Cabtures
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Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in our lives and possible applications are countless. Micro and nanotechnologies are the natural choice for enabling complex sensor nodes, as they are small (thus ...

Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in our lives and possible applications are countless. Micro and nanotechnologies are the natural choice for enabling complex sensor nodes, as they are small (thus unobtrusive), cheap and low power. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a perfect example of how nanosystems offer features unachievable with microsystems: their outstanding structural, mechanical and electronic properties have immediately resulted in numerous device demonstrators from transistors, to physical and chemical sensors, and actuators. A key idea of the project is to combine elements from the fundamental knowledge base on the physics of carbon nanotubes, gathered in the past several years, and the fundamental engineering sciences in the area of micro/nano-electromechanical systems, to develop novel devices and processes based on CNTs.

Specificaly, it seeks to demonstrate concepts and devices for ultra-low power, highly miniaturized functional blocks for sensing and electronics. Due to their small mass and high stiffness, doubly clamped CNTs can exhibit huge resonant frequencies. These are carbon nanotube resonators which, as recently demonstrated or predicted theoretically, can reach the multi-GHz range, can be tuned via straining over a wide range of frequency, offer an unprecedented sensitivity to strain or mass loading, exhibit high quality factors, and all these with a very low power consumption.

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Cabtures Cabtures Presentation Transcript

