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Introduction
Objectives <ul><li>Explain plan for the book, Adult Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Names goals and purposes for learning </li>...
Plan for the Book, Adult Learners <ul><li>Roots of andragogy (Chapters 2–5) </li></ul><ul><li>- Core principles of adult l...
Plan for the Book, Adult Learners <ul><li>Advances in adult learning (Chapters 6-9) </li></ul><ul><li>- Adult learning, pr...
Plan for the Book, Adult Learners <ul><li>Practices in adult learning (Chapter 10-17) </li></ul><ul><li>- Specific aspects...
Goals and Purposes for Learning <ul><li>Societal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Individual growth </li></ul><ul><li>Institutiona...
Individual and Situational Differences  <ul><li>Situational differences </li></ul><ul><li>Individual learners differences ...
Andragogy:  Core Adult Learning Principles <ul><li>Learners need to know </li></ul><ul><li>- Why </li></ul><ul><li>- What ...
Andragogy:  Core Adult Learning Principles <ul><li>Prior experience of the learner </li></ul><ul><li>- Resources </li></ul...
Andragogy:  Core Adult Learning Principles <ul><li>Orientation to learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Problem centered </li></ul>...
Summary <ul><li>Plan for the book, Adult Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and purposes for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Indi...
 
Exploring the World of Learning Theory
OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Explain the concept of theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the difference between the concepts of learnin...
What is a theory? <ul><li>Webster’s Dictionary- 5 definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Kidd </li></ul><ul><li>Hilgard and Bower  ...
<ul><li>A Theory is a comprehensive, coherent, and internally consistent system of ideas about a set of phenomena. </li></ul>
Education vs. Learning <ul><li>Aren’t they the same thing? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they Differ, Compare? </li></ul><ul><l...
Education <ul><li>An activity undertaken by one or more agents that is designed to effect changes in the knowledge, skills...
Learning <ul><li>The act or process by which behavioral change, knowledge, skills, and attitudes are acquired. </li></ul>
Behavioral Change vs. Growth <ul><li>Behavior is a modification where performance is changed, shaped or controlled. </li><...
Humanistic psychology <ul><li>Personal involvement- the whole person </li></ul><ul><li>Self-initiation- comprehending come...
Summary <ul><li>Why study learning </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Education vs. Learning </li></ul><...
 
Theories of Learning
Objectives <ul><li>Explain the difference: propounders and interpreters </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the types of learning th...
Difference Between Propounders and Interpreters <ul><li>Propounders tend to be single-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreter...
Major Types of Theories <ul><li>Behaviorist/Connectionist </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive/Gestalt </li></ul>
Part and Whole Models of Development <ul><li>Elemental Models - represent the universe as a machine composed of discrete p...
Theories based on an  Elemental Model <ul><li>Thorndike's 3 Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of readiness </li></ul></ul><ul...
Theories based on an  Elemental Model <ul><li>Pavlov’s concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Theories Based on a Holistic Model. <ul><li>Functionalist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is tolerant but critical </li></ul></ul><u...
Theories Based on a Holistic Model. <ul><li>Learners organize their perceptual field according to four laws. </li></ul><ul...
Theories Based on a Holistic Model. <ul><li>Gestalt psychology belongs to the family of field theories </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Summary <ul><li>Propounders are single-minded  </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreters are reconciliatory </li></ul><ul><li>The maj...
 
A Theory of Adult Learning: Andragogy
Great Teachers of Ancient Times <ul><li>Confucius and Lao Tse of China </li></ul><ul><li>Hebrew prophets </li></ul><ul><li...
Streams of Inquiry <ul><li>Scientific Stream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorndike in his Adult Learning publication in 1928 </l...
Lindeman’s Key Assumptions <ul><li>Adults are motivated to learn as they experience needs & interests that learning will s...
Carl Rogers <ul><li>Conceptualized a student-centered approach to education based on five basic hypotheses </li></ul>
<ul><li>1. The need to know </li></ul><ul><li>2. The learner’s self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>3. The role of experience </...
Clinical Psychology <ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson </li></ul><ul><li>Abr...
Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Identified influence of subconscious mind on behavior </li></ul>
Carl Jung <ul><li>Introduced notion the human consciousness possesses four functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation </li></u...
Erik Erikson <ul><li>Provided “Eight Ages of Man” </li></ul><ul><li>Only the last three stages apply to adults </li></ul><...
 
Theories of Teaching
Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the principles of teaching differ from theories of learning.  </li></ul><ul><li>Identify th...
Principles of Teaching From Theories of Learning <ul><li>Theories of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the way in  </l...
Hilgard’s   20 Principles
From Animals and Children <ul><li>Research on adult education/learning had not been done until recently. </li></ul><ul><li...
Carl Rogers <ul><li>“… one truth about modern man is that he lives in an environment which is continually changing…”theref...
Guidelines for the Facilitation of Learning: <ul><li>Setting the mood and climate of the class </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit an...
Contrasting Ideas <ul><li>Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Drews </li></ul><ul><li>Watson </li></ul><ul><l...
Key Concepts of  Dewey’s Teaching <ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity </li></ul><u...
Jerome Bruner <ul><li>Criteria for teaching through inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposition towards learning </li></ul><u...
Teaching through modeling <ul><li>Albert Bandura labeled the system social learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher behaves in w...
Perspective Transformation & Critical Reflectivity <ul><li>Mezirow </li></ul><ul><li>Help adult learners transform the way...
Change Theory <ul><li>Planning of change </li></ul><ul><li>Choice and use of strategies of change </li></ul><ul><li>Organi...
Summary <ul><li>Theories of learning differ from theories of teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning theories adopted by t...
 
