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The Adult Learner: Chapter Outlines and Main Points

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This is a 200 slide presentation outlining the book The Adult Learner by Malcolm Knowles. As you may know this book is some dry reading so I and my peers converted it into a four hour lecture. This …

This is a 200 slide presentation outlining the book The Adult Learner by Malcolm Knowles. As you may know this book is some dry reading so I and my peers converted it into a four hour lecture. This was in 2004 and our powerpoint skills were basic. I hope this helps you with some insight into androgogy and the adult learner as well as some insight to the leading minds of the time.

Content created by: Brian Shearer, Rufus Brown, David Koleson, Jason Howsare, Karl Kilthau, and Mike Ramsey

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  • 1.  
  • 2.  
  • 3. Introduction
  • 4. Objectives
    • Explain plan for the book, Adult Learners
    • Names goals and purposes for learning
    • Name individual and situational differences
    • Recognize Andragogy, Core Adult Learning Principles
  • 5. Plan for the Book, Adult Learners
    • Roots of andragogy (Chapters 2–5)
    • - Core principles of adult learning,
    • andragogy
    • - Tracing the development of the theory
    • - Unique characteristics of adult learners
  • 6. Plan for the Book, Adult Learners
    • Advances in adult learning (Chapters 6-9)
    • - Adult learning, practice with HRD
    • - New thinking about andragogy
    • - New advancements of adult learning
    • - How andragogy is applied in practice
  • 7. Plan for the Book, Adult Learners
    • Practices in adult learning (Chapter 10-17)
    • - Specific aspects of andragogy in practice
    • - Strategies to implement the core
    • assumptions
    • - Tailor learning to individual differences
    • - Implement adult learning in organizations
  • 8. Goals and Purposes for Learning
    • Societal growth
    • Individual growth
    • Institutional growth
  • 9. Individual and Situational Differences
    • Situational differences
    • Individual learners differences
    • Subject matter differences
  • 10. Andragogy: Core Adult Learning Principles
    • Learners need to know
    • - Why
    • - What
    • - How
    • Self Concept of the learner
    • - Autonomous
    • - Self-directing
  • 11. Andragogy: Core Adult Learning Principles
    • Prior experience of the learner
    • - Resources
    • - Mental model
    • Readiness to learn
    • - Life related
    • - Developmental task
  • 12. Andragogy: Core Adult Learning Principles
    • Orientation to learning
    • - Problem centered
    • - Contextual
    • Motivation to learn
    • - Intrinsic value
    • - Personal payoff
  • 13. Summary
    • Plan for the book, Adult Learners
    • Goals and purposes for learning
    • Individual and situational differences
    • Andragogy, Core Adult Learning Principles
  • 14.  
  • 15. Exploring the World of Learning Theory
  • 16. OBJECTIVES
    • Explain the concept of theory.
    • Discuss the difference between the concepts of learning and education.
    • Explain that learning comes through change and/or growth.
    • Explain the elements of humanistic psychology.
    • Explain the concept of the independent learner.
    • Identify Gagne’s five domains of learning.
  • 17. What is a theory?
    • Webster’s Dictionary- 5 definitions
    • Kidd
    • Hilgard and Bower
    • McGregor
    • Gagne’
    • Torraco
    • Knowles
  • 18.
    • A Theory is a comprehensive, coherent, and internally consistent system of ideas about a set of phenomena.
  • 19. Education vs. Learning
    • Aren’t they the same thing?
    • How do they Differ, Compare?
    • Why do we need to know?
  • 20. Education
    • An activity undertaken by one or more agents that is designed to effect changes in the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of individuals, groups, or communities.
  • 21. Learning
    • The act or process by which behavioral change, knowledge, skills, and attitudes are acquired.
  • 22. Behavioral Change vs. Growth
    • Behavior is a modification where performance is changed, shaped or controlled.
    • Growth is a development of competencies towards performance.
  • 23. Humanistic psychology
    • Personal involvement- the whole person
    • Self-initiation- comprehending come from within
    • Pervasiveness- make a difference in the learner
    • Evaluation- meets learner personal needs
    • Its essence of meaning- `whole experience
  • 24. Summary
    • Why study learning
    • What is a Theory
    • Education vs. Learning
    • Definitions
    • Behavioral Change vs. Growth
    • Humanistic Psychology
  • 25.  
