based inquiry
approach from a different angle. "Instruction Programme" more focused on learning the basic
construction and constructivism improve problem - solving abilities in the learning process
through the approach used.
2.6 Previous Studies Review
In review of previous studies, researchers have obtained information about the history of
inquiry approach put forward by researchers in the field of science and education, including
the study at home and abroad.
2.6.1 Historical of Inquiry Approach
Science Curriculum (K - 12) stressed the investigation was suggested by Jown Dewey in 1910
in New York. John Dewey was a science teacher and considered indivdual emphasize the fact
that the science of testing the strength of a person's mind (Lloyd H. Barrow, 2006). According
to Lloyd (2006), John Dewey encourages educators in science investigations using the inquiry
as a teaching strategy. This is because the scientific method is rigid and has six steps in the
concept of K - 12 science curriculum that emphasized the use of sensory adaptation situations,
problem solving, develop, test and revise hypotheses through the test done and act to resolve
However in 1944, K - 12 modified by new scientific methods to achieve the goal of
reflective thinking through discussion of problems, formation of hypothesis, experiment and
collect data during the formulation of conclusions. According to Dewey, problem of studies
must be related to the student experience and still in their intellectual ability to make students
active in seeking answers to the solution of the problems raised, according to Lloyd (2006).
According to the National Science Teachers Association Southwest Regional
Conference in Tucson, Arizona (1965), inquiry approach is an approach to get feedback and it
is through a change of behaviour and thinking of students. This means that the inquiry
approach requires exploration and acquisition of information through teachers and students,
and students with the studied materials.
Based on a study conducted by Ben Strasser (2007) on teacher's self-assessment of
their teaching, there are two main aspects to be considered. First, aspects of the student's own
needs which is what will be received by students when they use these findings inquiry
approach? The second aspect is that students need to be aware and prepared for any behaviour
as well as data acquisition made and are willing to take a risk on him. This suggests, this
inquiry approach can be a dynamic process of teaching done. The teacher's role is as an
observer and make diagnostic studies based on the ability of students, the situation and the
teaching and learning objectives to be achieved.
Researcher Ben Strasser (2007) also have suggested in the evaluation of the perform, a
way for teachers to begin self - assessment conducted inquiry approach, by giving full
attention, especially during the currency question and answer session with the children of
teachers. How to design the questions, so feedback from the teacher that will be accepted by
the children through their exploration results. Usually, children are still in the kindergarten
and preschool often ask questions that range and test their thinking processes, through their
observations and feedback received by the teacher or an adult on their answers.
Ben Strasser (2007) also noted the inquiry approach in teaching science will never
end. When a child begins to understand his behaviour and what he thinks, then increasing the
goals and how they solve problems through their research. The process of questioning a
dynamic and interactive approach will make inquiry as an approach that can not be separated
in the process of teaching the science of early childhood.
2.7 Level of Knowledge of Children Aged Six Years Against Inquiry Finds
Researchers have examined the matters to be discussed in identifying the level of knowledge
of children aged six years of inquiry approach includes descriptions of science and science
inquiry and learning through this approach.
2.7.1 Science and Inquiry Finding
Science is knowledge gained through structured and active, dynamic and explorative through
inductive activity (Carin, 1997). In the implementation of science lessons, children as young
as six years in the early stages of pre - school to develop the skills required in the process of
science, inductive thinking, scientific attitudes, skills using tools and materials and skills in
communicating all of which are integrated in the construction of knowledge through
reflection (Rustaman, 2003). Most of the knowledge obtained from a child as young as this,
will be stored longer and easily applied in accordance with their cognitive ability (Tobin,
1995). When children begin to engage in the activity by itself it will encourage the
development of their thinking at a higher level (Costa , 1985).
According to the National Science Education Standards (The National Research
Council / NRC, 1996), teachers need to apply their knowledge in the teaching of science
through research and inquiry. Although the inquiry learning has different levels, teachers need
to guide, direct, a facilitator and drive the children to learn (NRC, 1996). Beyer (1971) states
that learning involves the processes, outcomes and knowledge (content knowledge ) and the
context (context, values, affective) is through the inquiry. According to Trowbridge et al
(1981), a close relationship can be forged through the questions, and then served about
demonstrations, experiments and discussions.
