When was the BBFC established? - and for what reason?• The British board of Film Classification is a non-governmental organisation funded by the film industry. They were formed in 1912 and are responsible for the national classification and censorship of films in the UK.• It began operation on January 1st 1913 under the legal basis of the Cinematograph Act 1909 which required cinema’s to have licenses from local authorities.
What media forms do they regulate?• The BBFC rates theatrically released films, home videos, DVD’s as well as video games. This is supported by the Video Recording Act 2010.• Video games with specific content must be submitted to the BBFC to receive a legally binding rating.• All films and video games rated by the BBFC are given a certificate which is directed by president of the BBFC Quentin Thomas and Director David Cooke.
How are they funded?• The BBFC are funded by the fees they charge to those who submit video games, films etc to be classified.
What legislation do they have to abide by?• The BBFC have to abide by several different acts of the 20 th century.• These are: Video & recordings act 1984, Video & Recordings act 2010, Human Rights act 1998, Obscene Publications act 1959 and 1064, Protection of Children act 1978, Criminal Justice and Immigration act 2008, The public order act 1986 and the Coroners and justice act 2009.• Video & Recording Act 1984. This act means that any type of “video works” this being films, TV programmes, video games etc have to be classified by the BBFC. Under this act the BBFC must consider the effect any of the above will have on not only children but onto other vulnerable groups.• They also must abide by the human rights act 1998 which establishes the right of freedom of expression. The BBFC has to consider the impact of its decisions on the rights of any other person.
What is the process of classification• The BBFC Classifications guidelines reflect all the legislations they must abide by and are product of public consultation with children and adults.• These classifications guidelines regard any changes in public taste, attitudes and concerns; changes in the law.
What is Consumer Advice?• Consumer advice is the BBFC’s way of getting the public to make informed choices about the films. It is a description of the content which determines the classification of a film, DVD or video games. This could be regarding sex, violence, language, drugs which can influence the strength of the material.• Consumer advice indicates the strength of individual issues by using different terms such as ‘mild’, ‘moderate’, ‘strong’, ‘very strong’.• E.g. language classified at ‘U’ and ‘PG’ rating is likely to be considered ‘mild’ while language classfied at ’15’ and ‘18’ to be ‘strong’ or ‘very strong’
Create a timeline: give a historicalperspective on legislation – what has been acceptable in which era’s give examples.
TIMELINE: Because of changes to the Cinematograph Act the ‘X’ certificate is introduced. This means that no child under the age of 16 is allowed to see a film with that classification. The ‘X’ certificate was the first mandatory-age restricting certificate.‘H’ certificate was The age limit on the ‘X’ certificate is The 12 certificateintroduced. This is an raised from 16 to 18. advisory for cinemas is nowadvisory certificate certificates ‘U’ and ‘A’ are introduced replaced with thewhich informs the along with ‘AA’ certificate which advisory ‘12A’public that the film has allows admission for 14 years anda horror theme and is over.not suitable forchildren.
‘H’ certificate was introduced. This is an advisory cerftificate which informs the public that the film has a horror theme and is not suitable for children.Because of changes to the CinematographAct the ‘X’ certificate is introduced. Thismeans that no child under the age of 16 isallowed to see a film with that classification.The ‘X’ certificate was the first mandatory-age restricting certificate.The age limit on the ‘X’ certificate israised from 16 to 18. advisotorycertificates ‘U’ and ‘A’ are introducedalong with ‘AA’ certificate which allowsadmission for 14 years and over.The 12 certificate for cinemas is now replacedwith the advisitory ‘12A’
Watch: Clockwork Orange & Fight Club• Compare the regulation of clockwork orange with fight club• Do you think they should have been regulated? Why?• How is violence portrayed in both films?• What does it tell you about society then and society now?• Use quotes from critics, censors, filmmakers, writers of original novels.• Anthony burgess
A Clockwork Orange Fight ClubCompare the •When the film was submitted to the BBFC in 1971 it wasregulation of classified at rating ‘X’ (with no cuts). By this time the ‘X’ classification had been raised from 16 to 18.clockwork orange • after the films release In 1971 it was linked to a serieswith fight club of horrific crimes, ones which mimiced the violence from the film. Following death threats and warnings from the police Kurbrick asked Warner Bros to pull the UK release of the film. However, when the film was released on DVD in the UK this sparked another frenxzy of copycat crimes. •After Kubrick’s death the film was re-released and still given the 18 classification (un-cut)Do you think they I so agree that yes it should have been regulated.should have been However, I feel to give it an 18 certificate I disagree with. I think that the violence in the film is quite minimal andregulated? Why? only happens in the first hour or so of the film.How is violence The film looks at a lot of violence in different ways suchportrayed in both as rape, gang violence, and crimes such a burglary . At the time in which the film was made this would havefilms? been seen as something very horrific whereas now this would not be seen in the same light.What does it tell From the way the film was regulated, Iyou about societythen and society can see thatnow?
Clockwork Orange: more info• ‘A Clockwork Orange’ was based on the novel by Anthony Burgess’s 1962 novella. The author had mixed feelings about the adaptation of his book saying he loved actors Malcolm McDowell and Micheal Bates and the use of music, which he praised as brilliant.• Burgess has a good relationship with Kubrick until however Kubrick left him to defend the film himself at accusations that it was glorifying violence.• Top critic A.D. Murphy on Rotten Tomatoes reviewed the film by saying “Stanley Kubricks latest film takes the heavy realities of the do-your-thing and law-and-order syndromes, runs them through a cinematic centrifuge, and spews forth the commingled comic horrors of a regulated society.” The film was given an average of 8.3/10• Alan Travis of the guardian wrote this article in 1999 discussing the reassessment of the film http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1999/sep/11/alantravis