• Save
Spina bifida
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Spina bifida

on

  • 334 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
334
Views on SlideShare
328
Embed Views
6

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
0
Comments
0

1 Embed 6

http://dajeongkimeportfolio.pbworks.com 6

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Spina bifida Spina bifida Presentation Transcript

    • Meeting the Needs of Children and FamiliesDajeong KimECEP 233 – 063Lisa McCaie-WattersApril 4th 2013
    • •  Sonia  is  new  child  in  my  program  •  Sonia  has  Spina  Bifida  and  she  need  to  use  a  wheel    chair  •  “She  also  has  a  shunt  to  lessen  fluid  on  the  brain”  •  She  is  brilliant,  and  extrovert  •  Her  parents  are  bilingual,  so  Sonia  can  speak  English  and  French  •  Her  family  is  new  in  Toronto,  and  they  want  to  get  some  advice  from  me  about  services  in  this  area  •  They  are  interested  in  sports  and  recreation  programs    (Meeting  the  Needs  of  Children  with  Special  Needs    Assignment-­‐Case  Studies)  
    • •  Identifying  Sonia’s  specific  symptom  with  her  parents•  Changing  the  environment  (Setting)  for  Sonia’s    convenience  (Wheel  Chair)•  Giving  help  Sonia  to  adapt  to  new  environment,  and  get      along  with  the  children•  Planning  some  activities  for  Sonia•  Providing  some  agencies  to  help  new  comers•  Providing  some  agencies  that  can  help  child  with  Spina      Bifida•  Providing  some  agencies  that  Sonia’s  family  can  do  sports      and  recreation  
    •  Normally  embryo’s  both  side  of  spine  bones  close  within  the  first  four  weeks  of  pregnancy.    However,  if  during  this  period,  the  spine  does  not  close  completely,  it  is  cause  of  birth  defect.  (Spina  Bifida  Information)    
    •        Spina  Bifida  Segment(Video)  
    • “Infants  born  with  spina  bifida  may  have  an  open  lesion  on  their  spine  where  significant  damage  to  the    nerves  and  spinal  cord  occurs.    Although  the  spinal  opening  is    surgically  repaired  shortly  after    birth,  the  nerve  damage  is    permanent.  This  results  in  varying    degrees  of  paralysis  of  the  lower    limbs,  depending  largely  on  the    location  and  severity  of  the  lesion.  Even  with  no  visible  lesion,  there    may  be  improperly  formed  or    missing  vertebrae,  and    accompanying  nerve  damage.”  (Spina  Bifida  Information)  
    • “Spina  bifida  is  the  most  common  of  a  group  of  birth  defects  known  as  newuraltube  defects,  which  affect  the  central  nervous  systm(brain  and  spinal  cord).”  (Spina  Bifida)  There  are  three  most  common  types  of  Spina  Bifida,  which  are  Occulta,  meningocele,  and  myelomeningocele.  Each  type  has  different  level  of  severity,  and  symptoms.  
