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Transforming Learning through Open Technologies, Standards and Credentialing
 

Transforming Learning through Open Technologies, Standards and Credentialing

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Slides to accompany a plenary talk at the e-Learning & Innovative Pedagogies Conference (UNED, Madrid, 14 November 2013)

Slides to accompany a plenary talk at the e-Learning & Innovative Pedagogies Conference (UNED, Madrid, 14 November 2013)

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    Transforming Learning through Open Technologies, Standards and Credentialing Transforming Learning through Open Technologies, Standards and Credentialing Document Transcript

    • Transforming learning through open technologies, standards and credentialing Doug Belshaw, Mozilla Foundation Madrid, 14-15 November 2013 Wednesday, 13 November 13 Hi everyone, I’m Doug and I work for Mozilla.
    • "A cat met up with a big male rat in the attic and chased him into a corner. The rat, trembling, said, 'Please don't eat me, Mr. Cat. I have to go back to my family. I have hungry children waiting for me. Please let me go.' The cat said, 'Don't worry, I won't eat you. To tell you the truth, I can't say this too loudly, but I'm a vegetarian. I don't eat any meat. You were lucky to run into me.' The rat said, 'Oh, what a wonderful day! What a lucky rat I am to meet up with a vegetarian cat!' But the very next second, the cat pounced on the rat, held him down with his claws, and sank his sharp teeth into the rat's throat. With his last, painful breath, the rat asked him, 'But Mr. Cat, didn't you say you're a vegetarian and don't eat any meat? Were you lying to me?' The cat licked his chops and said, 'True, I don't eat meat. That was not a lie. I'm going to take you home in my mouth and trade you for lettuce.' " (Haruki Murakami, 1Q84) Wednesday, 13 November 13 In Haruki Murakami's novel '1Q84' there's a parable that I'd like to share with you: [STORY] I'm going to leave that story just hanging there in all of its ambiguous glory throughout this talk. Make of it what you will.
    • Openness = community Wednesday, 13 November 13 If I had to summarise what I'm going to spend the next 25 minutes or so talking about using as few words as possible, I'd probably go for something like this: Openness = community
    • 1. Open Technologies 2. Open Standards 3. Open Credentialing Wednesday, 13 November 13 Today I'm going to be talking about three things - in essence the three things that can be identified in the presentation title: Transforming learning through open technologies, standards and credentialing. But before I go too deep into specifics I want to step back and talk about 'openness', something that underpins all three things.
    • MOOC? Wednesday, 13 November 13 As an example let's take something very much part of the zeitgeist: MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). I purposely don't often talk or write about MOOCs as I think they're a red herring. We can debate whether or not they are in the Q&A session later if you're really interested. For now, though, I want to focus on ambiguity, a theme I introduced through the opening story.
    • Massive Open Online Course Wednesday, 13 November 13 Let's take the four words that make up the acronym 'MOOC': 1. Massive 2. Open 3. Online 4. Course Each of these words has the potential to be ambiguous. Ambiguity is not in and of itself a bad thing but it's worth noting that the least ambiguous word here is probably 'Online' with 'Massive' and 'Course' perhaps needing some further explanation. The most ambiguous word by far in 'MOOC' is 'Open'. What does this actually mean?