Adult Learning Within Human Resource Development
Objectives <ul><li>Explain Human Resource Development (HRD) goals   </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how HRD can improve performa...
HRD Goals <ul><li>Professionals view   </li></ul><ul><li>HRD s hould focus on increasing  </li></ul><ul><li>performance re...
HRD Goals <ul><li>Others view   </li></ul><ul><li>HRD should focus on individual  </li></ul><ul><li>development and person...
How HRD can improve performance   <ul><li>Diagnose performance at different levels   </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational leve...
How HRD can improve performance   <ul><li>Evaluate each level with performance variables </li></ul><ul><li>Mission/Goal  <...
Relationship between HRD and Adult Learning  Goals <ul><li>HRD   </li></ul><ul><li>Organization retains the authority to a...
Relationship between HRD and adult learning  HRD Goals <ul><li>Adult learning  </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes and lea...
Premise of individuals controlling their own learning   <ul><li>Self-concept idea  </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals want to h...
Four phases of the adult learning plan  <ul><li>Phase 1 - Need  </li></ul><ul><li>Determines what learning is needed to ac...
Four phases of the adult learning plan continued <ul><li>Phase 3 - Implement  </li></ul><ul><li>Implement learning strateg...
Summary <ul><li>Different views on HRD goals </li></ul><ul><li>3 Levels HRD can improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Prem...
 
 
New Perspectives on Andragogy
Objectives <ul><li>Explain what learners need to know </li></ul><ul><li>Explain self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>N...
What Learners Need to Know <ul><li>How learning is conducted </li></ul><ul><li>-  Training fulfillment  </li></ul><ul><li>...
What Learners Need to Know <ul><li>What is learned </li></ul><ul><li>-  What topics will be covered  </li></ul><ul><li>- C...
What Learners Need to Know <ul><li>Why they should learn </li></ul><ul><li>- Significant predictors of training </li></ul>...
Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory) <ul><li>Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><li>- Student is dependent </li></...
Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory) <ul><li>Stage 2 </li></ul><ul><li>- Student is interested </li><...
Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory) <ul><li>Stage 3 </li></ul><ul><li>- Student is involved </li></u...
Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory) <ul><li>Stage 4 </li></ul><ul><li>- Student is self-directed </l...
Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li>Loops </li></ul><ul><li>- “Single-loop” learning </li></ul><ul><li>- “Double-loop...
Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li>Predominant model of human memory </li></ul><ul><li>-  Sensory </li></ul><ul><li>...
Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li>Long-term </li></ul><ul><li>  - Some info selected and some excluded </li></ul><u...
Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li>- Constructivist instructional principles </li></ul><ul><li>  -- Anchor learning ...
Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li>  -- Give learner ownership of the process </li></ul><ul><li>  -- Design learning...
Readiness to Learn <ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>- Learners need for assistance from other  </li></ul><ul><li>  pers...
Readiness to Learn <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>- Affective encouragement the learner  </li></ul><ul><li>needs from o...
Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving <ul><li>Concrete experience </li></ul><ul><li>- Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>-...
Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving <ul><li>Observations and reflections </li></ul><ul><li>- Discussion </li></ul>...
Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving <ul><li>Formation of abstract concepts in new situations </li></ul><ul><li>- S...
Motivation to Learn <ul><li>Wlodowski – The sum of four factors </li></ul><ul><li>- Success </li></ul><ul><li>- Volition <...
Motivation to Learn <ul><li>Vroom – Expectancy theory posits – The sum of three factors </li></ul><ul><li>- Valence </li><...
Motivation to Learn <ul><li>Characteristics and skills of motivating instructors </li></ul><ul><li>- Expertise </li></ul><...
Summary <ul><li>What learners need to know </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Prior experiences of...
 
Beyond Andragogy
Objectives <ul><li>Recognize different perspectives of psychology, development perspectives, and life-span development tha...
Individual Learner Differences  <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Knowledge </li></ul>
Individual Learner Differences (Cognitive) <ul><li>Fluid and Crystallized intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Guilford’s propos...
Learning how to learn  <ul><li>Kinds of learning (Gibbons 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>(natural, formal, personal) </li></ul><u...
Developmental perspectives on adult learning  <ul><li>Development theories </li></ul><ul><li>Life-span </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Development theory impact <ul><li>Inextricably intertwined with adult development </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs along multiple ...
Summary <ul><li>Individual differences can be classified into broad categories.  </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors can help st...
 
Andragogy in Practice
Objectives <ul><li>Recognize the value of adult learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the three rings of andragogy in pract...
Value of adult learners  <ul><li>Complexity of work </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology </li></ul><ul><li>Job special...
Andragogy in practice  (Knowles, Holton, and Swason, 1998)
Flexibility of Andragogy <ul><li>Can be adapted in whole or in part </li></ul><ul><li>Not an ideology that must be applied...
Summary <ul><li>Value of adult learners </li></ul><ul><li>Three rings of andragogy in practice </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibili...
 
Whole – Part – Whole Learning Models
Objectives <ul><li>Explain Whole-Part-Whole (WPW) Learning Models </li></ul><ul><li>Explain WPW model overview </li></ul><...
WPW Learning Models <ul><li>Separate into to camps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviorist/connectionist camp </li></ul></ul><ul...
WPW Model Overview <ul><li>WPW learning models go beyond holistic behavioristic, whole – part, and part – whole learning m...
First whole of WPW <ul><li>First whole of WPW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a mental scaffolding for the new information <...
First whole of WPW <ul><li>Advance Organizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technique for making material valuable to the learner ...
First whole of WPW <ul><li>Motivating the learner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning occurs as a result of change in cognitive...
Second whole of WPW <ul><li>considered the major component </li></ul><ul><li>links the individual parts back together </li...
Role of the “parts” component of WPW <ul><li>relies on the standard systematic and behavioristic approach to instruction <...
Summary <ul><li>WPW learning models go beyond holistic behavioristic, whole – part, and part – whole learning models. </li...
 