Based on the studies mentioned above, clearly show that learning science provide
many benefits to children as young as six years in developing their cognitive ability or
thinking through an inquiry approach. Inquiry approach is only suitable to be implemented
through assignments, practical activities or activities. Various methods can also be used as
lecture, discussion, experimentation and research and role - play method to solve the problem
in the form of tasks such as (1) drawing, (2) retail (3) express themselves with words , (4)
composing (5) simulation and (6) trial (Nuryani, 2005).
2.7.2 Learning Science Through Inquiry Approach
Based on the findings of the reviewed models in the Models of Teaching (Joyce , et al. 2000),
the inquiry model of teaching is one of the cognitive model is taught through science learning
in schools. The role of inquiry in science education has been expressed by Rutherford in :
" ... The Emphasis has been on viewing scientific inquiry as part of the content of
science , LTD "
Teachers need to plan the program for learning science inquiry approach as this has
long been emphasized by educational experts specifically science education (NRC, 1996:
Roth , 1996: Rutherford & Ahlgreen , 1990, Kaplan , 1963).
According to the National Science Education Standards (NRC , 1996), instructional
planning can be done by way of inquiry ;
a. Providing long - term framework and purpose for children.
b. Selecting the contents of the teaching of science, adapting and designing curricula
that meet the interests, knowledge, understanding, skills and experience of
c. Choosing strategies or teaching methods that develop their understanding of
children and their impact on learning through science.
d. Working in discipline in the classroom.
In this case, the inquiry into authentic questions that are given through the experience of
children and made the key strategies in the teaching of science, ( Nuryani, 2005).
In the inquiry approach in teaching science, Fish & Goldmark in (Romey, 1968)
introduced three interpretations of the method of self - directed inquiry, inquiry into science
teaching and teaching science as method selection. Inquiry approach requires the ability of
children to ask questions, pick a tool or method, and achieve the desired results as
Learning in preschool or kindergarten can be done by incorporating inquiry approach
problem - solving activities. According to Yager (1991). the learning of science, the theory of
constructivism that is commonly used by the characteristics of the focus on learning and
specific problem. The problems related to the curriculum developed is occurring, prompting
the development of inquiry skills of children, Education oriented philosophy, science learning
activities and the relationship between Science, Mathematics, Technology and society.
In the inquiry approach, learning is done in small groups, in order to build knowledge,
thinking skills, attitude and communication skills. Features found in the inquiry approach is
more geared to the questioning of children and teachers, and ending with an uncertainty
(NSTA & AETS, 1998). According to (Trowbridge & Bybee , 1990), there are three different
levels of inquiry in accordance with levels of difficulty. In the first stage, is discovery learning
(discovery inquiry), the second is a guided inquiry (guided inquiry) and the last stage of the
inquiry is open or free (open inquiry).
In discovery learning, children are taught to search concepts through activities that
involve query, inference, prediction, communication, interpretation and inference. In guided
inquiry learning, the problem is given by counselors or teachers themselves. While in the
open or free inquiry learning, the problems identified from the children, with the help and
direction from the teacher to the children discover what is asked and ended with questions or
new problems that need to be extended to subsequent learning. The similarities between the
three levels is the three of them involve science process skills and the ability of children to do
According Hebrank (2000), inquiry is the art of asking about the problems in the
environment and find an answer to every question. This is to expand the knowledge and
understanding of scientific ideas in the learning problems of the environment. Inquiry requires
identification to think logically and critically and to consider alternative explanations (NRC,
The process of learning is an active process that involves the mind and heart to build the
knowledge, skills or behaviour. Inquiry approach based on the theory that has been discussed
clearly indicating the relationship between the acquisition of information, the adaptation of
children with the environment during exploration activities conducted. This is a bit much to
foster the ability to think creatively and be nourished student's thinking skills.