  • 26. Theories of Learning
  • 27. Objectives
    • Explain the difference: propounders and interpreters
    • Discuss the types of learning theories
    • Explain the concept of part and whole models of development
    • Discuss theories based on an elemental model
    • Discuss theories based on a holistic model
  • 28. Difference Between Propounders and Interpreters
    • Propounders tend to be single-minded
    • Interpreters tend to be reconciliatory
  • 29. Major Types of Theories
    • Behaviorist/Connectionist
    • Cognitive/Gestalt
  • 30. Part and Whole Models of Development
    • Elemental Models - represent the universe as a machine composed of discrete pieces operating in a spatio-temporal field: reactive and adaptive models of man.
    • Holistic Models - represent the universe as a unitary, interactive, developing organism: active ad adaptive models of man.
  • 31. Theories based on an Elemental Model
    • Thorndike's 3 Laws
      • Law of readiness
      • Law of exercise
      • Law of effect
  • 32. Theories based on an Elemental Model
    • Pavlov’s concepts
      • reinforcement
      • extinction
      • generalization
      • differentiation
  • 33. Theories Based on a Holistic Model.
    • Functionalist
      • Is tolerant but critical
      • Prefers continuities over discontinuities or typologies.
      • Is an experimentalist.
      • Is biased towards associationism and environmentalism.
  • 34. Theories Based on a Holistic Model.
    • Learners organize their perceptual field according to four laws.
      • Law of proximity
      • Law of similarity and familiarity
      • Law of closure
      • Law of continuation
  • 35. Theories Based on a Holistic Model.
    • Gestalt psychology belongs to the family of field theories
      • Field theories propose the total pattern of forces, stimuli, or events determine learning.
  • 36. Summary
    • Propounders are single-minded
    • Interpreters are reconciliatory
    • The major types of learning theory are
      • Behaviorist / Connectionist
      • Cognitive / Gestalt
    • Elemental models represent the universe as a machine
    • Holistic models represent the universe as an organism
  • 37.  
  • 38. A Theory of Adult Learning: Andragogy
  • 39. Great Teachers of Ancient Times
    • Confucius and Lao Tse of China
    • Hebrew prophets
    • Jesus in Biblical times
    • Aristotle
    • Socrates
    • Plato in ancient Greece
    • Cicero, Evelid, and Quintillian in ancient Rome
  • 40. Streams of Inquiry
    • Scientific Stream
      • Thorndike in his Adult Learning publication in 1928
    • Artistic or intuitive/reflective stream
      • Edward Linderman in his The Meaning of Adult Education publication in 1926
  • 41. Lindeman’s Key Assumptions
    • Adults are motivated to learn as they experience needs & interests that learning will satisfy.
    • Adults’ orientation to learning is life-centered.
    • Experience in the richest source for adults’ learning.
    • Adults have a deep need to be self-directing.
    • Individual differences among people increase with age
  • 42. Carl Rogers
    • Conceptualized a student-centered approach to education based on five basic hypotheses
  • 43.
    • 1. The need to know
    • 2. The learner’s self-concept
    • 3. The role of experience
    • 4. Readiness to learn
    • 5. Orientation to learn
    • 6. Motivation
  • 44. Clinical Psychology
    • Sigmund Freud
    • Carl Jung
    • Erik Erikson
    • Abraham Maslow
    • Carl Rogers
  • 45. Sigmund Freud
    • Identified influence of subconscious mind on behavior
  • 46. Carl Jung
    • Introduced notion the human consciousness possesses four functions:
    • Sensation
    • Thought
    • Emotion
    • intuition
  • 47. Erik Erikson
    • Provided “Eight Ages of Man”
    • Only the last three stages apply to adults
    • Adolescence and Young Adult
  • 48.  
  • 49. Theories of Teaching
  • 50. Objectives
    • Explain how the principles of teaching differ from theories of learning.
    • Identify the differences Hilgard’s teaching theories.
    • Identify the concepts derived form learning theories about animals and children.
    • Identify guidelines for facilitating learning.
    • Identify the major contributors to adult learner theories.
    • Identify the concepts of teaching derived from the theories of teaching.