    • open |ˈəәʊp(əә)n| adjective 1 allowing acc ess curtains left open , passage, or a view through | an empty spac e; not closed o • (of a contain the pass is kept open by snowplo r blocked: he cl ughs. er) not fastene imbed through th d or sealed: th • (of a gar men e case burst open e open window | t or its fastenin and its contents she was put in a gs) not done u • (of the mouth flew all over the cubicle with the p: his tie was kn or eyes) with li place. otted below the o • (of the bowe ps or lids parte pen co ls) d: his eyes were open but he could llar of his shirt. 2 [ attrib. ] ex not constipated. posed to the a see nothing | [ a ir or to view; n s complement • (of land) not ot covered: an ] : the boy's mou covered with b open fire bur ned th dropped open uildings or tre • [ as complem in the grate | he in shock. es: the plans all ent ] damaged crossed the ocean ow increasing nu • (open to) lik by a deep cut in mbers of new ho in the surface ely to suffer fr uses in open cou an open boat. : he had his ar m om or be affec • (of a goalmo ntr yside. sl ted by; vulner uth or other o able or subjec ashed open. bject of attack • (of a town o t to: in a game) un r cit protected by d the system is open to abuse. 3 with the oute y) officially declared to be efen undefended, a r edges or side nd so immune ders. s drawn away • (of a book o u from each oth r file) with the er; unfolded o nder international law from covers parted • (of a hand) n r spread out: th allowing it to bombardmen ot be read: she w t. e trees had buds • (of a game o clenched into a fist. as copying verses and a few open r style of play flowers. from an open Bib ) ch 4 [ predic. ] (o le. f a business, p aracterized by action which lac is the castle are op en to the public. e of entertainment, etc.) ad spread out over the field. mitting custom • (of a bank a ers or visitors; ccount) availa ble for transac available for b • (of a telepho tions. usiness: the sho ne line) ready p stays open unti to take calls. 5 freely availa l 9 p.m | parts ble or accessib of le; unrestricte • (of an offer d: the service is or opportunit open to all stu y) st • (also Open dents. )with no restric ill available: the offer is open while stocks last tions on those • (also Open | we need to con allowed to par )(of a victor) h sider what optio ticipate: open d aving won an • (of a ticket) ns a iscussion meeting open competi not restricted tion. s | each horse ha re left open. as to day of tr • Brit.(of a che d won two open avel. que races. • Mathematics (o ) not crossed. f a set) not co nta 6 not conceali ng one's thoug ining any of its limit points hts or feelings; . • not conceale frank and com d: his eyes show ed open admirati municative: sh • [ attrib. ] (of on as they swept e behaved in an conflict) fully open and cheerfu over her. developed and • welcoming p l manner | I wa unconcealed: ublic discussio s quite open abo the dispute erupte n, criticism, a 7 (of a matter ut my views. d into open war. nd enquiry: th or e party's commit • (of the mind decision) not finally settled ment to open gov ; ) accessible to er nment. new ideas: I'm still admitting of debate: stu • (open to) re dents' choice of keeping an open ceptive to: the degree can be kep mind unio • (open to) ad t open until the se mitting of; ma n was open to sug gestions for im about my future. cond year. provements. king possible: 8 Phonetics (of the message is op a vowel) prod en to different in uc e • (of a syllable terpre ) ending in a v d with a relatively wide op ening of the m tations. owel. 9 Music (of a st outh and the ring) allowed tongue kept lo to vibrate alon • (of a pipe) u w. g its whole len nstopped 13t ea Wednesday, 13 November a gth. ch end. • (of a note) so unded from a 10 (of an elec tric The differentuit) havn opaen string or pipe. word 'open' is used in the word of technology - and especially ways in which the ing break in 11 (of a fabric circ the cond cti ) loosely knitte g lot d or woven verb [ with ob educational technology. - leads utonapath. of people talking past one another. People mean j. ] 1 move (a doo r or window so as to lethey're talking about MOOCs, Open Source Software, Open Access, hedifferent things ) when ave a sp said. ace allow • [Open (o no obj. ] Data, Open Government, ing accethedlike.: sh and ss an vision 'Open' is an everyday word that's being asked to f a door or win e opened the doo dow) be move • undo or rem r and went in | [ no obj., in im takee | ca ove the lid, cover, or in eangdevolvingace allowing acc on new duties fast nin to leave a sp landscape. perative ] : ‘ O f the win ess: the door open n we open the pre of (a containe pen up !’ r, package, lett ed and a man ca sents now? part the lips o m er, etc.) to get r lids of (one's access to the c e out. mouth or eye). [ no obj. ] (of ontents: he open the ed a bottle inexp [ no obj. ] com mouth or eyes) have the lip ertly, spilling som s or lids parte e apart; lose o e d: her eyes slow r lack its prote [ no obj. ] (op ly opened. ctive covering en on to/into : old ) (o cause evacuati on of (the bow f a room, door, or window wounds opened and I bled a little ) give access to els unfold or be u : the kitchen open bit. nfolded; sprea ). ed into a pleasan d out: [ with o no obj. ] : the fl t sitting room. bj. ] : the eagle owers only open opened its wings during bright wea with obj. ] par and circled up in ther. t the covers of to the air | the ta (a book or file no obj. ] (ope il looks like a fa ) to read it: she n out) becom n when it is ope opened her book e wider: the pa no obj., with a ned out fully | at the prologue. th opened out into dverbial ] (of a glade. a prospect) ex with obj. ] Nau te tical achieve a clear view o nd into view: stop to marvel a ake or becom f (a place) by t the views that e for mally rea sailing past a dy for custom ] : the shops did headland or o open out below. ers, visitors, o n't open until 10 ther obstructi r business: [ w . with obj. ] cer on: we shall op ith obj. ] : she emonially dec en Torbay shortly raised $731 by lare (a buildin ith obj. ] mak . opening her hom g, road, etc.) to e possible acc e and selling coff be completed ess to or passa mally establish ee and tea | [ n and ready for ge through: t or begin o
    • “Table” “Mesa” Wednesday, 13 November 13 Words are sounds that we use to denote certain things in the world around us. So if I point to something and I say 'table' in English you might call it 'mesa' in Spanish or Portuguese, but it's evident we mean the same thing. We can point to it. Of course, it's more difficult when there's nothing to point to - for example 'friendliness'. We might be able to point to examples of it in action, but not the thing itself.
