Greenpower
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The principle is to use solar energy, collected on home roofs, which is then used to electrolyze water in order to produce hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are compressed and stored locally to match ...

The principle is to use solar energy, collected on home roofs, which is then used to electrolyze water in order to produce hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are compressed and stored locally to match the gap between supply and demand. Hydrogen and oxygen are filled in adhoc car reservoirs, and subsequently transposed to electricity for fuel cell driven cars. Such a demonstrator system can already be built today; however the economic viability of the project depends on disruptive innovation based upon our capacity to face and resolve very demanding scientific and technical challenges in the years to follow. One of the main issues in this coherent effort is the optimization of the hydrogen production and usage chain. Several major steps, both in science and engineering, are needed to achieve the commercial exploitation of the overall concept.

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Greenpower Presentation Transcript

  • 1. GREENPOWERConnecting renewable energy to green mobility using Hydrogen as energy carrier under the Belenos Clean Power InitiativeJudith Waller1, Fabiane Oliveira1, Robert Tween1, Paul Velut1, Yves Leterrier1,Jan-Anders Månson1, Lorenz Gubler2, Philip Dietrich2, Gunther Scherer2, Olha Sereda3, Antonia Neels3, Alex Dommann3, Emmanuel Onillon3, Bahaa Roustom4, Roger Marquis4, Antoine Toth4, Alexandre Closset4 EPFL - PSI - CSEM - BELENOS (1) EPFL, Laboratoire de Technologie des Composites et Polymères, CH-1015 Lausanne (2) Paul Scherrer Institut. Research Department General Energy (ENE), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (3) CSEM, Jacquet Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchâtel (4) Belenos Clean Power Holding Ltd, Seevorstadt 6, CH-2501 Biel/Bienne Prof. Jan-Anders Manson Nano-Tera Plenary Annual Meeting Bern, May 12, 2011 GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 2. Non-renewable energy  service  CO2 emissions Raw materials Transport Platinium Aluminium Polymers Glass Clay Paper Steel Water (decarbonized) Inputs from Ecoinvent database GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 3. Towards lower CO2 emissions for cars new power-system smarter lighter production vehicles GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 4. Hydrogen for TransportationPros• Most abundant element• Non-toxic & high diffusion in air• Highest specific energy (J/kg) conventional fuels (2-3 times higher than gasoline)• No CO2 emitted during use• Distributed network of production and storage possible• Reduced weight (fuel cell + storage) compared to batteries (4-5 times)Cons• Liquid storage needs 4 times larger tanks than gasoline (Pressure & Volume)• Low energy efficiency (from source to use) vs. batteries for cars (3 times less)• Production of hydrogen needs high energy consumption• Costly process GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 5. GreenPower:Connecting Renewable Energy to Green Mobility using Hydrogen as Energy Carrier Illustration of Belenos – Greenpower concept GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 6. Objectives of the project Novel proton-conducting polymer membranes Novel “smart” Piezoelectric H2 barrier materials Develop a control station aiming at optimizing the domestic energy flux Health monitoring system for hydrogen-related technologies (storage, fuel cell) Scale-up to demonstrator level (membrane preparation process + high pressure composite vessel) GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 7. Partners and Interactions External conditions (weather, grid, …)CSEM data & simulation PSI membranes- Data processing Health Monitoring - Degradation- Process-structure via CVM - Process-structure (= Cell Voltage Monitoring) fundamentals fundamentals Specifications of Fuel cell electronic control the control station BELENOS Material properties Safety monitoring Permeation vs VE-behavior via piezo liner of fluorinated polymers Concepts & design EPFL gas storagePOSTER - Piezo liner POSTER - Composite tank GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 8. GreenPower:Connecting Renewable Energy to Green Mobility using Hydrogen as Energy Carrier Illustration of Belenos – Greenpower concept GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 9. Challenge: Increased Fuel Cell Performance to lower cost increased durability In Situ Membrane CharacterizationPower = Cell voltage x Current density Lower crossover -> increased efficiency sub-scale stack (30 cm2) at 80C 3.0 lower H2 permeation 1.0 lower radical formation -2 2.5 H2 Crossover / mA cm Cell Voltage / V 0.8 2.0 1.5 0.6 1.0 Nafion 212 0.4 PSI Gen2 (25 m base) 0.5 PSI Gen2 (12 m base) 0.0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 N212 Gen2 thin Current Density / A/cm2 Gen2 ! In spite of reduced thickness low crossover is obtained by using cross-linking of a grafted fluorinated polymer GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 10. Increasing Membrane Batch Size (demonstrator) • graft level: 36 ± 2 % (<5 % rel. variability) • Sulfonated : nitrile monomer molar ratio: AMS : MAN = 0.74 ± 0.04 (5 % rel. var.) 25 cm x 25 cm C tot. 1.5 m2 N SO3H 6L batch reactor 24 films of size grafted in one batch GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 11. GreenPower:Connecting Renewable Energy to Green Mobility using Hydrogen as Energy Carrier Illustration of Belenos – Greenpower concept GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 12. Challange: Reduced size and increased safety by Self-Sensing High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Vessel 4 kg H2 needed to drive fuel cell car 400 km ( 45m3 at ambient -> 0.1 m3 at 400 bar !! SAFETY !! ) Schlapbach, L. Züttel, A. Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications, Nature, 414 (2001)-High barrier properties - PVDF (poly-vinylidene fluoride) -> Low permeability material - Nanosized clay platelet particles-Health monitoring and sensing (safety) -> “smart structure” + High strength Carbon fiber with- High pressure to reduce storage volume embedded sensing network -> High strength without embrittlement GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 13. Piezo-Composite Liner: EPFL-CSEM Collaboration Requirements: 4 different crystalline phases: -High crystallinity to: - piezo properties -> beta phase - lower permeability - barrier properties -> ? - Improved piezo-electric properties influences of thermo-mechanical cycles and nanoparticles- PVDF outstanding H2 barrier properties- 2.8mm thickness matches the requirements GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 14. High Pressure Piezo-Liner Experiment: EPFL-CSEM Collaboration Sensitivity investigation: Autoclave and signal processing units to analyze the electric behavior of piezoelectric polymer-based materials at high pressure (300 bar) GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 15. Composite Shell + Fiber Optic Sensing Health monitoring: Process + service life with fiber Bragg grating sensors Evolution of the spectrum of a FBG (SMF-28e® optical fiber), in the 0° direction, along curing for the aluminium mold (Collaboration IOA-EPFL) GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 16. Composite Shell + Fiber Optic Sensing (demonstrator) Low-pressure resin infusion process on braided reinforcement fiber architectures GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 17. GreenPower:Connecting Renewable Energy to Green Mobility using Hydrogen as Energy Carrier Illustration of Belenos – Greenpower concept GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 18. Greenpower control station InverterDevelopment of a control station aiming at:-Optimizing the domestic energy flux level taking into account the user’s needin term of mobility and domestic energy consumption.-State of health of hydrogen storage (piezo liner signal monitoring)-Fuel cell state of healthHardware concept available and system is under developmentSystem model under development GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011
  • 19. AcknowledgementsSwiss National Science FoundationPr. Damjanovic, Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL THANK YOU GREENPOWER – NANO-TERA PLENARY ANNUAL MEETING, BERN, MAY 12-13, 2011