    • Occulta  means  “hidden”  in  Latin,  and  Spina  Bifida  Occulta  is  the  mildest  form  and  the  most  common  form  of  spina  bifida.  “In  spina  bifida  occlta,  one  or  more  vertebrae  are  malformed.”  (Types  of  Spina  Bifida)  The  skin  on  the  surface  may  be  normal.  Otherwise,  There  are  some  hair  growing  or  dimple  on  the  skin.  (Spina  Bifida  Information)  “SBO  is  common;  10  to  20  percent  of  healthy  people  have  it.  Normally  is  safe  and  people  often  find  out  they  have  it  through  an  X-­‐ray.  Spina  Bifida  Occulta  usually  doesn’t  ause  nervous  system  problems.”  (Spina  Bifida  Occulta)  
    • Even  though  there  is  nothing  wrong  with  the  spine,  people  can  have  Spina  Bifida  Occulta.  People  could  have  neurological  complication  relate  to  SBO.  There  are  some  possible  symptoms  of  neurological  complication.  (Spina  Bifida  Occulta)  “  •   Pain  in  the  back  or  legs;  •   Weakness  in  the  legs;  •   Numbness  or  other  changes  in  feeling  in  the  legs  or  backs;  •   Deformed  legs,  feet  and  back;  and    •   Change  in  bladder  or  bowel  function.    People  who  could  have  a  spinal  cord  problem  should  see  a  health  care  provider  right  away.”  (Spina  Bifida  Occulta)  
    • Meningocele  spinal  cords  develop  normally,  but  only  problem  is  that  meninges  juts  out  from  the  opening.  It  is  created  by  damaged  or  missing  vertebrae  and  perhaps  can  be  exposed.  (Spina  Bifida  Information)  “The  membrane  that  surrounds  the  spinal  cord  may  enlarge,  creating  a  lump  or  “<cyst.”  This  is  often  invisible  through  the  skin  and  causes  no  problems.  If  the  spinal  canal  is  cleft,  or  “bifid,”  the  cyst  may  expand  and  come  to  the  surface.  In  such  cases,  since  the  cys  does  not  enclose  the  spinal  cord,  the  cord  is  not  exposed.  The  cyst  varies  in  size,  but  it  can  almost  always  be  removed  surgically  if  necessary,  leaving  no  permanent  disability.  This  is  an  uncommon  type  of  spina  bifida.”  (Spina  Bifida)
    • “In  this  rare  form,  the  protective  membranes  around  the  spinal  cord  (meninges)  push  out  through  the  opening  in  the  vertebrae.  Because  the  spical  cord  develops  normally,  these  membranes  can  be  removed  by  surgery  with  little  or  no  damage  to  nerve  pathways.”  (Symptoms)  
    • “A  section  of  the  spinal  cord  and  the  nerves  that  stem  from  the  cord  are  exposed  and  visible  on  the  outside  of  the  body.  Or,  if  there  is  a  cyst,  it  encloses  part  of  the  cord  and  the  nerves.  This  condition,  which  was  documented  4000  years  ago,  accounts  for  94%  of  cases  of  true  spina  bifida.”  (Spina  Bifida)Myelomeningocele  is  the  most  omplex  and  intense  form  of  spina  bifida.  Its  protective  covering  and  the  meninges  protrude  from  the  spilt  spine.  (Spina  Bifida  Information)
    • “A  new  born  may  have  a  sac  sticking  out  of  the  mid  to  lower  back.  The  doctor  cannot  see  through  the  sac  when  shining  a  light  behind  it.  Symptoms  include:    •   Loss  of  bladder  or  bowel  control  •   Partial  or  complete  lack  of  sensation  •   Partial  or  complete  paralysis  of  the  legs  •   Weakness  of  the  hips,  legs,  or  feet  of  a  newborn    Other  symptoms  may  include:    •   Abnormal  feet  or  legs,  such  as  club  foot  •   Build  up  of  fluid  inside  the  scull  (hydrocephalus)  •   Hair  at  the  back  part  of  the  pelvis  called  the  sacral  area  •   Dimpling  of  the  sacral  area”  (Myelomeningocele)  
    • Researchers  said  that  there  are  effects  of  heredity,  lack  of  folic  acid,  and  environment  could  influence  to  Spina  Bifida.  However,  it  is  not  been  identified  yet  exactly.  (Spina  Bifida  Information)  “Having  a  child  with  Spina  bifida  increases  the  chance  that  another  child  will  also  have  Spina  bifida  by  8  times.  In  about  95%  of  cases  of  Spina  bifida,  however,  there  is  no  family  history  of  neural  tube  defects.”(emedicinehealth)