    • Meaning Implication Word (e.g. ‘mother’) Wednesday, 13 November 13 One thing that makes communication tricky is that words don't just have meanings - they also have implications. That is to say they have both a denotative aspect and a connotative aspect. A perfect example is the word 'mother'. When someone utters that word I don't just tend to think of the abstract notion of anyone's 'mother' but of my mother. The word has the power to generate imagery and feelings. This, of course, is how propaganda and advertising works, to a great extent. The pen is mightier than the sword. What's this got to do with openness? And what's it got to do with education? And technology? Well it's important to note that no technology, educational policy or term comes into being in a vacuum. And when money is involved (as it is with the burgeoning education 'market') it's certainly worth digging a little deeper to see what's going on.
    • “Is openness good in itself, or is openness a means to achieve something else — and if so what? Who wants to achieve openness, and for what purpose? Is openness a goal? Or is it a means by which a different goal — say, ‘ interoperability ’ or ‘ integration ‘ — is achieved? Whose goals are these, and who sets them? Are the goals of corporations different from or at odds with the goals of university researchers or government officials? ”  (Evgeny Morozov, To Save Everything, Click Here) Wednesday, 13 November 13 In To Save Everything, Click Here Evgeny Morozov's presents a much-needed critique of celebratory internet culture. If you haven't read it yet, it's worth doing so - even if you don't necessarily agree with his conclusions by the time you get to the end of the book. Morozov asks: [QUOTATION]
    • “Open” Generative ambiguity Creative ambiguity Productive ambiguity Continuum of ambiguity* Wednesday, 13 November 13 If we imagine a continuum of ambiguity then openness is a term that I would place in the 'creatively ambiguous' section. That is to say, to paraphrase William Empson, that two ideas are given through one word but are connected by the context in which they are used.
    • * More on this: http://dougbelshaw.com/ambiguity Wednesday, 13 November 13 There's more about that in an unpublished paper I wrote with my thesis supervisor Steve Higgins if you want to pursue this further. To be more specific, let's take take some examples.
    • EXAMPLE 1 Wednesday, 13 November 13 First, Pearson's 'OpenClass'
    • “OpenClass is a dynamic learning environment that helps educators bring social learning and experiences to their students. It’s open to everyone, easy to use, and totally free.” Wednesday, 13 November 13 Open here is defined as 'open to everyone' and 'free'. As the saying goes, if you're not paying for the service then you're the product. Open for Pearson seems to mean 'open for business'. There's nothing wrong with that, per se.
    • EXAMPLE 2 Wednesday, 13 November 13 Next, let's take OpenLearn from the Open University:
    • “OpenLearn aims to break the barriers to education by reaching millions of learners around the world, providing free educational resources and inviting all to sample courses that our registered students take – for free!” Wednesday, 13 November 13 Again, 'open' and 'free' are presented as synonymous terms. Bu there's no real problem here yet. The OpenLearn website has the usual 'All Rights Reserved' copyright notice at the bottom of the page, but specific learning resources are released under Creative Commons licenses.
    • EXAMPLE 3 Wednesday, 13 November 13 As our third example let's take Jorum, a repository used by UK Further and Higher Education institutions:
    • “Jorum is the place where you will find free open educational resources produced by the UK Further and Higher Education community.” Wednesday, 13 November 13 This is noticeably different. Not only are the words 'free' and 'open' used separately (indicating different things) the word 'community' is mentioned. They specifically mention 'Open Educational Resources', often abbreviated to 'OER'.