From Teacher to Facilitator of Learning
Objectives <ul><li>Explain the roles of a teacher   </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the roles of a facilitator of learning  </li...
Roles of a teacher   <ul><li>Transmit prescribed content  </li></ul><ul><li>Control the way student receive and use the  <...
Roles of a facilitator of learning   <ul><li>Process manager  </li></ul><ul><li>(Secondarily) Content resource  </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>Roles of a teacher  </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of a facilitator of learning   </li></ul>
 
Making Things Happen by Releasing the Energy of Others
Objectives <ul><li>Name the behavioral characteristics of creative leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Describe assumptions about hu...
Behavioral Characteristics of Creative Leaders <ul><li>Make positive assumptions about human nature </li></ul><ul><li>Acce...
Behavioral Characteristics of Creative Leaders (cont.) <ul><li>Stimulate and reward creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Committed...
Assumptions Implicit in Current Education and About Human Nature for Theory “X”. <ul><li>Theory X assumptions implicit in ...
Assumptions Implicit in Current Education and About Human Nature for Theory “X” <ul><li>Theory X assumptions about human n...
Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y” <ul><li>Theory Y assumptio...
Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y”  <ul><li>Learning is facil...
Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y” <ul><li>Theory Y assumptio...
Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y” <ul><li>Theory Y assumptio...
The Characteristics of Static and Innovative Organizations <ul><li>Static organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid struct...
The Characteristics of Static and Innovative Organizations <ul><li>Innovative organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible...
Summary <ul><li>Creative leaders are positive about people </li></ul><ul><li>Theory “X” type leaders are cynical and suspi...
 
 
Some Guidelines for the Use of Learning Contracts
Objectives <ul><li>Explain why we use learning contracts  </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize how to develop a learning contract  ...
Why we use learning contracts   <ul><li>Makes planning of learning experience a mutual undertaking between a learner and t...
How to develop a learning contract  <ul><li>Step 1 - Diagnose your learning needs   </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the gap betwe...
How to develop a learning contract continued <ul><li>Step 3 - Specify learning resources and strategies  </li></ul><ul><li...
How to develop a learning contract continued <ul><li>Step 5 - Describe how evidence will be validated  </li></ul><ul><li>S...
How to develop a learning contract continued <ul><li>Step 7 - Carry out the contract  </li></ul><ul><li>Step 8 - Evaluatio...
Summary <ul><li>8  steps involved in developing a learning contract </li></ul><ul><li>Why we use learning contracts </li><...
 
Core Competency Diagnostic and Planning Guide
Self-Diagnostic Rating Scale Competencies for the Role of Adult Educator/Trainer <ul><li>The self-diagnostic rating scalin...
Six point scale of Self Diagnostic
Model of the six point scale of Self-Diagnostic
 
Training Delivery Problems and Solutions
Objectives <ul><li>Explain the purpose of the study  </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the methodology of the study  </li></ul><ul...
The purpose of the study  <ul><li>Determine difficulties novice trainers experience  </li></ul><ul><li>during the delivery...
Methodology of the study  <ul><li>Survey trainers to determine the most frequent  </li></ul><ul><li>training delivery prob...
Methodology of the study continued <ul><li>Survey the training experts through a  </li></ul><ul><li>questionnaire  </li></...
Difference between a novice and expert trainer  <ul><li>Intellect </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Experts h...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems  <ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Be well prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Use...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Credibility  </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t apologize  </li...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Personal experiences  </li></ul><ul><li>Report perso...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Difficult learners  </li></ul><ul><li>Confront probl...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Ask open-ended quest...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Timing  </li></ul><ul><li>Plan well  </li></ul><ul><...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Adjust instruction  </li></ul><ul><li>Know group nee...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Questions  </li></ul><ul><li>Answering questions </l...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Questions  </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions  </li>...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Feedback  </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit informal feedbac...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Media, Materials, Facilities  </li></ul><ul><li>Medi...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Media, Materials, Facilities  </li></ul><ul><li>Mate...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Media, Materials, Facilities  </li></ul><ul><li>Faci...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Openings and closings  </li></ul><ul><li>Openings </...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Openings and closings  </li></ul><ul><li>Closings </...
Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued  <ul><li>Notes are necessary  </li></ul><ul><li>Use cards  <...
Summary   <ul><li>The purpose of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between...
 
A Model for Developing Employee Work Effectiveness in New Roles and Environments
Objectives <ul><li>Discuss new employee learning taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss individual domain </li></ul><ul><li>...
New Employee Learning Taxonomies <ul><li>Four content domains for new employee learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Individual </l...
New Employee Learning Taxonomies <ul><li>- People </li></ul><ul><li>  -- Impression </li></ul><ul><li>  -- Management </li...
New Employee Learning Taxonomies <ul><li>- Organization </li></ul><ul><li>  -- Culture </li></ul><ul><li>  -- Savvy </li><...
Individual Domain <ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking in </li></ul>
People Domain <ul><li>Impression management </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor </li></ul>
Organizational Domain <ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational savvy </li></ul><ul><li>Organization...
Work Task Domain <ul><li>Work savvy </li></ul><ul><li>Task knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge, skill and abilities </li...
New Employee Development System <ul><li>Foundational learning programs </li></ul><ul><li>External job training </li></ul><...
Challenges for Educational Institutions  <ul><li>Develop the individual domain </li></ul><ul><li>Teach basics skills in th...
Summary <ul><li>New employee learning taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Individual domain </li></ul><ul><li>People domain </li>...
 
Linking Learning and Performance in HRD
Objectives <ul><li>Recognize the four domains of performance for HRD/PI </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehend the distinction betwe...
Four domains of performance for HRD/PI <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Critical performance su...
Distinction between outcomes and drivers  <ul><li>Performance outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Performance drivers </li></ul>
Importance of HRD/PI in the pursuit of whole system improvement   <ul><li>Proper analysis  </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li...
Summary <ul><li>Four domains of performance for HRD/PI </li></ul><ul><li>Distinction between performance domains and measu...
 
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The Adult Learner: Chapter Outlines and Main Points

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This is a 200 slide presentation outlining the book The Adult Learner by Malcolm Knowles. As you may know this book is some dry reading so I and my peers converted it into a four hour lecture. This was in 2004 and our powerpoint skills were basic. I hope this helps you with some insight into androgogy and the adult learner as well as some insight to the leading minds of the time.

