Wave Motion ( Physics)


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Wave Motion ( Physics)

  1. 1. Physics: Waves By: Daisy Sowah, Neel Shah, Brian Vlaar and Nii Adjei Ala-Lomo
  2. 2. What are waves? • Wave motion is a form of disturbance which travels through a medium due to the repeated periodic motion of the particles of the medium about their mean positions, the motion being handed over from one particle to another.
  3. 3. Types of Waves which can be or propagated only in medium are called mechanical waves. The waves which d require a medium propagate are ca electromagnetic
  4. 4. Types of wave motion When the particles of the medium vibrate about their mean positions in a direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation of disturbance, the wave motion is called the transverse wave motion. When the particles of the medium vibrate about their mean positions in the direction of propagation of disturbance, the wave motion is called the longitudinal wave motion
  5. 5. Some Wave Terms Displacement – Distance and direction from equilibrium position Amplitude – Maximum displacement of vibrating particle from equilibrium position Wave Period – Time for one wave to pass a fixed point Intensity is the measure of how much energy a wave is carrying. It can also be defined as the rate of flow of energy per unit area at right angles to the direction of travel of a wave (W/m) Frequency – Number of complete waves passing a point each second. (Hz) Wave cycle - From one maximum displacement to the next maximum displacement Wavelength – The least distance between 2 adjacent vibrating particles ie. 2 peaks or troughs
  6. 6. Wave Phases • • • • • Phase Difference is the amount by which two cyclical motions of the same frequency, are out of step with each other. It can be measured in degrees, radians, or seconds of time. leading phase refers to a wave that occurs "ahead" of another wave of the same frequency. Lagging phase refers to a wave that occurs "behind" another wave of the same frequency. When two signals differ in phase by Phase Difference 90 or +90 degrees, they are said to be in phase quadrature . When two waves differ in phase by 180 degrees (-180 is technically the same as +180), the waves are said to be inphase opposition . Coherent waves are waves with a constant phase difference. (Note: They don't have to be in phase for this to be true.) They will have the same frequency and wavelength (they are normally produced from one source).
  7. 7. Diffraction • • • • A wave will diffract (spread out) as it goes through a gap or past an obstacle but the wavelength remains the same before and after the gap. The nearer the slit size is to the wavelength, the more the wave will diffract. The smaller the gap the greater the diffraction. The longer the wavelength the greater the diffraction.
  8. 8. Interference and Superposition Interference may be Principle of two waves meet they will interfere and superpose. After they have passed they as described When Superposition: Whenoriginal forms. This is true if they are coherent or not. the superposition of return to their two or At the waves more point they meet, the two waves will combine to give a resultant wave whose from 2 waves of the same type intensity) may be greater or less than the original two waves. coherent sources amplitude (or meet at a point, the displacement can be found by adding the two displacements The resultant resultant together displacement of the waves is equal to the vector sum of their individual displacements at that point. . If two waves of the same type and the same frequency combine so that the crest of one coincides with the trough of the other, they will completely cancel each other out. This is called destructive interference. Alternatively, the two waves could combine when their crests coincide; then there would be constructive interference and the resultant amplitude would be equal to the sum of the separate amplitudes:
  9. 9. Thank you for you time