Organizational behavior2
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Organizational behavior2

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  • Individual differences can be grouped into two categories: personality differences and differences in ability. The chapter covers both personality and ability as they relate to organizational behavior.
  • In formulating a general description of someone, we focus on something that seems to explain the regularities or patterns we observe in the way the person thinks, feels, and behaves. Personality is an important factor in accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations and why they have favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations.
  • Because personality accounts for observable regularities in people’s attitudes and behaviors, it would seem reasonable to assert that it would account for such regularities at work. A substantial body of literature in psychology and a growing set of studies in organizational behavior suggest that personality is useful for explaining and predicting how employees generally feel, think, and behave on the job. Personality has been shown to influence several work-related attitudes and behaviors, including job satisfaction, the ability to handle work-related stress, the choice of a career, and leadership.
  • Personality is partially determined by nature or biological heritage. About half of the variation we observe in employees’ personalities in organizations reflects the distinctive ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving they inherited. The other 50% reflects the influence of nurture or life experiences.
  • It is the interaction of personality and situational factors that determine how people think, feel, and behave in general and how they do so within an organization. In some organizations, there are strong situational constraints and pressures (such as job requirements or strict rules and regulations) that force people to behave in a certain way, regardless of their personalities.
  • Exhibit 2.3 illustrates the five dimensions of the Big Five Model of Personality and the specific traits linked to each dimension. Each dimension is a continuum. Thus, a person can be high, low, average or anywhere in between on the continuum for each trait. Each trait is discussed further in the following slides.
  • Extraverts may do particularly well in jobs requiring frequent social interaction such as in sales and customer relations positions. Point out that extraversion is based on a continuum from high to low.
  • Respondents should indicate True for statements that are true or mostly true and False for those that are false or mostly false. The level of extraversion is equal to the number of items answered True. Note that all the measures from the Exhibit are not included in the slide.
  • Individuals high on negative affectivity tend to feel significantly more stressors at work. They tend to experience negative moods and stress. They have a negative orientation towards work and are critical of others. Those low in neuroticism tend to be less critical and more optimistic.
  • Please note that Exhibit 2.6 in the text uses 14 statements but only 6 are presented on the slide. The scale is True or False. The level of neuroticism is equal to the number of items answered true. Remind students that the term neurotic refers to a person with a psychological problem, but neuroticism is a trait that is normal. All psychologically healthy individuals possess neuroticism to a certain degree.
  • Individuals who are high in agreeableness tend to be good team players. They are likable and affectionate. Those with low levels of agreeableness are antagonistic and mistrustful.
  • Respondents should indicate whether each statement is very inaccurate (1), moderately inaccurate (2), neither (3), moderately accurate (4), or very accurate (5) in describing themselves. The statements marked with an * are reverse-scored (1=5, 2=4, 4=2, and 5=1). Note that all the measures in the Exhibit are not included in the slide.
  • Conscientiousness has been found to be a good predictor of performance in many jobs in a wide variety of organizations. Those with a high level of conscientiousness are organized and have a lot of self-discipline. Employees with a low level of conscientiousness lack direction and discipline.
  • Respondents should indicate whether each statement is very inaccurate (1), moderately inaccurate (2), neither (3), moderately accurate (4), or very accurate (5) in describing themselves. The statements marked with an * are reverse-scored (1=5, 2=4, 4=2, and 5=1). Note that all statements from the Exhibit in the text are not included on the slide.
  • Individuals who are open to experience may have an advantage in jobs that change frequently, require innovation, or involve considerable risk. Also, for openness to experience to pay off for organizations, jobs should not be too closely defined. Organizations are sometimes afraid to take the risks that employees high on openness to experience may thrive on.
  • Respondents should indicate whether each statement is very inaccurate (1), moderately inaccurate (2), neither (3), moderately accurate (4), or very accurate (5) in describing themselves. The statements marked with an * are reverse-scored (1=5, 2=4, 4=2, and 5=1). Note that the complete Exhibit is not provided on the slide.
  • Students may think that the Type A personality individual will be the more desirable employee. However, Type As can create conflict and be difficult to work with. Type As also tend to overestimate what can be done in a period of time. Consequently, deadlines may not be met.
  • 17 Personality is not the only predictor of performance. We must also consider abilities, aptitude, and skills. Ability determines the level of performance an employee can achieve. The most general dimension of cognitive ability is general intelligence. There are two types of physical ability: motor skill and physical skill. E.A. Fleishman concluded that there are 11 basic motor skills (e.g., reaction time, manual dexterity, speed of arm movement, etc.) and 9 physical skills (e.g., static strength, etc.).
  • Like personality, cognitive ability and physical ability are both determined by nature and nurture. General intelligence is determined by the genes we inherit from our parents and by situation factors.
  • Like personality, cognitive ability and physical ability are both determined by nature and nurture. General intelligence is determined by the genes we inherit from our parents and by situation factors.
  • Research on emotional intelligence is in its early stages. It may facilitate job performance in a number of ways and a low level of emotional intelligence may actually impair performance. Optimism is considered an aspect of emotional intelligence. Several studies (see work by Martin Seligman) have shown that optimists are more successful sales professions than pessimists because of their ability to manage negative emotions and think positively.
  • Please note that the measure shown in Exhibit 2.13 of the text contains 16 items. The scale is 1 (totally disagree) to 7 (totally agree). Self emotion appraisal is equal to the sum of items 1, 5, 9, and 13. Other’s emotion appraisal is equal to the sum of items 2, 6, 10, and 14. Use of emotion is equal to the sum of items 3, 7, 11, and 15. Regulation of emotion is equal to the sum of items 4, 8, 12, and 16.