Content created by: Brian Shearer, Rufus Brown, David Koleson, Jason Howsare, Karl Kilthau, and Mike Ramsey

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Transcript of "The Adult Learner: Chapter Outlines and Main Points"

  1. 3. Introduction
  2. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Explain plan for the book, Adult Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Names goals and purposes for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Name individual and situational differences </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize Andragogy, Core Adult Learning Principles </li></ul>
  3. 5. Plan for the Book, Adult Learners <ul><li>Roots of andragogy (Chapters 2–5) </li></ul><ul><li>- Core principles of adult learning, </li></ul><ul><li>andragogy </li></ul><ul><li>- Tracing the development of the theory </li></ul><ul><li>- Unique characteristics of adult learners </li></ul>
  4. 6. Plan for the Book, Adult Learners <ul><li>Advances in adult learning (Chapters 6-9) </li></ul><ul><li>- Adult learning, practice with HRD </li></ul><ul><li>- New thinking about andragogy </li></ul><ul><li>- New advancements of adult learning </li></ul><ul><li>- How andragogy is applied in practice </li></ul>
  5. 7. Plan for the Book, Adult Learners <ul><li>Practices in adult learning (Chapter 10-17) </li></ul><ul><li>- Specific aspects of andragogy in practice </li></ul><ul><li>- Strategies to implement the core </li></ul><ul><li>assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>- Tailor learning to individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>- Implement adult learning in organizations </li></ul>
  6. 8. Goals and Purposes for Learning <ul><li>Societal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Individual growth </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional growth </li></ul>
  7. 9. Individual and Situational Differences <ul><li>Situational differences </li></ul><ul><li>Individual learners differences </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter differences </li></ul>
  8. 10. Andragogy: Core Adult Learning Principles <ul><li>Learners need to know </li></ul><ul><li>- Why </li></ul><ul><li>- What </li></ul><ul><li>- How </li></ul><ul><li>Self Concept of the learner </li></ul><ul><li>- Autonomous </li></ul><ul><li>- Self-directing </li></ul>
  9. 11. Andragogy: Core Adult Learning Principles <ul><li>Prior experience of the learner </li></ul><ul><li>- Resources </li></ul><ul><li>- Mental model </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to learn </li></ul><ul><li>- Life related </li></ul><ul><li>- Developmental task </li></ul>
  10. 12. Andragogy: Core Adult Learning Principles <ul><li>Orientation to learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Problem centered </li></ul><ul><li>- Contextual </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to learn </li></ul><ul><li>- Intrinsic value </li></ul><ul><li>- Personal payoff </li></ul>
  11. 13. Summary <ul><li>Plan for the book, Adult Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Goals and purposes for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and situational differences </li></ul><ul><li>Andragogy, Core Adult Learning Principles </li></ul>
  12. 15. Exploring the World of Learning Theory
  13. 16. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Explain the concept of theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the difference between the concepts of learning and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain that learning comes through change and/or growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the elements of humanistic psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the concept of the independent learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Gagne’s five domains of learning. </li></ul>
  14. 17. What is a theory? <ul><li>Webster’s Dictionary- 5 definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Kidd </li></ul><ul><li>Hilgard and Bower </li></ul><ul><li>McGregor </li></ul><ul><li>Gagne’ </li></ul><ul><li>Torraco </li></ul><ul><li>Knowles </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>A Theory is a comprehensive, coherent, and internally consistent system of ideas about a set of phenomena. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Education vs. Learning <ul><li>Aren’t they the same thing? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they Differ, Compare? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need to know? </li></ul>
  17. 20. Education <ul><li>An activity undertaken by one or more agents that is designed to effect changes in the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of individuals, groups, or communities. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Learning <ul><li>The act or process by which behavioral change, knowledge, skills, and attitudes are acquired. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Behavioral Change vs. Growth <ul><li>Behavior is a modification where performance is changed, shaped or controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth is a development of competencies towards performance. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Humanistic psychology <ul><li>Personal involvement- the whole person </li></ul><ul><li>Self-initiation- comprehending come from within </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasiveness- make a difference in the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation- meets learner personal needs </li></ul><ul><li>Its essence of meaning- `whole experience </li></ul>
  21. 24. Summary <ul><li>Why study learning </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Education vs. Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Change vs. Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic Psychology </li></ul>
  22. 26. Theories of Learning
  23. 27. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the difference: propounders and interpreters </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the types of learning theories </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the concept of part and whole models of development </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss theories based on an elemental model </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss theories based on a holistic model </li></ul>
  24. 28. Difference Between Propounders and Interpreters <ul><li>Propounders tend to be single-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreters tend to be reconciliatory </li></ul>
  25. 29. Major Types of Theories <ul><li>Behaviorist/Connectionist </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive/Gestalt </li></ul>
  26. 30. Part and Whole Models of Development <ul><li>Elemental Models - represent the universe as a machine composed of discrete pieces operating in a spatio-temporal field: reactive and adaptive models of man. </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic Models - represent the universe as a unitary, interactive, developing organism: active ad adaptive models of man. </li></ul>
  27. 31. Theories based on an Elemental Model <ul><li>Thorndike's 3 Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of effect </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Theories based on an Elemental Model <ul><li>Pavlov’s concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>differentiation </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Theories Based on a Holistic Model. <ul><li>Functionalist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is tolerant but critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers continuities over discontinuities or typologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an experimentalist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is biased towards associationism and environmentalism. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 34. Theories Based on a Holistic Model. <ul><li>Learners organize their perceptual field according to four laws. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of similarity and familiarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of closure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of continuation </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. Theories Based on a Holistic Model. <ul><li>Gestalt psychology belongs to the family of field theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field theories propose the total pattern of forces, stimuli, or events determine learning. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Summary <ul><li>Propounders are single-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreters are reconciliatory </li></ul><ul><li>The major types of learning theory are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorist / Connectionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive / Gestalt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elemental models represent the universe as a machine </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic models represent the universe as an organism </li></ul>