    • “OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge.” Wednesday, 13 November 13 One of the biggest funders of OER is The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation - in fact they funded the initial work around OpenLearn - so it's worth looking at their definition. So 'open' here pertains expressly to licensing. OpenLearn might not talk about OER directly, but they are compliant by making educational resources available under a license permitting their free use and (importantly) re-purposing.  OER is what my old colleagues at Jisc used to call a 'supply-side term'. That is to say it's a term imposed by funders with a specific goal in mind. That goal may have been philanthropic and emancipatory, but it's based on ideology nonetheless. And there's nothing wrong with this: without worldviews and opinions the world would be a very uninteresting place, devoid of action.
    • OER MOOC (~2013 definition) MOOC (~2007 definition) Wednesday, 13 November 13 Meanwhile in the popular and education press, 'MOOC' has come to mean a course provided by a company like Coursera or Udacity who provide a specific form of online education free at the point of access. In this way they are pursuing a typical startup methodology of gaining users and then searching for a business model. In a different market that's exactly what Twitter did - and they're now a public company with a value of over $25 billion. (I should probably note that the term 'MOOC' was originally coined by some Canadian educators several years ago to mean something vastly different from what it is taken to mean in 2013. We haven't got time to go into that right now but I'd suggest that they get over it and rebrand. It's a clunky acronym anyway.) So on the one hand there's a bunch of people using 'open' to mean something very specific resources that are free to use and re-purpose - and on the other hand there's some people (or companies) using 'open' as a market-specific version of 'free'. While there may well be some examples of companies using 'open' in a cynical way to mislead people it's more than likely a difference in worldview. 
    • </introduction> Wednesday, 13 November 13 OK, that’s the end of my introduction.
    • (global non-profit) Wednesday, 13 November 13 All of which (at last!) brings me to our work at Mozilla. If you know Mozilla you probably know us for Firefox, the free and Open Source web browser that celebrated it's ninth birthday last week. Ten years ago over 90% of people accessed the web via a closed-source desktop browser that was not built upon standards. Today that's very different. Over 70% of people use a browser that's either Open Source or built upon Open Source technologies. And even the browser that the other 30% of people use is increasingly built upon open standards.
    • “Open Source is not about freedom, nor is it about licenses. It's about community.” (Russ Nelson) Wednesday, 13 November 13 You can go and read our manifesto at your leisure, but I think a great deal of the spirit of it is captured in this quotation.
    • <1/40 are paid contributors Wednesday, 13 November 13 We embody this in the way Mozilla is structured. There are around 40,000 active contributors (and many more occasional contributors) to the project, of which less than a thousand are paid contributors. The rest are volunteers, helping shape the direction of what is a global non-profit organisation. There's a good number of people who volunteer as part of the Mozilla community, become paid contributors for a while, and then go and work for other organisations. When they do so many go back to volunteering. There's a saying: "Once a Mozillian, always a Mozillian."
    • <!doctype html> <html> <head> <title>Open Technologies</title> </head> <body> <p>What Mozilla’s up to with Webmaker.</p> </body> </html> Wednesday, 13 November 13 I'm going to spend the rest of the time I've got left to talk about some of the work that I've been doing in the last 18 months since joining Mozilla. I'm hoping that it will spur you into reflection and action once you go back to work on Monday!
    • “Digital technology is programmed. This makes it biased toward those with the capacity to write the code. In a digital age, we must learn how to make the software, or risk becoming the software. It is not too difficult or too late to learn the code behind the things we use—or at least to understand that there is code behind their interfaces. Otherwise, we are at the mercy of those who do the programming, the people paying them, or even the technology itself.” (Rushkoff, Program or Be Programmed) Wednesday, 13 November 13 Technologies have built-in biases. One of my favourite thinkers around the impact technology has on us is Douglas Rushkoff. He wrote: [QUOTATION] There's a whole debate to be had over what it means to be able 'to program' so let's just agree for the time being that it involves understanding and writing some code. How much is irrelevant for the purpose of this talk, the important thing is the mindset, the approach that people have to seeing code.