Creative thinking ability is competence to use the mind to explore the many
possibilities, creating something new, original, unusual and unique whether it is concrete,
abstract, idea or concept. It also involves the expansion of an existing idea in more detail
(Som and Dahlan, 1998). In creative learning through inquiry approach, children will be able
to produce a wide range of ideas put forward ideas though sometimes a bit less logical. This is
in line with the opinion of Prof . Ungku Aziz " If everyone thought the same way, no one's
This chapter describes in detail the steps taken in the course of this study which are the
content of the study, scope of study and lesson plans that have been designed by the teacher
for teaching science in Dzul Iman Kindergarten. The researcher also noted how the collection
of data through observation of the activities will carry out, recording interviews with
respondents, preparing the cognitive checklist of children aged six and case study for four
children with six years old.
3.2 Resource Study
Researchers have examine the literatures of interest. There are two main sources identify by
the researcher which are the primary source and the secondary sources. Primary source are
first or natural resource, which have not been assessed, processed and printed. For example,
papers, artifacts or oral evidence. Meanwhile, secondary sources, or known as the second
source is the material that have been studied, by reading or written material. For example,
books, encyclopedias, newspapers, etc.
(Source: History Form 1 - 2009 ) .
3.2.1 Primary Source
The primary source for this research is Mr. Ahmad Fauzi HA Rahman, who are highly
experienced in the field of Science and Mathematics. He received initial approval in the B. Sc
(Hons), Physics & Mathematics, Dip. Edu. (UKM), M. Ed . (UCLA) , Exc . Cert . in Strategic
Leadership (Templeton College, Oxford) , and experienced being Science teacher for three
years, before becoming a lecturer for the Science of Early Childhood at the University of
3.2.2 Secondary Sources
The secondary sources that researcher use in the research are from resource books,
educational journals, articles, theses and dissertations and through websites. Most of the
books are used more focus on teaching the inquiry, which is applied in education in the West,
Early Science Education of children in pre - schools in Malaysia and the syllabus of the
National Pre - School Curriculum Standards (NPCS ) 2010, which is used as the main
3.3 Scope of The Study
The researcher conduct this study for children six years old at Dzul Iman Kindergarten,
Menara Telekom Malaysia (TM), Kuala Lumpur. The study period is for one month,
including social visits a week before start the research by recording the interview and teaching
Science for children. The case study is conduct in qualitative approach regarding inquiry
approach in teaching and learning process for Science subject in class six years old. Children
are expose to Science activities, once a week every Wednesday, while teacher using the
inquiry approach during the teaching process.
This study focuses on aspects of the ongoing inquiry approach in the classroom during
the teaching and learning of Science. It focuses on understanding the scientific concept of
early childhood as well as the ability of children to ask questions, engage in small groups and
try to solve the problems. Moreover, to keep abreast of cognitive among children, skills and
abilities to solve individual problems will be emphasized by applying an inquiry approach to
Science activities in the classroom.
3.4 Research Design
In this research, researcher try to obtain adequate information, and make observations by
providing checklist of Science subject for children with aged six in Dzul Iman Kindergarten.
Researcher use qualitative research for this study. A checklist is use to obtain information
about the ability, general knowledge and cognitive achievements of children aged six of
teaching Science concepts that obtain before the study is done.
In addition, the interview method (orally) perform on a respondent of six years old
classroom teacher, Mrs. Hasmawati binti Abdul Hamid. The interview is conduct to obtain
detailed information about the background of kindergarten, child population, the background
of the children studied, child gender, and achievement as well as their involvement in the
The researcher also use the video to record the teaching and learning process. The
video lasts for about 5 to 20 minutes per session, including the initial set up to the induction
of strengthening exercises conducted by the teacher in the classroom. The process of teaching
will record for three times, on every Wednesday, for the whole month. All data will collect in
records and will translate into verse (in writing) for each teaching session. This is to enable
the researcher to make generalizations about cognitive achievement in the subjects of the
The researcher also sought Lesson Plans of Science Subjects (Little Scientist Lesson
Plan) for class six years. This lesson plan covers all scientific activities that will carry out
every year for children in class six years at Dzul Iman Kindergarten.