    • Spina  Bifida  is  able  to  diagnosed  during  pregnancy  or  after  the  baby  is  born.  However,  Spina  bifida  occulta  could  not  be  diagnosed  even  after  the  baby  grows  up,  or  might  never  be  diagnosed.  (Fact)
    • During  pregnancy  there  are  screening  test  (  prenatal  tests)  to  check  for  spina  bifida  and  other  birth  defects.“  •   AFP  –  AFP  stands  for  alpha-­‐fetoprotein,  a  protein  the  unborn  baby  produces.  This  is  a  simple  blood  test  that  measures  how  much  AFP  has  passed  into  the  mother’s  bloodstream  from  the  baby.  A  high  level  of  AFP  might  mean  that  the  baby  has  spina  bifida.  An  AFP  test  might  be  part  of  a  test  called  the  “triple  screen”  that  looks  for  neural  tube  defects  and  other  issues.  •   Ultrasound  –  An  ultrasound  is  a  type  of  picture  of  the  baby.  In  some  cases,  the  doctor  can  see  if  the  baby  has  spina  bifida  or  find  other  reasons  that  there  might  be  a  high  level  of  AFP.  Frequently,  spina  bifida  can  be  seen  with  this  test.  •   Amniocentesis  –  For  this  test,  the  doctor  takes  a  small  sample  of  the  amniotic  fluid  surrounding  the  baby  in  the  womb.  Higher  than  average  levels  of  AFP  in  the  fluid  might  mean  that  the  baby  has  spina  bifida.”  (Fact)
    • “In  some  cases,  spina  bifida  might  not  be  diagnosed  until  after  the  baby  is  born.  Sometimes  there  is  a  hairy  patch  of  skin  or  dimple  on  the  baby’s  back  that  is  first  seen  after  the  baby  is  born.  A  doctor  can  use  an  image  scan,  such  as  an,  X-­‐ray,  MRI,  or  CT,  to  get  a  clearer  view  of  the  baby’s  spine  and  the  bones  in  the  back.  Sometimes  spina  bifida  is  not  diagnosed  until  after  the  baby  is  born  because  the  mother  did  not  receive  prenatal  care  or  an  ultrasound  did  not  show  clear  pictures  of  the  affected  part  of  the  spine.”  (Fine)
    • There  is  not  treatment  exactly.  However,  medical  care  or  surgical  treatments  will  help  to  prevent  occurring  secondary  conditions  throughout  an  individual’s  life.  Through  the  surgery,  the  opening  in  the  spine  can  be  closed  and  this  will  reduce  its  effects  on  the  body.  (Spina  Bifida)  “Since  spina  bifida  causes  injury  to  the  spinal  cord,  treatment  consists  of  managing  the  symptoms  that  the  person  has,  such  as  difficulty  standing,  walking,  or  urinating.  Some  people  will  be  able  to  walk  with  crutches  or  leg  braces;  others  may  need  a  wheelchair  to  get  around.  Children  and  adults  with  myelomeningocele  will  have  the  most  medical  complications  and  need  the  most  medical  care.”  (Spina  Bifida)  “Just  fifty  years  ago,  only  10%  of  babies  born  with  spina  bifida  survived  their  first  year.  Today,  with  research  and  advances  in  medical  technology,  90%  survive  and  thrive!”  (Spina  Bifida  Information)  
    • 1.  Physical  Space  /  Removal  of  Barriers  •  Providing  free  space    Sonia  needs  to  use  wheelchair,  so  she  needs  free  space  to  use  wheelchair  freely.    •  Tables  that  have  an  openly  for  children  in  wheelchair    By  setting  open  tables,  Sonia  can  easy  to  access  the  tables  and  do  a  variety  activities  at  the  table.  •  Easy  access    I  need  to  set  wheelchair  accessible  facilities  for  Sonia.  She  will  be  able  to  come  to  classroom  or  move  in  the  classroom  easily.  Table  height  should  be  suitable  level  for  the  child.  •  Child’s  eye-­‐level    When  Sonia  uses  wheelchair,  I  have  to  change  the  environment  that  she  can  access  with  wheelchair.     (ECEP  223)