    • Desktop: view source Wednesday, 13 November 13 At Mozilla our focus is on the web. The building blocks of the web are HTML, CSS and JavaScript. If you access the web using a desktop browser and right-click you'll notice that you can view the 'source' of the page you're on. That is to say you can see the code that generated the web page. If you want to learn from that to make your own web page you can do. That's certainly the way I learned a bit of HTML and CSS when I was younger. Now try right-clicking and doing view-source on a mobile device. You can't. And it's even worse than that. We've got a situation where while we can access the web on our smartphones and tablets the dominate ideology is around apps. There's no particular reason for this other than the logic of the market. Those with longer memories may remember Steve Jobs announcing the original iPhone in 2007. The focus was on web apps, not native apps. 
    • FirefoxOS: the web is the platform Wednesday, 13 November 13 The next billion web users are likely to be mobile-first, so it's an important battleground for the ideologies I've highlighted. At Mozilla we believe that the web is the platform and so we're doing a number of things to promote that. One thing is that we've launched Firefox OS, something that anyone who lives here in Spain will no doubt have seen. This is a mobile operating system - not just a browser - built on open standards and with HTML, CSS and JavaScript at its core. If you know how to build a website, you know how to build apps for it. 
    • Wednesday, 13 November 13 Why is FirefoxOS relevant to education? I see schools, local authorities and even states clamouring to issue tablets and other mobile devices to school-age children to 'transform learning'. Wouldn't it be great if the devices they received weren't just magical black boxes? And wouldn't it also be awesome not to repeat the debacle (from which we're only just recovering) where pupils are taught to use a particular vendor's software? 
    • Wednesday, 13 November 13 Another thing we're doing at Mozilla is teaching people how to both read and write the web. I'll talk more in a moment about the Web Literacy Standard we've been working on, but in this section I want to mention Mozilla Webmaker. This is a suite of three tools that are both free and open. 
    • goggles.webmaker.org Wednesday, 13 November 13 The first is X-Ray Goggles (used to be called Hackasaurus) which is a bookmarklet allowing people to view and edit on-the-fly building blocks that make up web pages.
    • thimble.webmaker.org Wednesday, 13 November 13 The second is Thimble, a two-pane code editor with the HTML, CSS and JavaScript on the left and a preview window on the right. You can start from scratch or 'fork' other people's projects. There's a real community building around it.
    • popcorn.webmaker.org Wednesday, 13 November 13 The third is Popcorn Maker which is an non-linear video editor. This enables you to take multimedia (video, audio and images) from around the web and put it together in realtime to make something new. There's been some really creative uses of this, from young people through to established media outlets. 
    • Wednesday, 13 November 13 There's many other tools on the web that potentially do something similar, so why does it matter that Mozilla's tools are 'open'. Well, again, it's about the community. The first two languages that our army of volunteers decided to localise into weren't French or Spanish or German - they were Thai and Russian. We get 'pull requests' on GitHub from people wanting to add new features all the time. It's a democratic way to build tools that teach people how to use the Web.
    • Open Open Standards Standards Wednesday, 13 November 13
    • Wednesday, 13 November 13 There's a body called the World Wide Web Consortium (usually shortened to W3C) that is the main international standards organisation. It was founded by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the web and he serves as its current leader. The W3C ensures that the technologies that serve as the building blocks of the Web - HTML, CSS and JavaScript, but also image formats, video technologies and more esoteric things - are developed to ensure cross-browser compatibility.
    • webmaker.org/standard Wednesday, 13 November 13 The W3C looks after technical standards and develops them in the open so that anyone can give their opinion. That's a stark contrast that with the way that most educational standards are developed, unfortunately. So when we at Mozilla started to develop a Web Literacy Standard, we focused on the community, ensuring that they were involved every step of the way. This group of stakeholders, that continues to grow, includes teachers, academics, industry professionals and other interested parties who come together to discuss the skills needed to read, write and participate on the web. 
    • The Web Literacy Standard comprises a map of competencies and skills that Mozilla and our community of stakeholders believe are important to pay attention to when getting better at reading, writing and participating on the web. Wednesday, 13 November 13 We released the first iteration of the Web Literacy Standard at the Mozilla Festival just a few weeks ago. Although we did kick things off with a framework and white paper based on the work of Michelle Levesque and I, it took only nine months to get to a position of agreement on the fundamentals. The Standard will develop as we refine it and as the web itself develops, but right now there's a map of the territory out there for educators, businesses, parents and non-profits to use to inform their work.