  33. 38. A Theory of Adult Learning: Andragogy
  34. 39. Great Teachers of Ancient Times <ul><li>Confucius and Lao Tse of China </li></ul><ul><li>Hebrew prophets </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus in Biblical times </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates </li></ul><ul><li>Plato in ancient Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Cicero, Evelid, and Quintillian in ancient Rome </li></ul>
  35. 40. Streams of Inquiry <ul><li>Scientific Stream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorndike in his Adult Learning publication in 1928 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artistic or intuitive/reflective stream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edward Linderman in his The Meaning of Adult Education publication in 1926 </li></ul></ul>
  36. 41. Lindeman’s Key Assumptions <ul><li>Adults are motivated to learn as they experience needs & interests that learning will satisfy. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults’ orientation to learning is life-centered. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience in the richest source for adults’ learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults have a deep need to be self-directing. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences among people increase with age </li></ul>
  37. 42. Carl Rogers <ul><li>Conceptualized a student-centered approach to education based on five basic hypotheses </li></ul>
  38. 43. <ul><li>1. The need to know </li></ul><ul><li>2. The learner’s self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>3. The role of experience </li></ul><ul><li>4. Readiness to learn </li></ul><ul><li>5. Orientation to learn </li></ul><ul><li>6. Motivation </li></ul>
  39. 44. Clinical Psychology <ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul>
  40. 45. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Identified influence of subconscious mind on behavior </li></ul>
  41. 46. Carl Jung <ul><li>Introduced notion the human consciousness possesses four functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Thought </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>intuition </li></ul>
  42. 47. Erik Erikson <ul><li>Provided “Eight Ages of Man” </li></ul><ul><li>Only the last three stages apply to adults </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence and Young Adult </li></ul>
  43. 49. Theories of Teaching
  44. 50. Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the principles of teaching differ from theories of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the differences Hilgard’s teaching theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the concepts derived form learning theories about animals and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify guidelines for facilitating learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the major contributors to adult learner theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the concepts of teaching derived from the theories of teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the role of John Dewey. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain perspective transformation and critical reflectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the concepts of the Change Theory. </li></ul>
  45. 51. Principles of Teaching From Theories of Learning <ul><li>Theories of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the way in </li></ul><ul><li>which an organism </li></ul><ul><li>learns </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with the ways in which a person influences an organism to learn </li></ul>The way a teacher learns
  46. 52. Hilgard’s 20 Principles
  47. 53. From Animals and Children <ul><li>Research on adult education/learning had not been done until recently. </li></ul><ul><li>Thorndike, Guthrie, Skinner, Hull, Tolman, and Gagne were the major contributors to this research. </li></ul>
  48. 54. Carl Rogers <ul><li>“… one truth about modern man is that he lives in an environment which is continually changing…”therefore the aim of education must be the facilitation of learning. </li></ul>
  49. 55. Guidelines for the Facilitation of Learning: <ul><li>Setting the mood and climate of the class </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit and clarify purposes of the individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Relies upon the desire of each student to implement that purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of resources available for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible resource for the group </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts both intellectual content and the emotionalized attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>The facilitator is also a learner </li></ul><ul><li>Takes initiative to share themselves with the group </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize and accept their own limitations </li></ul>
  50. 56. Contrasting Ideas <ul><li>Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Brown </li></ul><ul><li>Drews </li></ul><ul><li>Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Houle </li></ul><ul><li>Tough </li></ul>
  51. 57. Key Concepts of Dewey’s Teaching <ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul>
  52. 58. Jerome Bruner <ul><li>Criteria for teaching through inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposition towards learning </li></ul><ul><li>Structured so that it can be most readily grasped </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence in which to present the materials </li></ul><ul><li>Nature and pacing of rewards and punishment </li></ul>
  53. 59. Teaching through modeling <ul><li>Albert Bandura labeled the system social learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher behaves in ways that he or she wants the learner to imitate </li></ul><ul><li>Gage states “Learning through imitation seems to be especially appropriate for tasks that have little cognitive structure” </li></ul>
  54. 60. Perspective Transformation & Critical Reflectivity <ul><li>Mezirow </li></ul><ul><li>Help adult learners transform the way they think about themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Brookfield </li></ul><ul><li>Development of competence </li></ul>
  55. 61. Change Theory <ul><li>Planning of change </li></ul><ul><li>Choice and use of strategies of change </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational development </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the consultant and change agent </li></ul><ul><li>Management of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention theory </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Human relations training </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics of change agentry </li></ul>
  56. 62. Summary <ul><li>Theories of learning differ from theories of teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning theories adopted by the teacher affect the teaching theories employed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hilgard’s 20 learning principles </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey was the most influential for the theories of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching through modeling/Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective transformation/critical reflectivity </li></ul>
  57. 64. Adult Learning Within Human Resource Development
  58. 65. Objectives <ul><li>Explain Human Resource Development (HRD) goals </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how HRD can improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the relationship between HRD and adult learning </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the premise of individuals controlling their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the four phases of the adult learning planning process </li></ul>
  59. 66. HRD Goals <ul><li>Professionals view </li></ul><ul><li>HRD s hould focus on increasing </li></ul><ul><li>performance requirements through the </li></ul><ul><li>development of the organization’s work force </li></ul>