    • Explain the role of John Dewey.
    • Explain perspective transformation and critical reflectivity.
    • Explain the concepts of the Change Theory.
  • 51. Principles of Teaching From Theories of Learning
    • Theories of learning
    • Deals with the way in
    • which an organism
    • learns
    • Theories of teaching
    • Deals with the ways in which a person influences an organism to learn
    The way a teacher learns
  • 52. Hilgard’s 20 Principles
  • 53. From Animals and Children
    • Research on adult education/learning had not been done until recently.
    • Thorndike, Guthrie, Skinner, Hull, Tolman, and Gagne were the major contributors to this research.
  • 54. Carl Rogers
    • “… one truth about modern man is that he lives in an environment which is continually changing…”therefore the aim of education must be the facilitation of learning.
  • 55. Guidelines for the Facilitation of Learning:
    • Setting the mood and climate of the class
    • Elicit and clarify purposes of the individuals
    • Relies upon the desire of each student to implement that purpose.
    • Wide range of resources available for learning
    • Flexible resource for the group
    • Accepts both intellectual content and the emotionalized attitudes
    • The facilitator is also a learner
    • Takes initiative to share themselves with the group
    • Empathy
    • Recognize and accept their own limitations
  • 56. Contrasting Ideas
    • Maslow
    • Brown
    • Drews
    • Watson
    • Houle
    • Tough
  • 57. Key Concepts of Dewey’s Teaching
    • Experience
    • Democracy
    • Continuity
    • Interaction
  • 58. Jerome Bruner
    • Criteria for teaching through inquiry
    • Predisposition towards learning
    • Structured so that it can be most readily grasped
    • Sequence in which to present the materials
    • Nature and pacing of rewards and punishment
  • 59. Teaching through modeling
    • Albert Bandura labeled the system social learning
    • Teacher behaves in ways that he or she wants the learner to imitate
    • Gage states “Learning through imitation seems to be especially appropriate for tasks that have little cognitive structure”
  • 60. Perspective Transformation & Critical Reflectivity
    • Mezirow
    • Help adult learners transform the way they think about themselves
    • Brookfield
    • Development of competence
  • 61. Change Theory
    • Planning of change
    • Choice and use of strategies of change
    • Organizational development
    • Role of the consultant and change agent
    • Management of conflict
    • Intervention theory
    • Resistance to change
    • Human relations training
    • Ethics of change agentry
  • 62. Summary
    • Theories of learning differ from theories of teaching
      • Learning theories adopted by the teacher affect the teaching theories employed
    • Hilgard’s 20 learning principles
    • Dewey was the most influential for the theories of teaching
    • Teaching through modeling/Bandura
    • Perspective transformation/critical reflectivity
  • 63.  
  • 64. Adult Learning Within Human Resource Development
  • 65. Objectives
    • Explain Human Resource Development (HRD) goals
    • Explain how HRD can improve performance
    • Recognize the relationship between HRD and adult learning
    • Explain the premise of individuals controlling their own learning
    • Recognize the four phases of the adult learning planning process
  • 66. HRD Goals
    • Professionals view
    • HRD s hould focus on increasing
    • performance requirements through the
    • development of the organization’s work force
  • 67. HRD Goals
    • Others view
    • HRD should focus on individual
    • development and personal fulfillment without
    • using organizational performance as the
    • measure of worth
  • 68. How HRD can improve performance
    • Diagnose performance at different levels
    • Organizational level
    •   Process level
    • Individual level
  • 69. How HRD can improve performance
    • Evaluate each level with performance variables
    • Mission/Goal
    •   System design
    • Capacity
    • Motivation
    • Expertise
  • 70. Relationship between HRD and Adult Learning Goals
    • HRD
    • Organization retains the authority to approve
    • or disapprove learning interventions
    • Control is with the organization
  • 71. Relationship between HRD and adult learning HRD Goals
    • Adult learning
    • Learning outcomes and learning process
    • rules and requirements are located in the
    • individual
    • Control is with the individual
  • 72. Premise of individuals controlling their own learning
    • Self-concept idea
    • Individuals want to have control
    • Better outcomes when learner retains control
  • 73. Four phases of the adult learning plan
    • Phase 1 - Need
    • Determines what learning is needed to achieve
    • goals
    • Create a strategy and resources to achieve the
    • learning goal(s)
    Phase 2 - Create
  • 74. Four phases of the adult learning plan continued
    • Phase 3 - Implement
    • Implement learning strategy and use the learning
    • resources
    • Assess the attainment of the learning goal and the
    • process of reaching it
    Phase 4 - Evaluate
  • 75. Summary
    • Different views on HRD goals
    • 3 Levels HRD can improve performance
    • Premise of individuals controlling their own learning
    • Relationship between HRD and adult learning goals
    • Four phases of the adult learning plan
  • 76.  