  • Nano‐Tera.ch ‐ Annual Plenary Meeting, Bern, May 12, 2011Enabling Autonomous Sensor Nodes:Tunable Carbon Nanotube Electro-Mechanical Resonators (CabTuRes)C. Hierold, C. RomanW. Andreoni, A. Magrez / L. Forró , O. Gröning, A. Ionescu,M. Kayal, B. Nelson, D. Poulikakos, D. Briand / N. de Rooij 12.05.2011
  • Overview 5 mm CabTuRes proposes a SiP solution to integrate CNT resonators (NEMS) with readout electronics (CMOS IC) within a package adapted to application (cap wafer) CabTuRes is an interdisciplinary engineering research project at the cross roads between basic science and engineering with great innovation potential and high commercial opportunities for Swiss industry. 19.05.2011
  • Main deliverables in I. Tunable CNT resonators as a platform, enabling low-power sensors and devices for autonomous complex sensor systems for health, security and the environment II. A System-in-Package (SiP) technology platform, integrating CMOS, MEMS and CNTs (or other nanostructures) for many future applications 19.05.2011
  • Potential applicationsTunable CNT resonators enable a wide range of apps such as: a. Sensors: CabTuRes demonstrator b. Electronics: CabTuRes demonstrator 19.05.2011
  • Rationale: mass balanceMiniaturization per se is not themotivation but all the benefitscoming with miniaturization…. Yes, it is miniature and it is ultra low-power What else? 19.05.2011
  • Mass detection: CNTs vs. SiC Yang et al, Nano Lett. 6, 583 (2006) Yang et al, Nano Lett. 11, 1753 (2011) Lassagne et al, Nano Lett. 8, 3735 (2008) 20 zg @ 300 K 7 zg @ 4.2 K 1.4 zg @ 5 K 128 MHz 900 nm × 2 nm 190.5 MHz SWNT 2.3 μm × 150 nm × 100 nm SiC First CNT mass sensors (2008) have surpassed in mass resolution state of the art SiC 19.05.2011
  • Mass detection: Record holders CNT resonators have achieved atomic resolution: [Jensen08] 0.13 zg (0.4 Au atom) @ 10-10 torr (shown) using singly clamped CNT field emission device  [Chiu08] 0.085 zg (1 Ar atom) Jensen et al, Nature Nano. 3, 533 (2008) @ 6 K (not-shown) using SET detection  [Hüttel09] extrapolate (not measured) resolution to 7 yg (1 He atom) @ 20 mK using ultraclean SWNTs with Q~105 (@350 MHz) Chiu et al, Nano Lett. 8, 4342 (2008) Hüttel et al, Nano Lett. 9, 2547 (2009) 19.05.2011
  • Rationale: mass balance Miniaturization per se is not the motivation but all the benefits coming with miniaturization…. Yes, it is miniature and it requires ultra low-power to excite/readout a nanoresonator Unprecedented mass resolution in comparison to nanowires and QCMs (~1 cm size) in UHV and low temperature demonstrated in literature  SNR and Q for SWNT resonators at ambient conditions must be investigated Unprecedented mechanical tuning range of SWNTs (yield strain up to 5%) allows for a very large measurement range in closed loop operation. High sensitivity for mass balance because of low m and high ω0 Goal: ultra low power and small size & weight is conditional for autonomous sensor systems 19.05.2011
  • The CABTURES Team T6: System T3: MEMS T2: SWNT fund. in Package with CNTs properties T4: CNT mech. interfaces T1: CNT growth & integration T5: CMOS IC & sys. model 19.05.2011
  • T6: System level assembly and encapsulation  Defined a consistent 3D System-in-Package integration process, incorporating the CNT NEMS fabrication process, hermetically packaging the NEMS chip and electrically connecting the NEMS and CMOS chips (by TSVs)Rokhaya Gueye Teru Akiyama Danick Briand Shih-Wei Lee 19.05.2011
  • T6: System level assembly and encapsulation  Achieved hermetic packaging via Au-Si eutectic bonding of a glass cap wafer with predefined cavities onto a Silicon waferRokhaya Gueye Teru Akiyama glass cap wafer with deep cavities of 300 µm bonded to a Si wafer Danick Briand Shih-Wei Lee 19.05.2011
  • T6: System level assembly and encapsulation  Demonstrated a Through-Silicon Via (TSV) process flow withstanding both CNT growth temperature and device HF releaseRokhaya Gueye Teru Akiyama KOH -TSVs (backside view) Danick Briand Shih-Wei Lee 19.05.2011
  • T3: Resonator design, fabrication and characterization  Developed a CNT resonator fabrication process based on SoI with contaminant- free, in situ grown SWNTs contacted by thick post-metallization and consistent with the integration SiP process Shih-Wei Lee Matthias Muoth tilted SEM view of a suspended CNFETHengky Chandrahalim Cosmin Roman 19.05.2011
  • T3: Resonator design, fabrication and characterization  Demonstrated a contact passivation process based on ALD Al2O3 to prevent long term degradation of the contact resistance Shih-Wei Lee Matthias MuothHengky Chandrahalim Cosmin Roman 19.05.2011
  • T3: Resonator design, fabrication and characterization  Developed a characterization setup to excite the CNT resonator and readout its motion via the DC component of the piezoresistance Shih-Wei Lee Matthias MuothHengky Chandrahalim Cosmin Roman 19.05.2011
  • T3: Resonator design, fabrication and characterization  Demonstrated Shih-Wei Lee Matthias Muoth operating tensile MEMS actuators post- growth by performing tensile tests in SEMHengky Chandrahalim Cosmin Roman 19.05.2011
  • T1: Carbon nanotube integration  Developed a process to define catalyst particles (LANS) at precise locations (within 80 nm2) from which clean, long CNTs with high yield (100%) and narrow diameter distribution (1.2±0.25 nm) were synthesizedMassimo Spina Arnaud Magrez 1μm Shih-Wei Lee Matthias Muoth 19.05.2011
  • T4: Mechanochemical clamping at contacts  Developed a process to fabricate suspended CNT samples compatible with nano- manipulation inside both SEM and TEM to test the mechanical clamping strengthSimone Schürle Manish Tiwari Kaiyu Shou Shih-Wei Lee Matthias Muoth w.o. metal clamping: failure on contact w metal clamping: failure at CNT outside contact 19.05.2011
  • T4: Mechanochemical clamping at contacts  Developed a lateral force microscopy (LFM) technique including a diamagnetic levitation calibration procedure to enable accurate stiffness acquisition of individual-SWNTs 2 mSimone Schürle Manish Tiwari Kaiyu Shou Shih-Wei Lee Matthias Muoth 19.05.2011
  • T2: Defect analysis and functionalization  Developed tools to analyze the impact of chemical functionalization on SWNTs based on Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS), showing that hydrogenation is reversible and just weakly perturbing electronic properties (no QD states formed) O. Gröning Rached JaafarW. Andreoni Fabio Pietrucci Jaap Kroes 19.05.2011
  • T2: Defect analysis and functionalization  Analyzed via Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations binding energies of different hydrogen adsorption configurations including their impact on the electronic properties, and by Classical MD the impact of topological defect concentration on Young’s modulus O. Gröning Rached JaafarW. Andreoni Fabio Pietrucci Jaap Kroes 19.05.2011
  • T5: Integrated electronics and system properties  Designed a wideband readout circuit (1- 103MHz) for the CNFET  Defined an oscillator feedback loop around the CNT resonator based on the AC piezoresistance component Ji Cao Dimitrios TsamadosChristian Kauth Marc Pastre 19.05.2011
  • T5: Integrated electronics and system properties  Developed a fabrication process flow for prototyping double gate, vibrating body CNFETs, to extract their small-signal model parameters and measure AC piezoresistivity 200 nm Ji Cao Dimitrios Tsamados 1 m By J. Cao @ EPFLChristian Kauth Marc Pastre 19.05.2011
  • Summary and Conclusions CabTuRes is a technology integration project between nine partner groups: integration of functional nano structures with CMOS circuits and zero level packaging The process flow for integration is settled, minor changes possible The unit processes for SWNT growth are under development and follow the constraints of the integrated process flow: suspended SWNT FETs achieved The oscillator circuit architecture is preliminary defined, utilizing the 2*f0 piezoresistive current modulation of a resonating suspended SWNT FET. Modeling and parameter extraction has started. Tasks for basic investigations: SWNT localization and radius control, mechanical clamping and damping, defect density and impact on electronic properties, are contributing significantly to the knowledge about SWNT mechanical and electronic properties 19.05.2011
  • Additional information and technical details For more information please consult any of the 6 CabTuRes posters 19.05.2011
  • The CabTuRes team thanks you! Group picture on 14.10.2009 at ETH Zurich 19.05.2011
  • The CabTuRes team thanks you! 19.05.2011