    • 2.  Adaptive  Devices  for  greater  independence    “Children  with  spina  bifida  may  need  to  use  assisted  devices  for  walking.”  (ECEP223,  W3)  Because  their  spinal  cords  are  damaged,  and  it  influences  on  their  body.  Mobility  device  can  help  a  child  to  crawl,  stand,  or  walk.    “  •  Crawling:  Scooter  boards  can  be  propelled  by  the  child’s  arms  as  he  lies  across  the  board.  •  Standing:  Many  children  with  balance  issues  are  unable  to  stand  independently  but  can  lay  if  they  are  supported  in  a  standing  position.  Sometimes  children  who  cannot  hold  their  heads  up  while  lying  down  are  able  to  hold  their  heads  up  when  they  are  in  a  sitting  or  standing  position.  •  Walking:  A  child  with  weak  leg  muscles  may  require  braces  to  help  support  the  joints.  Even  with  bracing,  a  child  may  require  a  walker  for  trunk  balance.  Young  children  usually  require  walkers  with  front  wheels  as  they  require  less  energy  to  use  than  walkers  without  wheels.”  (ECEP223,  Reading  Package)    
    • •  Providing  adaptive  devices  such  as  poisoning  systems,  fidget  kits,  walkers,  canes,  and  crutches.  Poisoning  systems  can  help  to  foster  exercise  therapy  and  general  positioning.  It  will  help  Sonia  to  move  and  use  her  body.  Also,  she  needs  to  balance  when  she  practices  walking,  so  walkers,  canes,  and  crutches  can  be  additional  support  to  maintain  balance  or  stability  while  Sonia  is  walking.  One  of  Sonia’s  weaknesses  is  attention,  and  fidget  kits  will  help  her  to  focus  and  maintain  attention  during  learning  in  the  class.  These  kits  contains  sensory  items  that  help  Sonia  to  focus  on  her  work.  (ECEP  223,  W8)  The Importance of Physical Activity (Video)
    • Children  with  Spina  Bifida  have  some  weaknesses  such  as  perceptual  motor  problems,  comprehension,  attention,  hyperactivity/impulsivity,  memory,  organization,  sequencing,  and  decision  making/problem  solving.  (Learning  Among  Children  with  Spina  Bifida)  Based  on  the  child’s  weaknesses,  I  can  change  some  teaching  strategies.  (ECEP  223  Reading  Package)1.  Work  from  where  you  are,  not  from  where  you  want  to  be    As  an  ECE,  I  should  consider  six  developmental  areas  such  as  cognitive,  social  and  emotional,  gross  motor,  fine  motor,  language  and  communication,  and  self-­‐help  skills.      -­‐  Cognitive  skills:  The  child  with  spina  bifida  feels  hard  to  decision  making/problem  solving.  I  will  help  Sonia  to  understand  cause  and  effect  through  brainstorming  and  give  her  opportunity  to  practice  problem  solving.    -­‐  Social  and  emotional  skills:  Sonia  is  new  child  in  my  program,  so  she  might  feel  strange.  I  need  to  help  her  to  get  along  with  other  children.  I  will  ask  her  about  her  feeling  ,  and  teach  her  how  to  express  her  feeling.  
    • (ECEP  223  Reading  Package)  -­‐  Gross  motor  skills:  Sonia  has  problem  to  walk,  so  I  will  provide  some  physical  activities  to  use  her  body.  Before  nap  time,  I  can  help  her  to  crawl  over  a  pillow.    -­‐  Fine  motor  skills:  Sonia  needs  to  use  her  body  with  balance.  I  will  provide  her  crayon  to  hold  and  write  down  something.  Or  she  can  practice  to  squeeze  a  sponge.  -­‐   Language  and  communication  skills:  Sonia  can  speak  both  English  and  French.  I  will  ask  her  frequently  about  objects,  and  provide  visual  things  that  she  could  match  pictures  and  languages.  It  will  be  provided  in  both  English  and  French.  -­‐   Self-­‐help  skills:  I  will  give  opportunities  to  try  something  by  herself.  For  example,  she  can  put  on  her  clothes,  and  she  can  eat  by  herself  with  tools.    2.  Choose  a  single  area  to  focus  on  By  observing  Sonia,  I  need  to  decide  what  she  needs  now.  Then,  I  will  focus  on  one  area  such  as  physical  development,  and  help  her  to  complete  new  skills.  After  she  will  be  able  to  do  it,  I  will  find  out  another  area  that  she  needs  to  improve.        