  60. 67. HRD Goals <ul><li>Others view </li></ul><ul><li>HRD should focus on individual </li></ul><ul><li>development and personal fulfillment without </li></ul><ul><li>using organizational performance as the </li></ul><ul><li>measure of worth </li></ul>
  61. 68. How HRD can improve performance <ul><li>Diagnose performance at different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational level </li></ul><ul><li>  Process level </li></ul><ul><li>Individual level </li></ul>
  62. 69. How HRD can improve performance <ul><li>Evaluate each level with performance variables </li></ul><ul><li>Mission/Goal </li></ul><ul><li>  System design </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul>
  63. 70. Relationship between HRD and Adult Learning Goals <ul><li>HRD </li></ul><ul><li>Organization retains the authority to approve </li></ul><ul><li>or disapprove learning interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Control is with the organization </li></ul>
  64. 71. Relationship between HRD and adult learning HRD Goals <ul><li>Adult learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes and learning process </li></ul><ul><li>rules and requirements are located in the </li></ul><ul><li>individual </li></ul><ul><li>Control is with the individual </li></ul>
  65. 72. Premise of individuals controlling their own learning <ul><li>Self-concept idea </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals want to have control </li></ul><ul><li>Better outcomes when learner retains control </li></ul>
  66. 73. Four phases of the adult learning plan <ul><li>Phase 1 - Need </li></ul><ul><li>Determines what learning is needed to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>goals </li></ul><ul><li>Create a strategy and resources to achieve the </li></ul><ul><li>learning goal(s) </li></ul>Phase 2 - Create
  67. 74. Four phases of the adult learning plan continued <ul><li>Phase 3 - Implement </li></ul><ul><li>Implement learning strategy and use the learning </li></ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the attainment of the learning goal and the </li></ul><ul><li>process of reaching it </li></ul>Phase 4 - Evaluate
  68. 75. Summary <ul><li>Different views on HRD goals </li></ul><ul><li>3 Levels HRD can improve performance </li></ul><ul><li>Premise of individuals controlling their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between HRD and adult learning goals </li></ul><ul><li>Four phases of the adult learning plan </li></ul>
  69. 78. New Perspectives on Andragogy
  70. 79. Objectives <ul><li>Explain what learners need to know </li></ul><ul><li>Explain self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Name prior experiences of the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Explain readiness to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Compare orientation to learning and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss motivation to learn </li></ul>
  71. 80. What Learners Need to Know <ul><li>How learning is conducted </li></ul><ul><li>- Training fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>- Post-training organizational commitment </li></ul><ul><li>- Academic self-efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>- Motivation to use the training </li></ul>
  72. 81. What Learners Need to Know <ul><li>What is learned </li></ul><ul><li>- What topics will be covered </li></ul><ul><li>- Choice of topics </li></ul><ul><li>- Trainee involvement in planning about </li></ul><ul><li> learning </li></ul><ul><li> -- High motivation </li></ul><ul><li> -- Low motivation </li></ul>
  73. 82. What Learners Need to Know <ul><li>Why they should learn </li></ul><ul><li>- Significant predictors of training </li></ul><ul><li>-- Motivation </li></ul><ul><li> -- Job utility </li></ul><ul><li>-- Career utility </li></ul><ul><li>- Trainees provide input </li></ul><ul><li> -- Likely to perceive job utility </li></ul><ul><li> -- Likely to perceive career utility </li></ul>
  74. 83. Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory) <ul><li>Stage 1 </li></ul><ul><li>- Student is dependent </li></ul><ul><li>- Teacher is authority and coach </li></ul><ul><li>- Examples </li></ul><ul><li> -- Coaching with feedback and drill </li></ul><ul><li> -- Information lecture </li></ul><ul><li> -- Overcoming deficiencies and resistance </li></ul>
  75. 84. Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory) <ul><li>Stage 2 </li></ul><ul><li>- Student is interested </li></ul><ul><li>- Teacher is a motivator and guide </li></ul><ul><li>- Examples </li></ul><ul><li> -- Inspiring lecture plus guided discussion </li></ul><ul><li> -- Goal-setting and learning strategies </li></ul>
  76. 85. Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory) <ul><li>Stage 3 </li></ul><ul><li>- Student is involved </li></ul><ul><li>- Teacher is facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>- Examples </li></ul><ul><li> -- Teacher participates as equal </li></ul><ul><li> -- Seminar </li></ul><ul><li> -- Group projects </li></ul>
  77. 86. Self-directed learning (Grow’s Stages of Learning Theory) <ul><li>Stage 4 </li></ul><ul><li>- Student is self-directed </li></ul><ul><li>- Teacher is consultant and delagator </li></ul><ul><li>- Examples </li></ul><ul><li> -- Internship </li></ul><ul><li> -- Dissertation </li></ul><ul><li> -- Individual work or self-directed study group </li></ul>
  78. 87. Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li>Loops </li></ul><ul><li>- “Single-loop” learning </li></ul><ul><li>- “Double-loop” learning </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing-in-action </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection-in-action </li></ul>
  79. 88. Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li>Predominant model of human memory </li></ul><ul><li>- Sensory </li></ul><ul><li> -- What information to process </li></ul><ul><li> -- Information that is already stored </li></ul><ul><li>- Short-term </li></ul>
  80. 89. Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li>Long-term </li></ul><ul><li> - Some info selected and some excluded </li></ul><ul><li> - Underlying meanings -vs- verbatim </li></ul><ul><li>input </li></ul><ul><li>- Existing knowledge about the world </li></ul><ul><li>- Existing knowledge added to new </li></ul><ul><li>information </li></ul>
  81. 90. Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li>- Constructivist instructional principles </li></ul><ul><li> -- Anchor learning to a large task or </li></ul><ul><li>problem </li></ul><ul><li> -- Support the learner in developing </li></ul><ul><li>ownership of problem </li></ul><ul><li>-- Design an authentic task </li></ul><ul><li>-- Design the task and learning </li></ul><ul><li> environment </li></ul>
  82. 91. Prior Experiences of the Learner <ul><li> -- Give learner ownership of the process </li></ul><ul><li> -- Design learning to support and </li></ul><ul><li>challenge learner’s thinking </li></ul><ul><li>-- Encourage testing ideas </li></ul><ul><li>-- Provide opportunity for and support </li></ul><ul><li> reflection </li></ul>
  83. 92. Readiness to Learn <ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>- Learners need for assistance from other </li></ul><ul><li> persons </li></ul><ul><li>- A function of an adults competence in the </li></ul><ul><li>subject matter </li></ul>
  84. 93. Readiness to Learn <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>- Affective encouragement the learner </li></ul><ul><li>needs from others </li></ul><ul><li>- Product of two factors </li></ul><ul><li> -- Learners commitment to the learning </li></ul><ul><li> process </li></ul><ul><li>-- Learners confidence about their </li></ul><ul><li> learning ability </li></ul>
  85. 94. Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving <ul><li>Concrete experience </li></ul><ul><li>- Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>- Case study </li></ul><ul><li>- Field trip </li></ul><ul><li>- Real experience </li></ul><ul><li>- Demonstrations </li></ul>
  86. 95. Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving <ul><li>Observations and reflections </li></ul><ul><li>- Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>- Small groups </li></ul><ul><li>- Buzz groups </li></ul><ul><li>- Designated observers </li></ul>
  87. 96. Orientation to Learning and Problem Solving <ul><li>Formation of abstract concepts in new situations </li></ul><ul><li>- Sharing content </li></ul><ul><li>Testing implications of new concepts in new situations </li></ul><ul><li>- Laboratory experiences </li></ul><ul><li>- On-the-job experience </li></ul><ul><li>- Internships </li></ul><ul><li>- Practice Sessions </li></ul>
