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Elicitation techniques


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elicitation techniques in research

elicitation techniques in research

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    David Nunan
    Rodesa O. Lajada
  • 2. Elicit
    To bring or draw out (something latent);
    To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.
    To call forth, draw out, or provoke (a reaction, for example).
  • 3. Elicitation
    A range of procedures for obtaining speech samples and other data subjects. Such procedures may range from the administration of standardized tests through to questionnaires and interviews
  • 4. Production Task
    • In investigating language learning and use, one can attempt to obtain naturalistic samples from learners as they interact in the target language.
    • 5. Extremely time consuming and difficult
    • 6. It may not result in the outcomes one desires
  • Halimbawa:
    • Second Language Acquisition Studies Dulay and Bart, (1973- 1974) at Bailey, Madden and Krashen, (1974)
    • 7. designed to provide the researchers with evidence on the appearance of certain grammatical morphemes
    • 8. it aims to determine the order in which the particular morphemes appeared and the effect of such variables as instruction and first language background on the order of acquisition
  • Bilingual Syntax Measure
    • consisted of cartoonlike drawings
    • 9. Subjects were shown the drawings and asked a series of questions which were designed to elicit the target language items under investigation.
  • Interview Test of English as a Second Language (ITESL)
    • designed to obtain information from immigrants in Australia for diagnosis, placement and remediation (Griffin 1986)
    • 10. consists of twenty items designed to elicit 20 target grammatical items
    • 11. each items contains a stimulus picture, cue questions, instructions for the test administrators, and a set of scoring criteria
  • Halimbawa:
    • Item 6 on page 137
    • 12. Table 7.1 on page 138
    • 13. Partial Credit Model
  • Two Possible Threats
    • by determining in advance what is going to be considered relevant, other potentially important phenomena might be overlooked
    • 14. the extent to which the results obtained are an artifact of the elicitation devices employed
  • Eisenstein, Bailey, and Madden (1982)
    • A study into the acquisition of verb tenses
    • 15. they used two different tasks to elicit data from their subjects
    • 16. Production task similar to Bilingual Syntax Measure
    • 17. imitation task
  • Surveys
    • The collection of data (usually related to attitudes, beliefs, or intentions) from subjects without attempting to manipulate the phenomena/ variables under investigations.
  • Surveys
    • Cohen and Manion (1985)
    the most commonly used descriptive method in educational research, and may vary in scope from large-scale governmental investigations through to small-scale studies carried out by a single researcher
  • 18. Purpose
    To obtain a snapshot of conditions, attitudes, and/or events at a single point in time
  • 19.
  • 20. Figure 7.1Steps in carrying out a survey
  • 21. Table 7.2Strategies for Survey Sampling
  • 22.
  • 23. 1. Questionnaires
    • An instrument for the collection of data, usually in written form, consisting of open and/ or closed questions and other probes requiring a response from subjects
  • 24. 1.1 Types of Questions
    Closed Item
    one in which the range of possible responses is determined by the researcher
    • Example:
    Foreign languages should be compulsory in high school.
    agree/ neutral/ disagree
  • 25. Table 7.3Closed Question Types in Survey QuestionnairesYoungman (1986) cited in Bell (1987)
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. 1.1 Types of Questions
    Open Item
    one in which the subject can decide what to say and how to say it
    • Example:
    What do you think about the proposal that foreign languages should be compulsory in high school?
  • 29.
  • 30. 1.2 Question Wording
    Questions should not be complex and confusing, nor should they ask more than one thing at a time
    • Example from Cohen and Mannion (1985: 105- 107)
    Would you prefer a short, non-award course (3,4, or 5 sessions) with part-day release (e.g. Wednesday afternoon) and one evening per week attendance with financial reimbursement for travel or a longer, non-award course (6,7, or 8 sessions) with full day release, or the whole course designed on part-time release without evening attendance?
  • 31. 1.2 Question Wording
    Avoid culturally biased questions
    • Example
    (from an oral proficiency interview)
    Interviewer: Where is your mother?
    What does your mother do?
    Subject: She’s dead?
    Interviewer: Ah- she’s dead. Very good.
    (van Lier 1989: 499)
  • 32. Factors to be considered
    The willingness of respondents to make critical statements
    The willingness of respondents to discuss certain personal topics, such as age, salary, or opinions on political and social issues
    The shared values which can be assumed, for example, the concept of freedom of the press
    The attitudes which can be assumed, for example, the commonly held belief among many educators in Western countries that classroom learning should be a source of enjoyment for the learner
  • 33. Reminder:
    Questionnaires must be:
    before collating and interpreting the responses
  • 34. 1.3 Interpreting Responses
    selected extracts from a study Nunan was involved in
    • Question:
    ‘State three beliefs you have about language development that determine the way you teach.’
    • 372 responses
    • 35. 15 pages of statements
  • Key Word Analysis(generating categories from the statements made by the respondents)
    Learning by doing/ experiential
    Language across the curriculum
    Grammar, structure, correctness
    Oral/ written language relationships
    Creation of rich, positive environment
  • 36. Table 7.4Teachers Beliefs Aboutthe Nature of Language and Learning
  • 37. 1.4 Quantifying Qualitative Data
    -It should transpire that the relatively more experienced teachers made significantly more references to principles of language learning.
    Hypothesis- as teachers increase their mastery of technical aspects of instruction and knowledge of language. Their teaching practices become less dependent on local environmental and affective factors
  • 38. 1.4 Quantifying Qualitative Data (alternative way) Lincoln and Guba (1985)
    Place each individual entry onto library index cards.
    Select the first file from pile and place it on one side.
    Select the second card and make a determination on intuitive grounds whether it is ‘look-alike’ or represents a new category.
    Continue on successive cards
    Cards which are not fully recognized should be placed into a miscellaneous pile. They should not be discarded but should be retained for later review.
  • 39. 2. Interviews
    • The elicitation of data by one person from another person through person-to-person encounters
  • Degree of Formality
    1. unstructured
    • Guided by the responses of the interviewee rather than the agenda of the researcher
    2. semi-structured
    • The interviewer has a general idea of where he or she wants the interview go, and what should come out of it, but does not enter the interview with a list of predetermined questions
  • Degree of Formality
    -it gives the interviewee a degree of power and control over the course of the interview
    -it gives the interviewer a great deal of flexibility
    -it gives one privileged access to other people live’s
    • The agenda is totally predetermined by the researcher, who works through a list of set questions in a predetermined order
  • Bias inherent in most research method
    1. In terms of oral interview-
    asymmetrical relationship between the participants
    2. In terms of content-
    biographical factors such as gender and ethnicity can affect the validity and reliability of the research (Briggs, 1986)
    3. In linguistic term
    the asymmetry will be reflected in the actual language used (van Lier, 1989)
  • 40. Practical suggestions for planning and conducting interviews(recommended by Cohen and Manion, 1985)
    Preparing the interview schedule
    Selection of subjects
    Elements of the interview
    -briefing and explanation
  • 41. Practical suggestions about the actual conduct of the interview(suggested by Walker, 1985)
    Physical positioning of the interviewer and interviewee
    The researcher must also decide how to interview is going to be recorded:
  • 42. Table 7.5Strengths and Weaknesses ofTape-recording and Note-taking