    • 3.  Break  the  skill  into  smaller  steps  -­‐   Every  skill  has  steps,  but  I  should  break  the  skill  into  smaller  steps  until  she  can  understand  and  complete  by  herself.  I  will  combine  this  strategy  with  ‘chaining’,  so  when  I  teach  new  skill,  I  repeat  the  steps  until  she  can  do  it  on  her  own.  4.  Decide  how  to  teach  -­‐ All  learners  are  different,  and  I  should  provide  different  teaching  strategies.  Before  teaching  the  child,  I  should  think  what  I  want  to  teach  to  her  and  what  she  needs  to  know.  Sonia  is  bight  and  outgoing  person,  so  I  will  help  her  to  learn  in  interesting  way  such  as  combining  vision  and  movement.  She  can  see  the  visual  objects,  and  express  what  she  saw  by  making  objects  with  clay.  (ECEP  223  Reading  Package)
    •  4.  Decide  how  to  teach  -­‐ All  learners  are  different,  and  I  should  provide  different  teaching  strategies.  Before  teaching  the  child,  I  should  think  what  I  want  to  teach  to  her  and  what  she  needs  to  know.  Sonia  is  bight  and  outgoing  person,  so  I  will  help  her  to  learn  in  interesting  way  such  as  combining  vision  and  movement.  She  can  see  the  visual  objects,  and  express  what  she  saw  by  making  objects  with  clay.    5.  Build  your  child’s  confidence  -­‐ She  is  new  child  in  my  program,  and  she  needs  to  know  other  children.  Maybe  it  is  hard  to  play  with  other  children  at  first  time.  I  will  encourage  her  to  interact  with  one  other  child  first,  and  help  her  to  join  in  large  group  gradually.  Then,  I  will  prepare  some  activities  that  Sonia  and  other  children  can  play  together.    (ECEP  223,  Reading  Package)
    •  6.  Motivate  and  reinforce    -­‐ I  will  observe  Sonia  and  try  to  find  her  interests.  And  I  should  consider  how  to  give  appropriate  reinforcement.  When  I  give  her  more  natural  forms  of  reinforcement,  Sonia  could  better  success  learning  new  skills.  I  should  consider  her  comprehension  skill,  so  it  will  be  helpful  to  teach  her  based  on  her  personal  experiences  or  special  interests.  7.  Set  short  deadlines  -­‐  When  I  give  a  new  skill  to  Sonia,  I  need  to  set  the  time.  I  will  check  the  time  how  long  does  it  take  that  Sonia  gets  new  skills,  and  I  will  work  with  other  teachers  together.  Setting  time  is  important  because  I  will  be  able  to  observe  her  development  process  based  on  how  long  she  needs  to  get  the  new  skills.    8.  Keep  track  -­‐ Whenever  I  give  to  Sonia  new  skill,  I  need  to  write  down  her  status.  Then,  I  can  see  that  she  can  follow  the  instruction  well  or  not.  If  Sonia  is  struggling,  it  means  that  she  feels  difficult  to  learn  it  at  this  time.  Then,  I  can  find  other  skills  for  her.  (ECEP  223,  Reading  Package)
    •  (ECEP  223,  Reading  Package)9.  Generalize  the  skill  -­‐ When  I  teach  new  skills  to  Sonia,  I  should  encourage  her  to  use  that  skills  in  many  different  places,  with  many  people,  and  many  situations.    “To  encourage  the  use  of  new  skills  in  as  many  ways  and  places  as  possible,  a  few  tips  include:  •   Use  similar  but  different  items  to  teach  the  same  skills  •   Have  other  caregivers  teach  the  same  skill  BUT  be  certain  that  they  know  what  steps  are  being  taught  and  how  you  are  teaching  them  • Teach  the  skill  in  several  different  locations  • Teach  the  skill  during  different  times  of  the  day,  if  possible.”  (ECEP233,  Reading  Package)  Generalize  the  skill  is  important  because  one  of  their  major  difficulties  is  transferring  skills  to  a  new  environment.  (Teaching  Strategies  to  improve  Classroom  Performance)  