    • Web Literacy ≠ Digital Literacy Wednesday, 13 November 13 Interestingly, I think we can have a Web Literacy Standard while we can't have a Digital Literacy Standard. I'd be happy to discuss this more in the Q&A session afterwards, but let me put it this way: the web is something you can draw a circle around, at least at the moment. While we're moving towards an internet of things, it's not unreasonable right now, in 2013, to state that the web is the thing you access through a web browser. As a consequence we can define the skills and competencies required. Contrast this with digital literacy. To what does 'digital' pertain'? A digital watch? The thermostat in my house? The internet? It's almost impossible to identify the common thread here. Returning to that Venn diagram in the introduction, the connotative element of 'digital' swamps the denotative element. 
    • Web Literacy ‘Standard’? Wednesday, 13 November 13 Another question that people ask is why we need a 'Standard' for Web Literacy and not just a framework. My answer stems from the difference between web literacy and digital literacy I've just mentioned, but also from something I observed in the research from my doctoral thesis. Many frameworks appear to have been created by an individual researcher sitting in a darkened room with a wet towel over their head thinking very hard. Don't get me wrong: there's a place for thinking hard about knotty problems, but it's unlikely they can think of the multiple ways and different contexts in which that framework will be used.  Instead of coming with just another framework, Mozilla decided to work on a 'Standard'. This is a call to action for the community (of which anyone can be a member) to define something that can be adopted worldwide. As a former teacher and senior leader, I've seen extremely well-meaning but, ultimately, Procrustean efforts being made by my colleagues to retro-fit curricular and frameworks. The aim wasn't just to create a framework to 'inform' work in this area, but to help provide the bedrock for further work. 
    • https://wiki.mozilla.org/Learning/WebLiteracyStandard/Calls Wednesday, 13 November 13 If you're interested in this, I'll hope you'll join us. We meet every couple of weeks to talk synchronously and we work asynchronously through forums and various online documents. 
    • Open Credentialing Showing what we know in a web-native way This thing I did Another thing Wednesday, 13 November 13 And this one time I did this... Check this out
    • to certify... This is Some person this thing did gle Signed: Iggle Pig 22 Acacia Av enue Somewhere D15 N3Y of Upsy-­Daisyland To whom it m ay concern, Letter of rec om mendation I really can’t recommend m or such-and-suc h a person. Th e highly ey have made me several cu ps of tea and each one has been magnific ent. Not only was the water hot , but the teab was fresh. An ag y organisatio n would be fortunate to h ave this perso n. Yours faithfu lly, Harold Squiggle bottom Wednesday, 13 November 13 So now that we've defined what it is that people should be able to do with the web and provided some of the tools to learn how to do it, how can we ensure that people can show what they know? Traditionally, people have only a few ways of doing this quickly to someone who wants to check their credentials. They can show certificates from a school, college, university or after-school programmes. They could produce letters of recommendation. They could get out something they've made that's relevant to the situation. 
    • ? Wednesday, 13 November 13 The trouble is that none of these work well with the web. There's no easy way to validate that university degree certificate, that letter of recommendation or that you actually made the creation you've been shown. There are websites, of course, including a very famous one, that allow you to list your job history and academic credentials in a way that's similar to a social network. This website in particular allows you to 'endorse' people for particular skills. 
    • Existing ‘endorsements’ Wednesday, 13 November 13 Let's see how that works out in practice, shall we? This is what someone I know is endorsed for: Less than optimal. True, my version of this is more relevant, but some of the people who have endorsed me have never even met me! Wouldn't it be great if we had a way of exchanging and displaying credentials in a way that worked well with the web? And wouldn't it be fantastic if we could quickly and easily verify these? Finally, a real bonus would be if we could somehow democratise credentialing so that people didn't necessarily have to go through traditional gatekeepers.
    • What if we used badges for learning? Wednesday, 13 November 13 What if we used badges for learning?
    • Wednesday, 13 November 13 Most people when they think of 'badges' think of the scouting movement, or swimming badges, or something like that. This is actually a great analogy as those badges are representations of something that a trusted organisation has issued based on achievement or affiliation. 
    • Wednesday, 13 November 13 Digital badges are almost as old as the web. People have used badges on forums to indicate their experience or the gaming clan that they are affiliated with since the 1990s. And even nowadays, most blogs have some kind of digital badge that demonstrates achievement or affiliation in the sidebar. People even add similar kinds of things on social networking profiles. What these digital badges lack, however, is validation. Where's the proof? 