3.5 Place of Research
Researcher start to obtain a bit of information about the inquiry approach for children aged six
years, by interview Mr HA Rahman Ahmad Fauzi Faculty of Education, University of
Malaya. Next, the researchers will conduct a study on " Effectiveness of Inquiry Approach for
Enhancing Cognitive Discovery Children Aged Six Years fully in class six, Dzul Iman
Kindergarten (Smart Caliph), Menara Telekom Malaysia (TM), Kg Kerinchi, Kuala Lumpur.
Kindergarten has been operating since 1995. Dzul Iman Kindergarten Program focuses on
teaching Islamic and comprehensive cover for the development of early childhood and
learning methods through the Prophet Muhammad SWT. Some of the subjects that have been
teach at Dzul Iman Kindergarten are Malay language, English, Science, Mathematics,
Creative Arts, Qiraati Fardhu Ain, Arabic and Amma Al -Quran and Hadith .
In the Dzul Iman Kindergarten, Kuala Lumpur, the total number of children aged four to six
years old is 70 children. 19 children are aged four years and 25 children are aged five years.
However, children with six years old consist 26 children. 26 children consist of 14 boys and
12 girls. All of them were Muslims, and children of TM 's own staff .
The sample for this study include a kindergarten teacher (female ) and four children aged six
years in Dzul Iman Kindergarten (Smart Caliph ), Kuala Lumpur. The teacher‘s name is Mrs.
Hasmawati Binti Abdul Hamid is the class teacher for six years in this kindergarten. She is 33
years old. She received her bachelor's degree at Universiti Sains Malaysia in the field of
Humanities. She also attended the Smart Reader program in Bangi, Selangor from 2005 to
2007. Her experience as a teacher and taught at Dzul Iman Kindergarten almost five years
since 2009 until present.
The subject of the case study consist of four children from class six years Dzul Iman
Kindergarten. Subjects consist of two boys and two girls who reach the age of six years. The
researcher choose children with six years old because they have learned the concept of
Science as young as five years old again and be able listen to instructions teacher better than
children aged five years.
3.8 Research Instruments
The researcher collect the data by using observation instruments in the classroom for four
weeks (including a week for social week), Science Lesson Plans instruments, the subject of
the instrument of four case studies of children aged six years based on anecdotal records and
interview instruments to the respondent about perceptions of teaching and learning and
inquiry approach specific for cognitive components.
The first instrument is the checklist for Science subjects for class six year old. This checklist
will use by researcher to study the level of cognitive knowledge of children aged six years
before conducting the study. The content of the checklist is based on the cognitive content of
the standards that contained in the thrust of Science and Technology - Early Science, National
Standard Curriculum for Preschool, (2010).
There are six sections in cognitive checklist for Science and Technology (ST), a
scientific attitude (ST 1.0), skill (ST 2.0), investigating the nature wildlife (ST 3.0),
investigating the nature of material (ST 4.0) , to investigate the physical (ST 5.0) and the use
of ICT (ST 6.0). Here is the content that contained in these six areas :
220.127.116.11 Part I - Scientific Attitude (ST 1.0)
This section contains elements of how the child with six years old that exhibit systematic
scientific attitude, curiosity and responsibility in the conduct of activities in the classroom.
18.104.22.168 Part II - Scientific Skills (ST 2.0)
This section contains the elements of the children's knowledge in making observations of
objects and phenomena in the environment, making measurements using non-standard units,
comparing and classifying objects, make predictions based on past experience and solve
problems of daily life by hands on.
22.214.171.124 Part III - Investigate Nature Wildlife (ST 3.0)
In this section, element centric knowledge children acquire basic knowledge about the body,
explore the environment using sensory organs, explore the parts of a plant leaf, flower, fruit
and seed growth and carry out exploration on its habitat, how movement and the type of food
commonly domesticated animals they encountered.
126.96.36.199 Part IV - Investigate Nature Materials (ST 4.0)
This element is more focus on the children to explore the nature of the material as up and
down and by magnetic attraction.
