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  1. 1. 3D Stacked Architectures withInterlayer Cooling - CMOSAIC Prof. John R. Thome, LTCM-EPFL, Project Coordinator Prof. Yusuf Leblebici, LSM-EPFL Prof. Dimos Poulikakos, LTNT-ETHZ Prof. Wendelin Stark, FML-ETHZ Prof. David Atienza Alonso, ESL-EPFL Dr. Bruno Michel, IBM Zürich Research Laboratory
  2. 2. tegration & thermal management PhD student: Yassir Madhour Vertical electrical intercon Through-Silicon-Via (TSegration opportunities & threats How to remove heat from a chip stack: int coolingal wire length reductionory-on-core stacking with vertical electrical § Scales with number of dies whereas backsimunication → massive core-to-cache bandwidth cooling scales only with die area er wires & no repeaters → improved power § Heat removal: refrigerant two-phase cooling 3 4 ncy § Two-phase: no electrical insulation, minimaats: heat flux accumulation, additional thermal temperature gradients, automatic hot-spot h
  3. 3. r cooling with evaporated dielectric fluid. PhD st « eutectic » 3.5Ag-Sn, low melting temperature: 221°C. A&B Yas project status: package design optimization. Madh BThomas chwiler,Drechsler
  4. 4. Students: Michael Zervas, Yuksel Temiz r-level and CMOS compatible TSV process. Daisy-chain interconnections pattern on TSVs.flat surface after TSV fabrication that allows.lithographic steps.SVs connected in a single daisy chain.tance per TSV 0.7 Ohm.
  5. 5. Students: Yuksel Temiz, Michael Zervas •  Wafer reconstitution and stencil litho •  Die-level etching and thin-film patter •  Die-level Cu electroplating.
  6. 6. Students: Yuksel Temiz (LSM), Sylwia Szczukiewicz (LTCM) ont-side metal patterning. ont-side DRIE for inlet/outletpenings.ack-side DRIE for microchannels. licon-Pyrex Anodic Bonding Front-side
  7. 7. Ph.D.: Sylwia Szczukiewicz – Achievements to date CCD camera DAQ sys Micro-evaporator IR camera Exploded view of the experimental setup LTCM flow boiling test facility 4 novel in-situ ‘pixel by pixel’ technique has been developed to calibratw infra-red images from IR camera running at 60fps.
  8. 8. D.: Sylwia Szczukiewicz – 2D visualisation of two-phase refrigerant flMulti-microchannel evaporator having 67 channels with the inlet orifices e=2 and 100x100µ cross-section areas, Tsat=31.96oC,  ΔTsub=5.63K,  q=30.69W/cm2   G=496.1kg/m2,s, slow motion (30fps) CCD recorded @2000 IR recorded @60fps For the test section the orifices with t expansion ratio e=2 Flow direction flow tends to stabili the relatively high m fluxes and heat flu G=1643.02kg/m2s, slow motion (30fps)
  9. 9. D.: Gustavo Rabello dos Anjos standard approach Lagrangia ace ace surf surf Development: [1] omparison of surface representations; bitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Technique; D(ρu) 1 + ∇p = 1/2 ∇ · [µ(∇u + ∇uT )] + ρg + t case: 2D microchannel and 3D Dt N bubble. [2] ∇·u=0 mesh velocity gravityD bubble motion - video ∂u u=u ˆ Lag + (u − u) · ∇u ˆ ∂t u=0 ˆ Eu Goals: [3] velop a 3D Arbitrary Lagrangian- 2D microcerian Finite Element code; velocity upled heat transfer and two-phasew 3D rising dict flows in microscale complex 3 ometries; vity
  10. 10. D.: Gustavo Rabello dos Anjos rising bubble: : low velocity w: bubble rising, sertion, flipping and toeletion of grid points rtion: top view tion: bottom view
  11. 11. D.: Gustavo Rabello dos Anjos rising bubble: : high velocity w: bubble rising, sertion, flipping and toeletion of grid points rtion: top view tion: bottom view
  12. 12. perimental study: PhD student Adrian Renfere cavity of a Increased pressure drop at Instantaneous µ-Particle Imagechip stack high flow rates Velocimetry Vortex shedding induced flow impingementuations are amplified towards the outlet micropin fins à Higher pumping power Benefits of enhanced mixing à  High heat transfer à  Non-uniform micropin fin density fo systematic hot spot cooling inlet center outlet Planned: measure and evaluate
  13. 13. Pin-Fins Inline (PFI) Microchannels (MC) Parallel Pla Q Q Qe performance of cooling structures P design guidelines for 3D chip stacks D P H Hxperimental validation Pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients Parallel plates Transition I) II) Pin-Fins Microchannelsly underway: Transitional regime: vortex sheddingon the performance of:in-fins density adjustment Boundary layeron-homogeneous heat fluxes regeneration
  14. 14. D. Student: Michael Rossier Goals roduction of a highly hydrophobic surface toeduce the pressure drop in microchannelwith application for water cooling systems Approach Creation of a nanostructure (silicon etching) Surface functionalization of the created Needle-like silicon etching cture (fluorosiloxane) 3 4
  15. 15. liquid cooling– Arvind Sridhar, EPFL-ESL •  FIRST-EVER compact modeling based thermal simulator for ICs with microchannel liquid coolin •  Available as an open source Software Thermal Library at •  More than 35 (and counting!) research groups world-wide are using 3D-ICE E 1.0 d on compact transient thermal modeling (CTTM) Rconv 5x Faster! than commercial CFD tools even for l problems Coolant Flow 3D-ICE 2.0 Rcond Rconv •  Advanced model for Enhanced Heat Transfer Geometries (e.g., Pin Fins) •  40x Faster! than conventional CTTM { X3D-ICE(tn+1) optimized as Neural Network based simulator for massively parallelcs Processing Units (GPUs) arns from 3D-ICE test simulations Training n works as stand-alone simulator { X(tn) } Algorithm 00x Faster! than conventional 3D-ICE model { U(tn+1) } Neural Network For more information on 3D-ICE please visit the poster -based simulator { XNN(tn+1) }
  16. 16. MPSoCs – Mohamed M. Sabry, EPFL-ESL eve thermal balance in 3D MPSoC tiers hermal runaway situations (thermal violations) mal performance degradation mal energy consumption Scheduler Power Manager ( Flow-rate actua ed technique gn-time run-time management strategy sign-time Control knobs identification Electronic-based: Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling Mechanical-based: Transient Temperature R Dynamic Varying Flow rate for Each Unit n-time thermal management Fuzzy-logic control Rule-base look-up table control Low complexity Low computation overhead evements Thermal violations 0%
  17. 17. PI: Prof. J.R. Thome
  18. 18. MOSAIC aims to make an importantbution to the development of the first 3Dmputer chip with a functionality per unit e that nearly parallels the functional density of a human brain. §  A 3D computer chip with integrated cooling system is expected to:  Overcome the limits of air cooling ompress ~1012 nanometer sized functional units 1000000 (1 Tera) into one cubic centimeter 100000 Wire Count § Yield 10-100 fold higher connectivity 10000  Cut energy and CO2 1000