    • Image CC BY Kyle Bowen Wednesday, 13 November 13 Enter Open Badges. The difference between a digital badge and an open badge is that the latter have metadata baked into them.  Things like who issued the badge, the criteria for it, a link to evidence for the achievement or affiliation - even affiliation to standards, whether the badge expires, and of course tags. Anybody can issue a badge for any purpose. I could be issued a badge for my doctorate, for this presentation, for attendance at this event. It's an open, emergent ecosystem. Mozilla is looking after the plumbing, but anyone can contribute to the project, anyone can issue a badge, and like a YouTube video, they can be embedded anywhere on the web. 
    • http://chicagosummeroflearning.org/ Wednesday, 13 November 13 That leads to lots of interesting possibilities. Such as, for example, all of the summer youth programmes in Chicago joining together this year to issue Open Badges as part of a city-wide system. Or universities who have started to develop Open Badges to credential the nonacademic skills young people learn during their time there. Or Open Badges for things that don't usually get credentialed very well, like professional development. The opportunities are endless.
    • Global platform for innovation Wednesday, 13 November 13 The thing I'm most excited about with this kind of credentialing is the way in which it provides a global platform for innovation. And if we connect that to open standards we end up with the potential for a distributed curriculum that can be contextualised as needed. There's still work to be done here, but it's exciting times and, if you're interested, you can be part of it.
    • Conclusion Wednesday, 13 November 13 I started this talk with a parable and ended it with specific examples of technologies. I tried to start with ambiguity and provide some clarity, and I'm looking forward to answering your questions in the Q&A session later . For now, though, I want to reiterate a few important points.
    • open |ˈəәʊp(əә)n| adjective 1 allowing acc ess curtains left open , passage, or a view through | an empty spac e; not closed o • (of a contain the pass is kept open by snowplo r blocked: he cl ughs. er) not fastene imbed through th d or sealed: th • (of a gar men e case burst open e open window | t or its fastenin and its contents she was put in a gs) not done u • (of the mouth flew all over the cubicle with the p: his tie was kn or eyes) with li place. otted below the o • (of the bowe ps or lids parte pen co ls) d: his eyes were open but he could llar of his shirt. 2 [ attrib. ] ex not constipated. posed to the a see nothing | [ a ir or to view; n s complement • (of land) not ot covered: an ] : the boy's mou covered with b open fire bur ned th dropped open uildings or tre • [ as complem in the grate | he in shock. es: the plans all ent ] damaged crossed the ocean ow increasing nu • (open to) lik by a deep cut in mbers of new ho in the surface ely to suffer fr uses in open cou an open boat. : he had his ar m om or be affec • (of a goalmo ntr yside. sl ted by; vulner uth or other o able or subjec ashed open. bject of attack • (of a town o t to: in a game) un r cit protected by d the system is open to abuse. 3 with the oute y) officially declared to be efen undefended, a r edges or side nd so immune ders. s drawn away • (of a book o u from each oth r file) with the er; unfolded o nder international law from covers parted • (of a hand) n r spread out: th allowing it to bombardmen ot be read: she w t. e trees had buds • (of a game o clenched into a fist. as copying verses and a few open r style of play flowers. from an open Bib ) ch 4 [ predic. ] (o le. f a business, p aracterized by action which lac is the castle are op en to the public. e of entertainment, etc.) ad spread out over the field. mitting custom • (of a bank a ers or visitors; ccount) availa ble for transac available for b • (of a telepho tions. usiness: the sho ne line) ready p stays open unti to take calls. 5 freely availa l 9 p.m | parts ble or accessib of le; unrestricte • (of an offer d: the service is or opportunit open to all stu y) st • (also Open dents. )with no restric ill available: the offer is open while stocks last tions on those • (also Open | we need to con allowed to par )(of a victor) h sider what optio ticipate: open d aving won an • (of a ticket) ns a iscussion meeting open competi not restricted tion. s | each horse ha re left open. as to day of tr • Brit.