    •  10.  Include  others  -­‐  Working  with  others  is  important.  Every  teacher  has  different  thought,  and  I  cannot  tell  that  which  one  is  the  best.  I  will  ask  to  other  teachers  to  join  to  teach  Sonia  a  new  skill.  Then,  they  could  help  her  in  their  best  way.  Also,  I  can  get  some  advices  from  her  if  I  am  not  sure  of  my  strategies  and  next  steps.  (ECEP  223,  Reading  Package)
    • Sprit  Breakthrough  &  Hope     “The  mission  of  the  Spina  Bifida  and  Hydrocephalus  Association  is  to  build  awareness  and  drive  research,  support  and  advocacy  to  help  find  a  cure  while  continuing  to  improve  the  quality  of  life  of  all  individuals  with  spina  bifida  and/or  hydrocephalus.  The  association  is  also  committed  to  educating  the  public  about  the  important  role  folic  acid  plays  in  the  prevention  of  neural  tube  defects,  which  includes  spina  bifida.  SB&H  receives  no  government  funding.  Its  operating  budget  comes  directly  from  fundraising  and  donations.”  (Spina  Bifida  and  Hydrocephalus  Association  SB&H)  
    • Sprit  Breakthrough  &  Hope      http://www.sbhao.on.ca/  P.O.  Box  103,  Suite  1006  555  Richmond  Street  West  Toronto,  Ontario  M5V  3B1  Toronto  &  GTA:  416-­‐214-­‐1056  Toll  Free:  800-­‐387-­‐1575    (Ontario  Only)  Fax:  416-­‐214-­‐1446  Email:  provincial@sbhao.on.ca    
    • Holland  Bloorview     Holland  Bloorview  Kids  Rehabilitation  Hospital  (formerly  Bloorview  Kids  Rehab)  is  Canada’s  the  biggest  children’s  rehabilitation  hospital.  They  provides  treatments,  technologies,  therapies  and  real-­‐world  programs  to  children  with  special  needs.  They  help  children’s  development,  support  children  participation,  and  complex  continuing  care.  Also,  they  provide  some  special  programs  for  children  with  special  need.  (Holland  Bloorview  Kids  Rehabilitation  Hospital  –  An  Overview)    
    • Holland  Bloorview    http://www.hollandbloorview.ca/index.php  Holland  Bloorview  Kids  Rehabilitation  Hospital  150  Kilgour  Road    Toronto,  Ontario,  Canada    M4G  1R  Tel:  416-­‐425-­‐6220  Toll  Free:  1-­‐800-­‐363-­‐2440    Child  Development  Program  Tel:  416-­‐425-­‐6220  ext.  7050
    • Our  Kids  http://www.ourkids.net/disability-­‐camps.php        This  website  helps  to  find  camps  for  kids  with  special  needs.  “Disability  Camps  provide  summer  recreation  for  children  with  various  types  of  disabilities.  Camps  are  conducted  for  a  variety  of  disabilities  that  may  include  cerebral  palsy,  muscular  dystrophy,  spina  bifida,  brain  injury,  autism,  multiple  sclerosis,  epilepsy,  quadriplegia,  paraplegia,  arthritis,  hearing  and/or  visual  impairments,  Downs  syndrome,  schizophrenia,  heart  problems,  strokes,  attention  deficit  disorders,  fetal  alcohol  syndrome,  diabetes  and  Alzheimer’s  disorder.  Some  camps  are  especially  for  children  with  learning  disabilities  like  dyslexia.  There  are  also  many  disability  camps  covering  only  a  specific  type  of  disability.”  (Disability  Camps)  This  website  is  designed  to  find  the  camp  easily.  Parents  can  find  camp  by  region,  and  purpose.  Also,  they  can  compare  them  easily.  Each  camp  includes  contact  information,  and  parents  can  contact  with  them  after  deciding.
