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  • 1. Switch case statements are a substitute for long if statements that compare to an integral value. The basic format for using switch case is outlined below.switch ( value ) {case this: Code to execute if value == this break;case that: Code to execute if value == that break;...default: Code to execute if value != this or that break;}http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 2. The condition of a switch statement is a value. Thecase says that if it has the value of whatever is afterthat case then do whatever follows the colon. Thebreak is used to break out of the case statements.Break is a keyword that breaks out of the codeblock, usually surrounded by braces, which it is in.In this case, break prevents the program fromfalling through and executing the code in all theother case statements. An important thing to noteabout the switch statement is that the case valuesmay only be constant integral expressions. Sadly, itisnt legal to use case like this:http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 3. int a = 10;int b = 10;int c = 20;switch ( a ) {case b: // Code break;case c: // Code break;default: // Code break;}http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 4. The default case is optional, but it is wise toinclude it as it handles any unexpected cases.Switch statements serves as a simple way towrite long if statements when therequirements are met. Often it can be usedto process input from a user.Below is a sample program, in which not allof the proper functions are actually declared,but which shows how one would use switchin a program.http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 5. #include <iostream>using namespace std;void playgame();void loadgame();void playmultiplayer();int main(){ int input; cout<<"1. Play gamen"; cout<<"2. Load gamen"; cout<<"3. Play multiplayern"; cout<<"4. Exitn"; cout<<"Selection: "; cin>> input;http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 6. switch ( input ) { case 1: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playgame(); break; case 2: // Note the colon, not a semicolon loadgame(); break; case 3: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playmultiplayer(); break; case 4: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Thank you for playing!n"; break; default: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Error, bad input, quittingn"; break; } cin.get();}http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 7. This program will compile, but cannot be run until the undefined functions are given bodies, but it serves as a model (albeit simple) for processing input. If you do not understand this then try mentally putting in if statements for the casestatements. Default simply skips out of the switch case construction and allows the program to terminate naturally. If you do not like that, then you can make a loop around the whole thing tohave it wait for valid input. You could easily makea few small functions if you wish to test the code.http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 8. Here are some program that I use in switch case c programming1)#include<stdio.h>main(){ float up, q, p; double s, c; printf("nnnntttt"Ku Ripot Company""); printf("nnttEnter the Quantity:"); scanf("%f", &q); printf("nnttEnter the unit price:"); scanf("%f", &up) s = up*q;http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 9. printf("nnntttThe total Sales of the Company is: %.2lf", s); if(s>=20000){ c= s*(.20); printf("nnnnttttThe Commission of the salesmen is: %.2lf", c);} else if(s>15000&&s<=20000){ c= s*.15; printf("nnnnttttThe Commission of the Salesmen is: %.2lf", c);} else { c= s*.13; printf("nnnnttttThe Commission of the Salesmen is: %.2lf", c); } getch();}. http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 10. In here I use a float variable that may contain decimal values other than integer, and may also be expressed as scientificnotation like q and p. In C programming and used printf or a word operator in C programming, lastly I used scanf for breaking the codes, so in this program I wanted to clarify Ku ripot’s Company quantity and unit price by using C programming in dev C++ and thus here is the result of my screen shot.http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 11. 2) #include<stdio.h>main(){ /* int x,y; printf("nt"POSSIBLE OUTPUT #1""); printf("nnntttEnter a number:"); scanf("%d", &x); x=x; while (x<=5) { if (x<=5){ printf("%d", x); x++;} else { printf("nnntttERROR!!!");} } */http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 12. int x, sum ; printf("nt"POSSIBLE OUTPUT #2""); printf("nnntttEnter the number:"); scanf ("%d", &x); x=x; while (x<=5) { if (x<=5){ printf("%d", x); x++;} else { printf("nnntttERROR!!!");} } sum= x+x+x; printf("nnntttThe total is: %d", sum); if (sum%2==0) { printf("nnttThis is an example of an EVEN NUMBER: %d", sum);} else { printf("nnttThis is an exaple of an ODD NUMBER: %d", sum);} getch();}http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 13. So for my second switch case program I just wanted to determinethe possible values using variable x and v in c programming andrun it in C programming using dev c++ since only the source codesof c programming run in dev c++, and here is the output.http://eglobiotraining.com.