  • 77.  
  • 78. New Perspectives on Andragogy
  • 79. Objectives
    • Explain what learners need to know
    • Explain self-directed learning
    • Name prior experiences of the learner
    • Explain readiness to learn
    • Compare orientation to learning and problem solving
    • Discuss motivation to learn
  • 80. What Learners Need to Know
    • How learning is conducted
    • - Training fulfillment
    • - Post-training organizational commitment
    • - Academic self-efficiency
    • - Motivation to use the training
  • 81. What Learners Need to Know
    • What is learned
    • - What topics will be covered
    • - Choice of topics
    • - Trainee involvement in planning about
    • learning
    • -- High motivation
    • -- Low motivation
  • 82. What Learners Need to Know
    • Why they should learn
    • - Significant predictors of training
    • -- Motivation
    • -- Job utility
    • -- Career utility
    • - Trainees provide input
    • -- Likely to perceive job utility
    • -- Likely to perceive career utility
  • 83. Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory)
    • Stage 1
    • - Student is dependent
    • - Teacher is authority and coach
    • - Examples
    • -- Coaching with feedback and drill
    • -- Information lecture
    • -- Overcoming deficiencies and resistance
  • 84. Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory)
    • Stage 2
    • - Student is interested
    • - Teacher is a motivator and guide
    • - Examples
    • -- Inspiring lecture plus guided discussion
    • -- Goal-setting and learning strategies
  • 85. Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory)
    • Stage 3
    • - Student is involved
    • - Teacher is facilitator
    • - Examples
    • -- Teacher participates as equal
    • -- Seminar
    • -- Group projects
  • 86. Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory)
    • Stage 4
    • - Student is self-directed
    • - Teacher is consultant and delagator
    • - Examples
    • -- Internship
    • -- Dissertation
    • -- Individual work or self-directed study group
  • 87. Prior Experiences of the Learner
    • Loops
    • - “Single-loop” learning
    • - “Double-loop” learning
    • Knowing-in-action
    • Reflection-in-action
  • 88. Prior Experiences of the Learner
    • Predominant model of human memory
    • - Sensory
    • -- What information to process
    • -- Information that is already stored
    • - Short-term
  • 89. Prior Experiences of the Learner
    • Long-term
    • - Some info selected and some excluded
    • - Underlying meanings -vs- verbatim
    • input
    • - Existing knowledge about the world
    • - Existing knowledge added to new
    • information
  • 90. Prior Experiences of the Learner
    • - Constructivist instructional principles
    • -- Anchor learning to a large task or
    • problem
    • -- Support the learner in developing
    • ownership of problem
    • -- Design an authentic task
    • -- Design the task and learning
    • environment
  • 91. Prior Experiences of the Learner
    • -- Give learner ownership of the process
    • -- Design learning to support and
    • challenge learner’s thinking
    • -- Encourage testing ideas
    • -- Provide opportunity for and support
    • reflection
  • 92. Readiness to Learn
    • Direction
    • - Learners need for assistance from other
    • persons
    • - A function of an adults competence in the
    • subject matter
  • 93. Readiness to Learn
    • Support
    • - Affective encouragement the learner
    • needs from others
    • - Product of two factors
    • -- Learners commitment to the learning
    • process
    • -- Learners confidence about their
    • learning ability
  • 94. Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving
    • Concrete experience
    • - Simulation
    • - Case study
    • - Field trip
    • - Real experience
    • - Demonstrations
  • 95. Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving
    • Observations and reflections
    • - Discussion
    • - Small groups
    • - Buzz groups
    • - Designated observers
  • 96. Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving
    • Formation of abstract concepts in new situations
    • - Sharing content
    • Testing implications of new concepts in new situations
    • - Laboratory experiences
    • - On-the-job experience
    • - Internships
    • - Practice Sessions
  • 97. Motivation to Learn
    • Wlodowski – The sum of four factors
    • - Success
    • - Volition
    • - Value
    • - Enjoyment
  • 98. Motivation to Learn
    • Vroom – Expectancy theory posits – The sum of three factors
    • - Valence
    • - Instrumentality
    • - Expectancy
  • 99. Motivation to Learn
    • Characteristics and skills of motivating instructors
    • - Expertise
    • - Empathy
    • - Enthusiasm
    • - Clarity
  • 100. Summary
    • What learners need to know
    • Self-directed learning
    • Prior experiences of the learner
    • Readiness to learn
    • Orientation to learning and problem solving
    • Motivation to learn
  • 101.  