  88. 97. Motivation to Learn <ul><li>Wlodowski – The sum of four factors </li></ul><ul><li>- Success </li></ul><ul><li>- Volition </li></ul><ul><li>- Value </li></ul><ul><li>- Enjoyment </li></ul>
  89. 98. Motivation to Learn <ul><li>Vroom – Expectancy theory posits – The sum of three factors </li></ul><ul><li>- Valence </li></ul><ul><li>- Instrumentality </li></ul><ul><li>- Expectancy </li></ul>
  90. 99. Motivation to Learn <ul><li>Characteristics and skills of motivating instructors </li></ul><ul><li>- Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>- Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>- Enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>- Clarity </li></ul>
  91. 100. Summary <ul><li>What learners need to know </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Prior experiences of the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation to learning and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to learn </li></ul>
  92. 102. Beyond Andragogy
  93. 103. Objectives <ul><li>Recognize different perspectives of psychology, development perspectives, and life-span development that enhance core learning principles of andragogy. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize that by broadening learning capabilities, learners can more readily adapt to a wide range of learning situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize adult development theories and how they relate to the development of adult curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify how life-span development theories clarify and refine adult learning principles. </li></ul>
  94. 104. Individual Learner Differences <ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Knowledge </li></ul>
  95. 105. Individual Learner Differences (Cognitive) <ul><li>Fluid and Crystallized intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Guilford’s propose three-factor structure of intellect (intellectual abilities, intellect, and Intelligence) </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg’s theory of intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive controls </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive styles </li></ul>
  96. 106. Learning how to learn <ul><li>Kinds of learning (Gibbons 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>(natural, formal, personal) </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects of learning (Gibbons 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>(reason, emotion, action) </li></ul><ul><li>Domains of learning (Gibbons 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>(technical, social, developmental) </li></ul><ul><li>Components of effective learning (Smith 1982) </li></ul><ul><li>(needs, learning style, training) </li></ul>
  97. 107. Developmental perspectives on adult learning <ul><li>Development theories </li></ul><ul><li>Life-span </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Physical change </li></ul>
  98. 108. Development theory impact <ul><li>Inextricably intertwined with adult development </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs along multiple paths and dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Will vary primarily with stages of cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation/readiness varies according to stage of life-span </li></ul><ul><li>Educators must tailor training to fit developmental stage </li></ul>
  99. 109. Summary <ul><li>Individual differences can be classified into broad categories. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors can help students learn how to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Individual learning needs and abilities change with age </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors should use these theories as needed to develop better curriculum </li></ul>
  100. 111. Andragogy in Practice
  101. 112. Objectives <ul><li>Recognize the value of adult learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the three rings of andragogy in practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the flexibility of andragogy. </li></ul>
  102. 113. Value of adult learners <ul><li>Complexity of work </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology </li></ul><ul><li>Job specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Value of their brain </li></ul><ul><li>Human longevity </li></ul><ul><li>Health care </li></ul>
  103. 114. Andragogy in practice (Knowles, Holton, and Swason, 1998)
  104. 115. Flexibility of Andragogy <ul><li>Can be adapted in whole or in part </li></ul><ul><li>Not an ideology that must be applied totally or without modification </li></ul><ul><li>Essential feature of androgogy is flexibility </li></ul>
  105. 116. Summary <ul><li>Value of adult learners </li></ul><ul><li>Three rings of andragogy in practice </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility of andragogy </li></ul>
  106. 118. Whole – Part – Whole Learning Models
  107. 119. Objectives <ul><li>Explain Whole-Part-Whole (WPW) Learning Models </li></ul><ul><li>Explain WPW model overview </li></ul><ul><li>Describe First Whole of a WPW model </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Second Whole of a WPW model </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the role of the parts component of a WPW model </li></ul>
  108. 120. WPW Learning Models <ul><li>Separate into to camps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>behaviorist/connectionist camp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gestalt/cognitive camp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the value of each camp </li></ul>
  109. 121. WPW Model Overview <ul><li>WPW learning models go beyond holistic behavioristic, whole – part, and part – whole learning models. </li></ul><ul><li>First part is an introduction to the new material. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the part (s) aspect of the model </li></ul><ul><li>After the learner masters the individual parts, the instructor ties it all together to form the second whole. </li></ul>
  110. 122. First whole of WPW <ul><li>First whole of WPW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a mental scaffolding for the new information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide motivation to learner </li></ul></ul>
  111. 123. First whole of WPW <ul><li>Advance Organizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technique for making material valuable to the learner thus improving retention and retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand difference in individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating a framework for the learner at the beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proper organizing of knowledge in the beginning stages. </li></ul></ul>
  112. 124. First whole of WPW <ul><li>Motivating the learner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning occurs as a result of change in cognitive structures produced by changes in two types of forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change in the cognitive structure itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change in the internal needs or motivation of the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human behavior is goal oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capitalize on students existing desire to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clearly stated goals at the beginning </li></ul></ul>
  113. 125. Second whole of WPW <ul><li>considered the major component </li></ul><ul><li>links the individual parts back together </li></ul><ul><li>only traces of the parts remain upon completion of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>the instructor must aid the students with the strengthening of the traces by forming the instructional whole. </li></ul><ul><li>the parts of instruction take on new meaning within the whole. </li></ul><ul><li>repetitive practice of the whole. </li></ul><ul><li>practice creates automatcism in the learner. </li></ul>
  114. 126. Role of the “parts” component of WPW <ul><li>relies on the standard systematic and behavioristic approach to instruction </li></ul><ul><li>learner must achieve complete mastery of each part in order for the second part to be effective. </li></ul><ul><li>each part needs to be structured in a WPW fashion </li></ul>
  115. 127. Summary <ul><li>WPW learning models go beyond holistic behavioristic, whole – part, and part – whole learning models. </li></ul><ul><li>The first part of the WPW is the framework </li></ul><ul><li>The second part is considered the major component </li></ul><ul><li>The each part of the parts component must be mastered before moving on </li></ul>