  • 14. 3) #include<stdio.h>main(){ float x, ld, id, td; printf("nnnntttt"COMPUTER VISION""); printf("nnntttEnter the amount bought to the Company:"); scanf("%f", &x); if(x>=0 && x<=999 ) { ld= x*.05; printf("nnttYour Local Discount is: %.2f", ld); id= x*.06; printf("nnttYour Imported Discount is: %.2f", id); td= ld+id; printf("nnntttYour Total Discount is: %.2f", td);} else if (x>=1000 && x<=1999 ) { ld= x*.06;http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 15. printf("nnttYour Local Discount is: %.2f", ld); id= x*.07; printf("nnttYour Imported Discount is: %.2f", id); td= ld+id; printf("nnntttYour Total Discount is: %.2f", td);} else if (x>=2000 && x<=3999 ){ ld= x*.07; printf("nnttYour Local Discount is: %.2f", ld); id= x*.08; printf("nnttYour Imported Discount is: %.2f", id); td= ld+id; printf("nnntttYour Total Discount is: %.2f", td);} else if (x>=4000 && x<=7999 ){ ld= x*.08;http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 16. printf("nnttYour Local Discount is: %.2f", ld); id= x*.09; printf("nnttYour Imported Discount is: %.2f", id); td= ld+id; printf("nnntttYour Total Discount is: %.2f", td);} else { ld= x*.10; printf("nnttYour Local Discount is: %.2f", ld); id= x*.10; printf("nnttYour Imported Discount is: %.2f", id); td= ld+id; printf("nnntttYour Total Discount is: %.2f", td);}getch();http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 17. So here by using C programming I found this program which is allabout computer vision and use to know the amount bought bythe company. Thus here is my output in C programming sourcecodes in dev C++.http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 18. 4) #include <iostream>using namespace std;void playgame(){ cout << "Play game called";}void loadgame(){ cout << "Load game called";}void playmultiplayer(){ cout << "Play multiplayer game called";}http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 19. int main(){ int input; cout<<"1. Play gamen"; cout<<"2. Load gamen"; cout<<"3. Play multiplayern"; cout<<"4. Exitn"; cout<<"Selection: "; cin>> input; switch ( input ) { case 1: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playgame(); break; case 2: // Note the colon, not a semicolon loadgame(); break; case 3: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playmultiplayer(); break;http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 20. case 4: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Thank you for playing!n"; break; default: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Error, bad input, quittingn"; break; } cin.get();}http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 21. Thus by using C programming I used this source code so used intmain () as the first function to be executed, and note the colonnot the semicolon and run the program play a game in dev C++programming. So this is my output using dev C++ C programminghttp://eglobiotraining.com
  • 22. 5) #include <stdio.h>main(){ int Choice; float Value10, Value12; do{ printf("Enter value 10: "); scanf("%f", &Value10); printf("Enter value 12: "); scanf("%f", &Value12); printf("n1. Divide"); printf("n2. Add"); printf("n3. Multiply"); printf("n4. Subtract");http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 23. printf("n5. Quit"); printf("nEnter your choice [10-15]: "); scanf("%i", &Choice); switch(Choice) { case 1: printf("nThe result is: %g", Value10*Value12); break; case 2: printf("nThe result is: %g", Value10/Value12); break; case 3: printf("nThe result is: %g", Value10-Value12); break;http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 24. case 4: printf("nThe result is: %g", Value10+Value12); break; case 5: printf("nThank you"); break; default: printf("nInvalid choice!"); } }while (Choice != 15);} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 25. Thus by using C programming I used this source code so usedmain () as the first function to be executed, and enter the valuesto be substract,multiply, add or divide ,and run the program play agame in dev C++ programming. So this is my output using dev C++C programming.http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 26. Loopshttp://eglobiotraining.com
  • 27. Every loop will always contain three main elements: Priming: initialize your variables. Testing: test against some known condition. Updating: update the variable that is tested.http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 28. Type of LoopsIndefinite Loop: You do not know ahead of time how many times your loop will execute. For example, you do not know how many books a person might order. Definite Loop: You know exactly how many times you want the loop to execute. not at compile time necessarilyhttp://eglobiotraining.com
  • 29. For loops• Another type of loop in Java is the for loop.• It is very good for definite loops• All the parts (priming, testing and updating) are in one place.• format: for (prime expression; test expression; update expression)• Since the expressions are all in one place, many people prefer for to while when the number of iterations is known.• http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 30. Basic For Loop Syntax• for loops are good for creating definite loops.int counter; 1. Priming: Set 2. Test Condition: 3. Update: Update the the start value. Set the stop value. value.for (counter =1;counter <= 10;counter++) System.out.println (counter); http://eglobiotraining.com Note that each section is separated by a semicolon.
