--Why do bureaucracies grow and
how can they be controlled?
What is Bureaucracy?
* Bureaucracy is created with the
emergence of country, is a long
standing and complex social
* Management or administration marked
by diffusion of authority among
numerous offices and adherence to
inflexible rules of operation.
* Red tape and formalism, subjectivism,
* Bureaucracy is one of the great tools
* Bureaucracy is an often maligned term
in the political world. It is
reviled by those seeking office and
cursed at by voters.
A set of 4 structural dimensions of an
• personnel ratios
Running From Bureaucracy 2000 John
Holcroft (20th C./British)
Why do bureaucracies grow?
• The Growth of the Federal Bureaucracy
The federal bureaucracy began with the three cabinet
departments established by George Washington in 1789.
Since that time, not only have the number of
departments in the cabinet more than tripled, but now
there are also myriad agencies, bureaus, government
corporations, authorities, and administrations that take
care of the government's business.
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION & THE
RISE OF BUREAUCRACY
*Examples of modern government
bureaucracies are the DMV, the IRS.
UPS is an example of a private
* The Industrial Revolution began around
1750 in England. Modern bureaucracy
emerged around 1850.
• It is a way to run large organizations. The
"need" for bureaucracy as a tool to run
large organizations is illustrated by the
contemporary comment of a railroad
A classic discussion of bureaucracy is C.
Northcote Parkinson's The Golden Rule (1957).
Parkinson's model of • "An official wants to
the growth of multiply subordinates,
government not rivals."
bureaucracies is • "Officials make work
based on 2 for each other."
The benefits of bureaucracy
The benefits of bureaucracy make it
attractive to many. Increased efficiency
can lead to better medical care, better
traffic control, a better economy, and all
sorts of benefits which make life run
smoothly. Bureaucracy is a powerful bulwark
against revolution, subversion and over-
enthusiasm. It can protect scarce
resources, allocate wealth more fairly and
protect the weak from the strong.
• So there is very often a growing desire to control
through administrative action, to use
bureaucracies as an arm of government. The State
holds the people together primarily through
administrative centralization. As it seeks to
extend its power, so it increases its chief tool
of power, bureaucracy. There is a powerful
pressure towards multiplying the number and
control of bureaucrats.
CONTROL OF THE BUREAUCRACY
• Regulate the use of a national system for
• Leader is the KEY
• Understanding of the people, promote
Choosing Strategies to Control the
Bureaucracy: Statutory Constraints,
Oversight, and the Committee System
Congress can exert control over
regulatory agencies either through
oversight or through statutory
control provisions that establish
agency structure and process. Each
strategy has advantages and
disadvantages, and each is employed
in varying degress in different
• Although decisions about oversight
and statutory control are separate,
they are not independent. Plans to
engage in ex post oversight make the
benefits of statutory control less
compelling and vice versa. In this
sense, statutory control and
oversight can be viewed as
"substitutes" in the "production" of
a controlled bureaucracy.
Considering the two
types of control in a
single model leads to
the finding that
legislators who are
members of the
jurisdiction over the
agency prefer a lower
level of statutory
because the costs of
oversight are lower for