  • 102. Beyond Andragogy
  • 103. Objectives
    • Recognize different perspectives of psychology, development perspectives, and life-span development that enhance core learning principles of andragogy.
    • Recognize that by broadening learning capabilities, learners can more readily adapt to a wide range of learning situations.
    • Recognize adult development theories and how they relate to the development of adult curriculum.
    • Identify how life-span development theories clarify and refine adult learning principles.
  • 104. Individual Learner Differences
    • Cognitive
    • Personality
    • Prior Knowledge
  • 105. Individual Learner Differences (Cognitive)
    • Fluid and Crystallized intelligence
    • Guilford’s propose three-factor structure of intellect (intellectual abilities, intellect, and Intelligence)
    • Sternberg’s theory of intelligence
    • Cognitive controls
    • Cognitive styles
  • 106. Learning how to learn
    • Kinds of learning (Gibbons 1990)
    • (natural, formal, personal)
    • Aspects of learning (Gibbons 1990)
    • (reason, emotion, action)
    • Domains of learning (Gibbons 1990)
    • (technical, social, developmental)
    • Components of effective learning (Smith 1982)
    • (needs, learning style, training)
  • 107. Developmental perspectives on adult learning
    • Development theories
    • Life-span
    • Cognitive development
    • Physical change
  • 108. Development theory impact
    • Inextricably intertwined with adult development
    • Occurs along multiple paths and dimensions
    • Will vary primarily with stages of cognitive development
    • Motivation/readiness varies according to stage of life-span
    • Educators must tailor training to fit developmental stage
  • 109. Summary
    • Individual differences can be classified into broad categories.
    • Instructors can help students learn how to learn
    • Individual learning needs and abilities change with age
    • Instructors should use these theories as needed to develop better curriculum
  • 110.  
  • 111. Andragogy in Practice
  • 112. Objectives
    • Recognize the value of adult learners.
    • Identify the three rings of andragogy in practice.
    • Recognize the flexibility of andragogy.
  • 113. Value of adult learners
    • Complexity of work
    • Information technology
    • Job specialization
    • Value of their brain
    • Human longevity
    • Health care
  • 114. Andragogy in practice (Knowles, Holton, and Swason, 1998)
  • 115. Flexibility of Andragogy
    • Can be adapted in whole or in part
    • Not an ideology that must be applied totally or without modification
    • Essential feature of androgogy is flexibility
  • 116. Summary
    • Value of adult learners
    • Three rings of andragogy in practice
    • Flexibility of andragogy
  • 117.  
  • 118. Whole – Part – Whole Learning Models
  • 119. Objectives
    • Explain Whole-Part-Whole (WPW) Learning Models
    • Explain WPW model overview
    • Describe First Whole of a WPW model
    • Describe Second Whole of a WPW model
    • Explain the role of the parts component of a WPW model
  • 120. WPW Learning Models
    • Separate into to camps
      • behaviorist/connectionist camp
      • gestalt/cognitive camp
    • Acknowledge the value of each camp
  • 121. WPW Model Overview
    • WPW learning models go beyond holistic behavioristic, whole – part, and part – whole learning models.
    • First part is an introduction to the new material.
    • Supports the part (s) aspect of the model
    • After the learner masters the individual parts, the instructor ties it all together to form the second whole.