    • Toronto  Community    Foundation        Helps individual or family whowant to live, work, and get education in Toronto. This community is one of largest Canadas community foundations. "The Toronto Community Foundation connects philanthropy with community needs and opportunities in order to make Toronto the best place to live, work, learn, and grow." (About Toronto Community Foundation)They provides a professionaladvisor for helping people.
    • Toronto  Community    Foundation        http://www.tcf.ca/Toronto Community FoundationXerox Centre33 Bloor Street East, Suite 1603Toronto ON M4W 3H1Tel: 416-921-2035Fax: 416-921-1026General Inquiries: info@tcf.ca
    • •  "Spina Bifida." emedicinehealth. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <www.emedicinehealth.com/spina_bifida_causes>•  "Spina Bifida Information | Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus." Spina Bifida & Hydrocephalus Association of Ontario (SB&H) | Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://www.sbhao.on.ca/spina-bifida>.•  "Types of Spina Bifida." Nervous System Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://nervous-system.emedtv.com/spina-bifida/types-of-spina-bifida.html>.•  "Spina Bifida Occulta." Spina Bifida Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <www.spinabifidaassociation.org/site/c.evKRI7OXIoJ8H/b.8277205/>•  "Spina bifida: Symptoms - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/spina-bifida/DS00417/DSECTION=symptoms>.•  "Myelomeningocele: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001558.htm>•  "CDC - Spina Bifida, Facts - NCBDDD."Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/ spinabifida/facts.html>•  "Spina Bifida." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <spinabifida/facts.html>.•  "Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus Association SB&H :: Toronto Charity Events." Toronto Charity Events 2013 | Fundraising & Volunteer in Toronto, ON. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. <http://www.toronto-charities.ca/page.aspx?dt=259>.•  "Disability Camps." Our Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. <www.ourkids.net/disability-camps.php>.•  "Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital." Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. <http://www.hollandbloorview.ca/index.php>.•  "Spina Bifida & Hydrocephalus Association of Ontario (SB&H) | Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus." Spina Bifida & Hydrocephalus Association of Ontario (SB&H) | Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. <http://www.sbhao.on.ca/>.•  "Spina Bifida & Hydrocephalus Association of Ontario (SB&H) | Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus." Spina Bifida & Hydrocephalus Association of Ontario (SB&H) | Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. <http://www.sbhao.on.ca/>.
    • •  http://byebyedoctor.com/spina-bifida/•  http://sbhawa.com.au/?page_id=164•  http://biology-forums.com/index.php?action=gallery;sa=view;id=9338•  http://body-disease.com/neural-tube-defects-spina-bifida-meningocele-and-myelomeningocele/•  http://www.faqs.org/health/Sick-V4/Spina-Bifida-Diagnosis.html•  http://daddytypes.com/2011/07/01/dt_friday_freakout_neuroscience_edition.php•  http://www.maps.google.ca/•  http://www.irishhealth.com/article.html?id=10196•  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/spinabifida/research.html•  http://goaupairprovidence.wordpress.com/2012/11/05/develop-hand-washing-skills-at-a-young-age/•  http://pureshpower.blogspot.ca/2012/03/violent-assaults-on-disabled-children.html•  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/spinabifida/nsbprregistry.html•  http://www.surgical-tutor.org.uk/default-home.htm?system/hnep/neural_tube.htm~right•  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/spinabifida/school-age.html•  http://www.tcf.ca/