Vitamin B12


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    I used Pure Vegan B12 spray.There is also a cheaper version that does not advertise vegan but says so on the label called Pure Advantage B12. The ingredients are identical.

    Vitamin B12
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Vitamin B12

  1. 1. Vitamin B12 Depot Injection Hydroxocobalamin acetate 1000µg Watery solution for delayed action
  2. 7. Dietary sources for vitamin B12 <ul><li>The main source of B 12 in diet is through animal products like milk, eggs and liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B 12 is synthesized exclusively by microorganism’s especially anaerobic bacteria can synthesize it. </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal bacteria in colon can synthesize Vitamin B12, but it cannot be absorbed from colon </li></ul><ul><li>Factors affecting availability are Cooking, Malabsorption, Parasites, Intestinal disease and Lack of intrinsic factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Defeciency is occasionally seen in old people due to insufficient production of intrinsic factor, severe malabsorption and in long-term vegetarians. </li></ul>
  3. 8. Deficiency Manifestation <ul><li>Megaloblastic anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced cases also show leukopenia and hypersegmentation of neutrophils and thrombocytopenia. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological damage, spino-cerebellar neurological dysfunction,. which is not seen in folate deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Pernicious anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of supplemental folate can overcome the megaloblastic anemia associated with B 12 deficiencies but not the neurological problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy must be continued throughout the lives of patients suffering from pernicious anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotic depression in the elderly. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive impairment e.g., Memory, conceptulization, constructional and visuospatial abilities, speed of processing and orientation respond to cobalamin therapy. </li></ul>
  4. 9. Role of VitaminB12 in cardio-vascular disease <ul><li>Vitamin B12 plays a role in cardio-vascular disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated homocysteine levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and have been shown to be a risk factor for ischaemic stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>As vitamin B 12 is required for the metabolism of homocysteine, a lack of it will lead to an accumulation of homocysteine in the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases of carotid artery stenosis and multiple ischemic infarcts have been reported in association with vitaminB 12 deficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Because vitamin B 12 deficiency appears to be a major cause of elevated homocysteine levels in the older population, it seems necessary to screen subjects with atherosclerosis for vitamin B 12 deficiency, since treatment is safe and inexpensive. </li></ul>
  5. 10. Deficiency symptoms <ul><li>Poor growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Sore mouth and tongue—glossitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased hemolysis of RBCs. </li></ul><ul><li>Megaloblastic bone marrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Macrocytic hyperchromic anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Leucopenia and hyper segmented nutrophills, thrombocytopenia. </li></ul><ul><li>GI tract changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion of methyl malonic acid and homocystin in urine. </li></ul><ul><li>Degenerative changes in spinal cord and nervous system. </li></ul>
  6. 11. Pathogenesis in CNS dysfunction <ul><li>The demyelination is thought to result from the increase in methylmalonyl-CoA that results from vitamin B-12 deficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Methylmalonyl-CoA is a competitive inhibitor of malonyl-CoA in fatty acid biosynthesis as well as being able to substitute for malonyl-CoA in any fatty acid biosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>The methylmalonyl-CoA-induced inhibition of fatty acid synthesis results in the eventual destruction of the sheath. </li></ul><ul><li>The incorporation methylmalonyl-CoA into fatty acid biosynthesis results in branched-chain fatty acids being produced that may severely alter the architecture of the normal membrane structure of nerve cells. </li></ul>
  7. 13. Advantages <ul><li>Unlike cyanocobalamine which is excreted rapidly via urine - even with large doses-, hyroxocobalamin can be stored in the liver. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroxocobalamine is excreted slowly via urine. </li></ul><ul><li>Watery solution can be adminstered easily and with less pain than oily injections. </li></ul><ul><li>2 ampules = 4 L.E. </li></ul>
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