188.8.131.52 Part V - Investigate the Physical Environment (ST 5.0)
In cognitive checklist for Science teaching, there are elements in the physical environment to
investigate how a child six years old can explore phenomena that are commonly found,
example cloud, weather, rainbows and shadows.
184.108.40.206 Part VI - Use of ICT (ST 6.0)
Elements in this section focuses on the description of the child using information and
communication technologies and ethically accountable, selecting and applying appropriate
ICT resources and use ICT to improve learning for children six years old.
3.8.2 Lesson Plans for Teaching Science
This lesson plan is a specific lesson plans for children six years old, which was designed by
the classroom teacher of six years and has been agreed by Dzul Iman Kindergarten Principals.
It is named Little Scientist Lesson Plan. However, the researchers only conduct the case study
using this lesson plan for three weeks. Here is the lesson plan:
220.127.116.11 First Week Lesson Plan Review
Table 3.1: Animal’s Life Cycle
Objectives To learn about the life cycles of animals and understand that some
animals experience a great change in the enlargement process .
( Introduction )
Tell us about life , and food habits of butterflies with posters " Butterfly
Life Cycle " . Tell us about the process of growth of a butterfly. The
female moth lays its eggs under the leaf surface . The eggs hatch into
larvae ( caterpillars ) . Larvae spend the time to eat , grow and change the
skin . Pupa is the stage where the larvae pupate and grow through
metamorphosis to become adults, wing shaped, finally a butterfly shape.
Butterflies do not eat , they suck the liquid ( flower nectar ) through a
long tube ( proboscis ) .
By using a jigsaw , ( jigsaw puzzle) . Divide the children into four groups
and ask them to take turns to build a tiled image . Teachers teach children
that the baby will grow up to be adults. Then the teacher tells that there is
a baby animal that looks very different from her parents , eg caterpillars .
1. Assign each child make a caterpillar equipment. Glue the leaves on
using a glue stick.
2. Roll toilet paper around a pencil and glue the ends with glue.
3. Emphasize both ends against the middle of the toilet paper.
4. Draw spots along toilet paper to make it a body of the caterpillar.
5. Leechers Put water into a wooden stick provided in step one.
6. Attach one end of the caterpillar on leechers water and the other end
into the end of the sticks.
(Source: Little Scientists, Level 3 Book 1, Lesson Plan - Fun Science Sdn. Bhd)
18.104.22.168 Second Week Lesson Plan Review
Table 3.2: Animal’s Nutrition
Objectives 1. To enable the child to know its animal‘s nutrition.
2. To classify animals into groups of carnivores, herbivores and
Start by asking the child "What is your food?". Answer the child, such as
rice, noodles, vegetables and so on. "How about a tiger? What is food? "-
Meat / small animals. "How about a cow? What is food? "- Grass" How
about a dog? What is food? "- Meat / rice / food animals. * Animals need
food for energy and survival. Different animals eat different foods.
Teacher told the children that: Carnivores - Animals that eat meat such as
lion, tiger, eagle, snake. Herbivores - Animals that eat plants such as cow,
giraffe, elephant, rabbit, grasshopper. Omnivores - animals that eat both
(meat and plants) such as cats, dogs, and so on.
Teachers hold animal nutrition chart and discuss with the child what is
consumed by the animals. Next, the teacher indicates the nature of animal
nutrition markers provided. Attach a marker of meat for the carnivores,
herbivores and markers for marker leaves the meat and leaves for
Divide the children into four groups. Then, teachers provide science
training book (Little Scientist) to each child. Children are asked marking
self-adhesive (sticker) that is on the last page, on the Animal Nutrition
column in an exercise book. The activity test my children individually.
(Source: Little Scientists, Level 3 Book 1, Lesson Plan - Fun Science Sdn. Bhd)
22.214.171.124 Third Week Lesson Plan
Table 3.3: Classification of Animals (Insects)
Objectives 1. To allow children to classify animals according to physical
2. Knowing the physical characteristics of insects
Starting with children asking questions to find out what they know about
the animals. Teachers introduce body parts and animal skins to cover
children. Children learn the fur, hair, scales, and so on. Then,. Teacher
will explain the "backbone" of the child by touching their spine.