  • 122. First whole of WPW
    • First whole of WPW
      • provide a mental scaffolding for the new information
      • provide motivation to learner
  • 123. First whole of WPW
    • Advance Organizers
      • technique for making material valuable to the learner thus improving retention and retrieval
      • understand difference in individuals
      • creating a framework for the learner at the beginning
      • proper organizing of knowledge in the beginning stages.
  • 124. First whole of WPW
    • Motivating the learner
      • learning occurs as a result of change in cognitive structures produced by changes in two types of forces
        • change in the cognitive structure itself
        • change in the internal needs or motivation of the
        • individual
      • human behavior is goal oriented
      • capitalize on students existing desire to learn
      • clearly stated goals at the beginning
  • 125. Second whole of WPW
    • considered the major component
    • links the individual parts back together
    • only traces of the parts remain upon completion of instruction
    • the instructor must aid the students with the strengthening of the traces by forming the instructional whole.
    • the parts of instruction take on new meaning within the whole.
    • repetitive practice of the whole.
    • practice creates automatcism in the learner.
  • 126. Role of the “parts” component of WPW
    • relies on the standard systematic and behavioristic approach to instruction
    • learner must achieve complete mastery of each part in order for the second part to be effective.
    • each part needs to be structured in a WPW fashion
  • 127. Summary
    • WPW learning models go beyond holistic behavioristic, whole – part, and part – whole learning models.
    • The first part of the WPW is the framework
    • The second part is considered the major component
    • The each part of the parts component must be mastered before moving on
  • 128.  
  • 129. From Teacher to Facilitator of Learning
  • 130. Objectives
    • Explain the roles of a teacher
    • Explain the roles of a facilitator of learning
  • 131. Roles of a teacher
    • Transmit prescribed content
    • Control the way student receive and use the
    • content
    • Test to see if they have received it
  • 132. Roles of a facilitator of learning
    • Process manager
    • (Secondarily) Content resource
  • 133. Summary
    • Roles of a teacher
    • Roles of a facilitator of learning
  • 134.  
  • 135. Making Things Happen by Releasing the Energy of Others
  • 136. Objectives
    • Name the behavioral characteristics of creative leaders
    • Describe assumptions about human nature for Theory “X” and Theory “Y”
    • Know the characteristics of Static and Innovative Organizations
  • 137. Behavioral Characteristics of Creative Leaders
    • Make positive assumptions about human nature
    • Accept as a law of human nature, people feel commitment to decisions they have participated in
    • Use the power of self-fulfilling prophesy
    • Hold high value for individuality
  • 138. Behavioral Characteristics of Creative Leaders (cont.)
    • Stimulate and reward creativity
    • Committed to continuing change and diligent with managing the change
    • Emphasize internal motivators over external motivators
    • Encourage people to be self-directed
  • 139. Assumptions Implicit in Current Education and About Human Nature for Theory “X”.
    • Theory X assumptions implicit in current education
      • Students cannot be trusted to pursue their own learning
      • Presentation equals learning
      • Accumulate brick upon brick of factual knowledge
      • Truth is known
      • Creative citizens are bred from passive learners
      • Evaluation is education
      • Education is evaluation
  • 140. Assumptions Implicit in Current Education and About Human Nature for Theory “X”
    • Theory X assumptions about human nature
      • Humans dislike work and will avoid it
      • Humans must be coerced and threatened to perform
      • Humans prefer being directed
      • Wish to avoid responsibility
      • Have little ambition
      • Wants security above all
  • 141. Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y”
    • Theory Y assumptions relevant to significant experiential learning
      • Human have a natural potentiality for learning
      • Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is perceived by the student as relevant to his own purposes
      • Significant learning is acquired through doing
  • 142. Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y”
    • Learning is facilitated by the student’s participation in the learning process
    • Self-initiated learning is the most pervasive and lasting
    • Creativity in learning is best facilitated when self-criticism and self-evaluation are primary
    • The process of learning is the most socially useful thing
  • 143. Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y”
    • Theory Y assumptions about human nature
      • The expenditure of physical and mental effort is as natural as play or rest
      • External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for production
      • Humans will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives for which they are committed
  • 144. Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y”
    • Theory Y assumptions about human nature (cont.)
      • Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement
      • Humans learn to, not only accept, but seek responsibility
      • A high capacity for imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely distributed in the population
  • 145. The Characteristics of Static and Innovative Organizations
    • Static organizations
      • Rigid structure
      • Cold, suspicious atmosphere
      • Management’s function is to control personnel
      • Low risk taking
      • Decision-making takes place primarily at the top
      • Clear distinction between policy-making and policy-execution
      • Downward information flow
  • 146. The Characteristics of Static and Innovative Organizations
    • Innovative organizations
      • Flexible structure
      • Warm, trusting atmosphere
      • Management’s function is to release the energy of the employees
      • High risk taking
      • Decision-making is relative to all
      • Collaborative policy-making and policy-execution
      • Multidirectional information flow
  • 147. Summary
    • Creative leaders are positive about people
    • Theory “X” type leaders are cynical and suspicious of employees
    • Theory “Y” type leaders view employees for what they are: people
    • Static organizations have difficulty growing and adapting
    • Innovative organizations are postured for growth and adaptation
  • 148.  
  • 149.  
  • 150. Some Guidelines for the Use of Learning Contracts
  • 151. Objectives
    • Explain why we use learning contracts
    • Recognize how to develop a learning contract
  • 152. Why we use learning contracts
    • Makes planning of learning experience a mutual undertaking between a learner and teacher
  • 153. How to develop a learning contract
    • Step 1 - Diagnose your learning needs
    • Assess the gap between where you are now and where you need to be
    • Step 2 - Specify your learning objectives
    • Translate your needs into a learning objective
  • 154. How to develop a learning contract continued
    • Step 3 - Specify learning resources and strategies
    • Describe how you will accomplish each objective
    • Step 4 - Specify evidence of accomplishment
    • Describe what evidence you will collect to indicate
    • the degree to which you achieved each objective
  • 155. How to develop a learning contract continued
    • Step 5 - Describe how evidence will be validated
    • Specify what criteria the evidence will be judged by
    • Step 6 - Review you contract with consultants
    • Review with friends, supervisor, or experts
  • 156. How to develop a learning contract continued
    • Step 7 - Carry out the contract
    • Step 8 - Evaluation of your learning
    • Ask consultants to examine your evidence
    • and validation data for adequacy
  • 157. Summary
    • 8 steps involved in developing a learning contract
    • Why we use learning contracts
  • 158.  
  • 159. Core Competency Diagnostic and Planning Guide
  • 160. Self-Diagnostic Rating Scale Competencies for the Role of Adult Educator/Trainer
    • The self-diagnostic rating scaling is a six point scale that helps show you where you are and what performance level you need to be at to reach your goal.
  • 161. Six point scale of Self Diagnostic
  • 162. Model of the six point scale of Self-Diagnostic
  • 163.  
  • 164. Training Delivery Problems and Solutions
  • 165. Objectives
    • Explain the purpose of the study
    • Explain the methodology of the study
    • Recognize the difference between a novice and expert trainer
    • Recognize expert solutions to common novice training problems
  • 166. The purpose of the study
    • Determine difficulties novice trainers experience
    • during the delivery of training
    • Gather reports from experts on how they handle
    • such situations
    • Synthesize information into useful aid that defines
    • training delivery problems and provides specific
    • solutions
  • 167. Methodology of the study
    • Survey trainers to determine the most frequent
    • training delivery problems the novice trainer
    • experiences
    • Analyze data and synthesize results into 10-15
    • major delivery problems
    • Identify experts to respond to major training
    • delivery problems
  • 168. Methodology of the study continued
    • Survey the training experts through a
    • questionnaire
    • Prepare job aids
        • List training delivery problems
        • General solutions
        • Specific solutions
    • Prepare final report
  • 169. Difference between a novice and expert trainer
    • Intellect
    • Experience
    • Experts have a minimum of two years experience
    • Must receive recognition from colleagues or academicians
  • 170. Expert solutions to common novice training problems
    • Fear
    • Be well prepared
    • Use ice breakers
    • Acknowledge the fear
  • 171. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Credibility
    • Don’t apologize
    • Have an attitude of an expert
    • Share personal background
  • 172. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Personal experiences
    • Report personal experiences
    • Report experiences of others