(of a che d won two open avel. que races. • Mathematics (o ) not crossed. f a set) not co nta 6 not conceali ng one's thoug ining any of its limit points hts or feelings; . • not conceale frank and com d: his eyes show ed open admirati municative: sh • [ attrib. ] (of on as they swept e behaved in an conflict) fully open and cheerfu over her. developed and • welcoming p l manner | I wa unconcealed: ublic discussio s quite open abo the dispute erupte n, criticism, a 7 (of a matter ut my views. d into open war. nd enquiry: th or decision) n e party's commit ot finally settle • (of the mind ment to open gov d; ) accessible to er nment. new ideas: I'm still admitting of debate: stu • (open to) re dents' choice of keeping an open ceptive to: the degree can be kep mind unio • (open to) ad t open until the se mitting of; ma n was open to sug gestions for im about my future. cond year. provements. king possible: 8 Phonetics (of the message is op a vowel) prod en to different in uc e • (of a syllable terpre ) ending in a v d with a relatively wide op ening of the m tations. owel. 9 Music (of a st outh and the ring) allowed tongue kept lo to vibrate alon • (of a pipe) u w. g its whole len nstopped 13 ea Wednesday, 13 November at gth. ch end. • (of a note) so unded from a n open st 10 (of an elec First, we ic circuit) assumering or pipe. because we're using the same word as someone else that they that just tr can't ha ving a break in 11 (of a fabric ) lo mean the same thing. I the co to ting p annoyed when reading Plato's dialogues for this very verb [ with ob osely knitted or woven. used nducget ath. j. ] 1 reason: Socrates is a bit of a fundamentalist when it comes to word usage. There's no move (a door or window) so he said. as to leave sp ace allow using 'open' particular problem with apeople ing access and visio for different reasons, so long as we are aware of • [ no obj. ] (o n: she opened th f a door or e door and went • uthisr and don't window) be momeanings. ndo o remov in | [ no obj., e the lid, cconflate ved to leave a space in imperative over, or fasten f the wine | can allowing acce ] : ‘ Open up ing of (a conta ss: the door open we open the prese !’ iner, package, ed and a man ca nts now? part the lips o letter, etc.) to me out. r lids of (one's get access to th mouth or eye). [ no obj. ] (of e contents: he the mouth or opened a bottle in eyes) have the [ no obj. ] com expertly, spilling lips or lids par e apart; lose o some ted: her eyes slo r la [ no obj. ] (op wly opened. en on to/into ck its protective covering: old ) (o cause evacuati on of (the bow f a room, door, or window wounds opened and I bled a little ) give access to els unfold or be u : the kitchen open bit. nfolded; sprea ). ed into a pleasan d out: [ with o o obj. ] : the flo t sitting room. bj. ] : the eagle wers only open d opened its wings uring bright wea with obj. ] par and circled up in ther. t the covers of to the air | the ta (a book or file no obj. ] (ope il looks like a fa ) to read it: she n out) becom n when it is ope opened her book e wider: the pa no obj., with a ned out fully | at the prologue. th opened out into dverbial ] (of a glade. a prospect) ex with obj. ] Nau te tical achieve a clear view o nd into view: stop to marvel a ake or becom f (a place) by t the views that e for mally rea sailing past a dy for custom ] : the shops did headland or o open out below. ers, visitors, o n't open until 10 ther obstructi r business: [ w . ith obj. ] cerem on: we shall op ith obj. ] : she onially declar en Torbay shortly raised $731 by e (a building, ith obj. ] mak . opening her hom road, etc.) to b e possible acc e and selling coff e completed a ess to or passa mally establish ee and tea | [ n nd ready for ge through: t or begin o 1
    • 2 Wednesday, 13 November 13 Second, the way that we at Mozilla talk about openness is by stressing the community aspect. The two go hand in hand. We're developing our technologies, standards and credentialing systems in the open with community members. And anyone can be a Mozillian, a member of the Mozilla project's community.
    • Ideas Image CC BY-SA chris-corwin Action 3 Wednesday, 13 November 13 Third, and finally, what really 'revolutionises' anything, anywhere, isn't finding a new way to sell things to people or commoditising things. Revolutionary activity is about bringing ideas into action. We're doing that at Mozilla by working with the community to realise the principles enshrined in our manifesto. You can see exactly what we mean by looking at that.
    • Transparency. Openness. Community. Wednesday, 13 November 13 Transparency. Openness. Community. These are the things that will make the world a better place. If we're going to transform learning, let's build it upon these principles, shall we? Oh, and if you still don't understand that parable, ask me about it later. ;-)
    • dougbelshaw.com Wednesday, 13 November 13