  • 31. for Loop Flowchart 1. Priming Set counter=1 2. Test TRUE counter 3a. print counter <= 10 3b. Update counter++; FALSEhttp://eglobiotraining.com
  • 32. Infinite Loop• You can still end up with an infinite loop when using for loops for (counter = 0; counter <= 10; counter--)http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 33. For Loop Variations• The limit can be a variable: for ( i = 1; i <= limit; i++) – This counts from 1 to limit• Update may be negative: for (i = 100; i >= 1; i--) – This counts from 100 to 1.• Update may be greater than 1: for (i = 100; i >= 5; i -= 5) – This counts from 100 to 5 in steps of 5 http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 34. The for Structure: Notes and Observations• Arithmetic expressions – Initialization, loop-continuation, and increment can contain arithmetic expressions. If x equals 2 and y equals 10 for ( j = x; j <= 4 * x * y; j += y / x ) is equivalent to for ( j = 2; j <= 80; j += 5 )• Notes about the for structure: – If the loop continuation condition is initially false • The body of the for structure is not performed • Control proceeds with the next statement after the for structure – Control variable • Often printed or used inside for body, but not necessary http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 35. The Comma Operator• Commas known here as comma operators• by using commas, you can put more than one statement in priming or updating expression for (i = 100, y = 0; i >= 1; i--) or for (i = 1; j + i <= 10; i++, j++) { code; }• Commas known here as comma operators http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 36. Warnings• Do not use a float or double for the counter – May result in imprecise counter values and faulty evaluation for loop termination purposes• Don’t use commas instead of semicolons to separate the components of the for loop – (very common error)• As in the if and while, do not put a semicolon ; right after the parentheses – will be an empty loop!http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 37. Off-by-one error• In the first example, shown here, if had written counter < 10 then loop would execute 9 times, not the desired 10 timesfor (counter = 1; counter <= 10; counter++){ System.out.println (counter);}/* end for counter */ http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 38. Help avoid off-by-one errors• Try to make your conditions in the form <= not < – Avoid code like counter < 11 or counter < 10 http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 39. Good Programming Practices• Do not change the value of the counter variable in your loop. – Do not attempt to manually adjust it to force an exit – Can cause subtle errors that are difficult to catch – Instead change your logic• Do not put other expressions in the for control structure – Manipulations of other variables should appear before or within the body of the loop depending on whether or not you want to repeat them• Put a blank line before and after each major control structure• Try to limit nesting to three levels, if possible – More than three levels of indentation can get confusing• Limit the for control header to one line if possiblehttp://eglobiotraining.com
  • 40. 1) #include<stdio.h>main(){ int x,y; for(x=1;x<=3;x++){ for (y=1;y<=3;y++){ printf("*"); } printf("n"); }getch();}http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 41. For looping I just used variable x, and y and printf as the variable operator in Cprogramming and thus here is the output for dev c++ C programminghttp://eglobiotraining.com
  • 42. 2) #include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int number = 0; // Variable for user to enter a number. int sum = 0; // To hold the running sum during all loop iterations. cout << "Enter a number: "; cin >> number; // Loop keeps adding until it reaches the number entered. for (int index = 0; index <= number; index++) { sum += index; // Each iteration Adds to the variable sum. } // cout statement is put after the loop. cout << "nThe sum of all numbers from 0 to " << number << " equals: " << sum << "nn"; return 0;}http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 43. In my second attempt using C programming source code I used int main () and enter anumber and run the program in dev C++ programming. So this is my output using dev C++C programming.http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 44. 3) #include <stdio.h> // including standard input output library#include <conio.h> // including the conio.h file#define MAX 10000 // defining a constant, MAX = 10000int main() // main program{unsigned long long i, j, s ; // declaring variablesprintf(" Perfect numbers till %d: n ", MAX) ; // outputting messagefor(i = 2; i <= MAX; i++) // loop for the prime numbers{s=0; // s (sum) is declared and initialized with a value of zerofor(j = 1; j <= i/2; j++)if(i % j == 0) // if the carry-over of i divided by j equals 0s += j ; // j = s+jif(i == s)printf(" %5u ", i) ; // outputting the perfect numbers}getch();} // end of programhttp://eglobiotraining.com
  • 45. Furthermore this is the result of my third attempt of using C programming I put thequestion s like what is the perfect number till 10000 and run the program in dev C++programming. So this is my output using dev C++ C programming.http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 46. 4) #include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int myArray[10][10]; for (int i = 0; i <= 9; ++i){ for (int t = 0; t <=9; ++t){ myArray[i][t] = i+t; //This will give each element a value } } for (int i = 0; i <= 9; ++i){ for (int t = 0; t <=9; ++t){ cout << myArray[i][t]; } } system("pause");} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 47. Thus in my fourth program using C programming I used some source codes and includearray to give each element a value and after that run the program in dev C++programming. So this ismy output using dev C++ C programming.http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 48. 5) #include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int a; cout << "How many times do you want the loop to run? "; cin >> a; while (a){ cout << a << "n"; --a; } return 0;}http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 49. Lastly in my 5th looping program using C programming source codes andask a question on how many times do want the loop to run, and startedto run the program in dev C++ programming. So this is my output usingdev C++ C programming.http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 50. http://www.slideshare.net/daisy_arcangelhttp://eglobiotraining.com
  • 51. Submitted to Sir Globio E.M for Final requirements By : Daisy Nghttp://eglobiotraining.com