    • Use, analogies, movies, or famous people
  • 173. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Difficult learners
    • Confront problem learner
    • Circumvent dominating behavior
    • Small groups for timid behavior
  • 174. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Participation
    • Ask open-ended questions
    • Plan small group activities
    • Invite participation
  • 175. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Timing
    • Plan well
    • Practice, practice, practice
  • 176. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Adjust instruction
    • Know group needs
    • Request feedback
    • Redesign during breaks
  • 177. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Questions
    • Answering questions
        • Anticipate questions
        • Paraphrase learner’s questions
        • “ I don’t know” is okay
  • 178. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Questions
    • Asking questions
        • Ask concise questions
  • 179. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Feedback
    • Solicit informal feedback
    • Do summative evaluations
  • 180. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Media, Materials, Facilities
    • Media
        • Know equipment
        • Have back-ups
        • Enlist assistance
  • 181. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Media, Materials, Facilities
    • Materials
        • Be prepared
  • 182. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Media, Materials, Facilities
    • Facilities
        • Visit facility beforehand
        • Arrive early
  • 183. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Openings and closings
    • Openings
        • Develop an openings file
        • Memorize
        • Relax trainees
  • 184. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Openings and closings
    • Closings
        • Summarize concisely
        • Thank participants
  • 185. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued
    • Notes are necessary
    • Use cards
    • Use visuals
    • Practice
    Dependence on notes
  • 186. Summary
    • The purpose of the study
    • Methodology of the study
    • Difference between a novice and expert trainer
    • Expert solutions to common novice training problems
  • 187.  
  • 188. A Model for Developing Employee Work Effectiveness in New Roles and Environments
  • 189. Objectives
    • Discuss new employee learning taxonomies
    • Discuss individual domain
    • Discuss people domain
    • Discuss organizational domain
    • Discuss work task domain
    • ID new employee development system
    • Explain challenges for educational institutions
  • 190. New Employee Learning Taxonomies
    • Four content domains for new employee learning
    • - Individual
    • -- Attitudes
    • -- Expectations
    • -- Breaking in
  • 191. New Employee Learning Taxonomies
    • - People
    • -- Impression
    • -- Management
    • -- Relationships
    • -- Supervisor
  • 192. New Employee Learning Taxonomies
    • - Organization
    • -- Culture
    • -- Savvy
    • -- Roles
    • - Work tasks
    • -- Work savvy
    • -- Task knowledge
    • -- Knowledgeable skills and abilities
  • 193. Individual Domain
    • Attitude
    • Expectations
    • Breaking in
  • 194. People Domain
    • Impression management
    • Relationships
    • Supervisor
  • 195. Organizational Domain
    • Organizational culture
    • Organizational savvy
    • Organizational roles
  • 196. Work Task Domain
    • Work savvy
    • Task knowledge
    • Knowledge, skill and abilities
  • 197. New Employee Development System
    • Foundational learning programs
    • External job training
    • Employee based training programs
    • Learning in the workplace
  • 198. Challenges for Educational Institutions
    • Develop the individual domain
    • Teach basics skills in the people and organizational domains
    • Build awareness of the entire scope of learning tasks after employment
    • Develop organizational skills
  • 199. Summary
    • New employee learning taxonomies
    • Individual domain
    • People domain
    • Organizational domain
    • Work task domain
    • New employee development system
    • Challenges for educational institutions
  • 200.  
  • 201. Linking Learning and Performance in HRD
  • 202. Objectives
    • Recognize the four domains of performance for HRD/PI
    • Comprehend the distinction between performance outcomes and drivers
    • Recognize the importance of HRD/PI in the pursuit of whole system improvement
  • 203. Four domains of performance for HRD/PI
    • Mission
    • Process
    • Critical performance subsystem
    • Individual
  • 204. Distinction between outcomes and drivers
    • Performance outcomes
    • Performance drivers
  • 205. Importance of HRD/PI in the pursuit of whole system improvement
    • Proper analysis
    • Strategy
    • Team intervention
    • Quality
    • Learning
  • 206. Summary
    • Four domains of performance for HRD/PI
    • Distinction between performance domains and measures
    • Importance of HRD/PI in the pursuit of whole system improvement
  • 207.  

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