Teacher told the children that the insects are not vertebrate animals.
Teacher insect model and ask them to name the insect. This is to identify
the bodies of insects and teach children about the characteristics of the
1. Insects have six legs and three body parts.
2. Most insects have two pairs of wings and a pair of tentacles.
3. Spiders are not insects. It has eight legs and only two parts of the body.
Children do exploration outside the classroom to find examples of insects
in the environment.
Kids will get an insect toys and brought back to the house.
(Source: Little Scientists, Level 3 Book 1, Lesson Plan - Fun Science Sdn. Bhd)
3.8.3 Subject of Research
In this case study, the researcher has been chosen four children aged six years old as research
subjects. They consist of two boys and two girls. Researcher has put the letter symbol to
represent the actual names of the subjects (Child A, Child B, Child C and Child D).
After obtaining permission from the teachers and parents of the child, then study and
observation can be carried out smoothly with the cooperation of them. In addition, this study
also will be proceeded as planned from the six years old class teacher, Mrs Hasmawati. The
researcher use anecdotal records to detect cognitive abilities for the four children. Data will
be obtained through a video camera for teaching and learning Science aorund 5 to 20 minutes.
3.8.4 Interview Record
The researcher has been interviewed Mrs Hasmawati on her own perception of teaching and
learning and also about inquiry approach focusing on cognitive components. The recording
will be taken aorund 20 minutes and will be conducted in Dzul Iman kindergarten. The
researcher also provided a set of interview questions and record using mp3 video.
3.9 Validity and Reliability
Validity refers to the ability of a measurement which is performed to measure the true value
of concept hypotheses. Validity has to be high if the instrument is actually measuring the
concepts stated in the hypothesis. Meanwhile, the reliability of the research refers to the
ability to obtain similar values when the measurement has been repeated. If the measurement
on a second (and third or subsequent time) has been done, the values obtained are similar, the
study is said to have high reliability.
(Source: Bobby Yan Piaw, 2011, the Second Edition of Research Methodology.)
3.10 Procedure Review
Researcher has been identified places and locations that highlight kindergarten which teaching
inquiry-based discovery in Kuala Lumpur. Once the researcher has been identified, Dzul Iman
Kindergarten (Smart Caliph), Menara TM Kuala Lumpur has been chosen. Then, the
researcher has been sent a letter of authorization to the Dzul Iman Kindergarten principals,
and get her permission to conduct a study for a month in the kindergarten.
The researcher use "Purposive Sampling" for this case study. The researcher obtained
the classroom teacher to nominate four children of her class that suit the criteria needed. Then,
the researcher has provided a letter of parental consent, and given to the parents of the four
subjects to conduct the study.
The researcher conduct the observations for four times (one is for a social visit and
three times for teaching) within a month in this kindergarten. Firstly, researcher conduct the
interview of the respondent who is Mrs Hasmawati, in order to learn more about her
background. In addition, researcher also briefly review and make observations on the study
subjects using a checklist and cognitive Science instruction before the study has been
conducted. Observations in the classroom for the first time, researcher only focus on the
identification of four children and their general knowledge about Science.
After that, the three-time observation of teaching and learning in the classroom using
the checklist was followed by individual interviews with the teacher. Teaching and learning
process was recorded using a video camera and mp3 video record.
3.11 Methods of Data Analysis
Once the data has been collected, the researcher begin to analyze for each the data obtained.
All data will be analyzed qualitatively, using the anecdote, which shows the behaviour of the
cognitive aspects of teaching and learning activities in the classroom which are described
based on the cognitive abilities of children with aged six years. To determine the effectiveness
of teaching, cognitive checklist for teaching and learning Science will be compiled for each
child after the teaching and learning take place.
Based on a complete description of this chapter, the researcher clearly explained in detail the
steps taken in the course of this study. The researcher also noted the study procedures and
methods used to analyze data. All the finding and discussion, collected and described in the
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