Organizational behavior2 Organizational behavior2 Presentation Transcript

  • Individual Differences Ability Personality
  • Personality
    • Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways that a person feels, thinks, and behaves
  • The Nature of Personality
    • Develops over a person’s lifetime
    • Generally stable in the context of work
    • Can influence career choice, job satisfaction, stress, leadership, and even performance
  • Exhibit 2.1 Nature and Nurture: The Determinants of Personality
  • Exhibit 2.2 The Interaction of Personality and Situational Factors
  • The Big Five Model of Personality Extraversion Neuroticism Conscientiousness Agreeableness Openness to Experience
  • Extraversion (Positive Affectivity)
    • Personality trait that predisposes individuals to experience positive emotional states and feel good about themselves and the world around them
  • Exhibit 2.5 A Measure of Extraversion
    • How accurately does each statement describe you?
    • It is easy for me to become enthusiastic about things I am doing.
    • I often feel happy and satisfied for no particular reason.
    • I live a very interesting life.
    • Every day I do some things that are fun.
    • I usually find ways to liven up my day.
    • Most days I have moments of real fun or joy.
  • Neuroticism (Negative Affectivity)
    • Personality trait that reflects people’s tendency to experience negative emotional states, feel distressed, and generally view themselves and the world around them negatively
  • Exhibit 2.6 A Measure of Neuroticism
    • How accurately does each statement describe you?
    • I often find myself worrying about something.
    • My feelings are hurt rather easily.
    • Often I get irritated at little annoyances.
    • I suffer from nervousness.
    • My mood often goes up and down.
    • I sometimes feel “just miserable” for no good reason.
  • Agreeableness
    • Personality trait that captures the distinction between individuals who get along well with other people and those who do not
  • Exhibit 2.7 A Measure of Agreeableness
    • How accurately does each statement describe you?
    • I am interested in people.
    • I am not really interested in others.*
    • I sympathize with others’ feelings.
    • I insult people.*
    • I have a soft heart.
    • I am not interested in other people’s problems.*
  • Conscientiousness
    • Personality trait that describes the extent to which an individual is careful, scrupulous, and persevering
  • Exhibit 2.7 A Measure of Conscientiousness
    • How accurately does each statement describe you?
    • I am always prepared.
    • I leave my belongings around.*
    • I pay attention to details.
    • I make a mess of things.*
    • I get chores done right away.
    • I often forget to put things back in their proper place.*
  • Openness to Experience
    • Personality trait that captures the extent to which an individual is
      • original,
      • open to a wide variety of stimuli,
      • has broad interests, and is
      • willing to take risks as opposed to being narrow-minded and cautious
  • Exhibit 2.7 A Measure of Openness to Experience
    • How accurately does each statement describe you?
    • I have a rich vocabulary.
    • I have difficulty understanding abstract ideas.*
    • I have a vivid imagination.
    • I am not interested in abstract ideas.*
    • I have excellent ideas.
    • I do not have a good imagination.*
  • Type A vs. Type B Personality
    • Type A individuals have an intense desire to achieve, are extremely competitive, have a sense of urgency, are impatient, and can be hostile
    • Type B individuals are more relaxed and easygoing
  • The Nature of Ability
    • What a person is capable of doing
    • Types of ability
      • Cognitive ability
      • Physical ability
        • Motor skill
        • Physical skill
      • Emotional intelligence
  • Exhibit 2.11 Cognitive Abilities
    • Verbal ability
    • Numerical ability
    • Reasoning ability
    • Deductive ability
    • Ability to see relationships
    • Ability to remember
    • Spatial ability
    • Perceptual ability
  • Figure 2.12 The Determinants of Cognitive and Physical Abilities
  • Emotional Intelligence
    • The ability to understand and manage one’s own feelings and emotions and the feelings and emotions of others
    • A good understanding of how to use emotions to promote effective functioning and well-being
  • Exhibit 2.13 A Measure of Emotional Intelligence
    • I have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time.
    • I always know my friends’ emotions from their behavior.
    • I always set goals for myself and then try my best to achieve them.
    • I am able to control my temper so that I can handle difficulties rationally.
    • I have good understanding of my own emotions.