  116. 129. From Teacher to Facilitator of Learning
  117. 130. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the roles of a teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the roles of a facilitator of learning </li></ul>
  118. 131. Roles of a teacher <ul><li>Transmit prescribed content </li></ul><ul><li>Control the way student receive and use the </li></ul><ul><li>content </li></ul><ul><li>Test to see if they have received it </li></ul>
  119. 132. Roles of a facilitator of learning <ul><li>Process manager </li></ul><ul><li>(Secondarily) Content resource </li></ul>
  120. 133. Summary <ul><li>Roles of a teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of a facilitator of learning </li></ul>
  121. 135. Making Things Happen by Releasing the Energy of Others
  122. 136. Objectives <ul><li>Name the behavioral characteristics of creative leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Describe assumptions about human nature for Theory “X” and Theory “Y” </li></ul><ul><li>Know the characteristics of Static and Innovative Organizations </li></ul>
  123. 137. Behavioral Characteristics of Creative Leaders <ul><li>Make positive assumptions about human nature </li></ul><ul><li>Accept as a law of human nature, people feel commitment to decisions they have participated in </li></ul><ul><li>Use the power of self-fulfilling prophesy </li></ul><ul><li>Hold high value for individuality </li></ul>
  124. 138. Behavioral Characteristics of Creative Leaders (cont.) <ul><li>Stimulate and reward creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Committed to continuing change and diligent with managing the change </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize internal motivators over external motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage people to be self-directed </li></ul>
  125. 139. Assumptions Implicit in Current Education and About Human Nature for Theory “X”. <ul><li>Theory X assumptions implicit in current education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students cannot be trusted to pursue their own learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation equals learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulate brick upon brick of factual knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth is known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative citizens are bred from passive learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation is education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education is evaluation </li></ul></ul>
  126. 140. Assumptions Implicit in Current Education and About Human Nature for Theory “X” <ul><li>Theory X assumptions about human nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans dislike work and will avoid it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans must be coerced and threatened to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans prefer being directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wish to avoid responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have little ambition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wants security above all </li></ul></ul>
  127. 141. Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y” <ul><li>Theory Y assumptions relevant to significant experiential learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human have a natural potentiality for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is perceived by the student as relevant to his own purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant learning is acquired through doing </li></ul></ul>
  128. 142. Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y” <ul><li>Learning is facilitated by the student’s participation in the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Self-initiated learning is the most pervasive and lasting </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity in learning is best facilitated when self-criticism and self-evaluation are primary </li></ul><ul><li>The process of learning is the most socially useful thing </li></ul>
  129. 143. Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y” <ul><li>Theory Y assumptions about human nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The expenditure of physical and mental effort is as natural as play or rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives for which they are committed </li></ul></ul>
  130. 144. Assumptions Relevant to Significant Experiential Learning and About Human Nature for Theory “Y” <ul><li>Theory Y assumptions about human nature (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans learn to, not only accept, but seek responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A high capacity for imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely distributed in the population </li></ul></ul>
  131. 145. The Characteristics of Static and Innovative Organizations <ul><li>Static organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold, suspicious atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management’s function is to control personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low risk taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-making takes place primarily at the top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear distinction between policy-making and policy-execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downward information flow </li></ul></ul>
  132. 146. The Characteristics of Static and Innovative Organizations <ul><li>Innovative organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm, trusting atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management’s function is to release the energy of the employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High risk taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-making is relative to all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative policy-making and policy-execution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multidirectional information flow </li></ul></ul>
  133. 147. Summary <ul><li>Creative leaders are positive about people </li></ul><ul><li>Theory “X” type leaders are cynical and suspicious of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Theory “Y” type leaders view employees for what they are: people </li></ul><ul><li>Static organizations have difficulty growing and adapting </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative organizations are postured for growth and adaptation </li></ul>
  134. 150. Some Guidelines for the Use of Learning Contracts
  135. 151. Objectives <ul><li>Explain why we use learning contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize how to develop a learning contract </li></ul>
  136. 152. Why we use learning contracts <ul><li>Makes planning of learning experience a mutual undertaking between a learner and teacher </li></ul>
  137. 153. How to develop a learning contract <ul><li>Step 1 - Diagnose your learning needs </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the gap between where you are now and where you need to be </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 - Specify your learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Translate your needs into a learning objective </li></ul>
  138. 154. How to develop a learning contract continued <ul><li>Step 3 - Specify learning resources and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how you will accomplish each objective </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 - Specify evidence of accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what evidence you will collect to indicate </li></ul><ul><li>the degree to which you achieved each objective </li></ul>
  139. 155. How to develop a learning contract continued <ul><li>Step 5 - Describe how evidence will be validated </li></ul><ul><li>Specify what criteria the evidence will be judged by </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6 - Review you contract with consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Review with friends, supervisor, or experts </li></ul>
  140. 156. How to develop a learning contract continued <ul><li>Step 7 - Carry out the contract </li></ul><ul><li>Step 8 - Evaluation of your learning </li></ul><ul><li>Ask consultants to examine your evidence </li></ul><ul><li>and validation data for adequacy </li></ul>
  141. 157. Summary <ul><li>8 steps involved in developing a learning contract </li></ul><ul><li>Why we use learning contracts </li></ul>
  142. 159. Core Competency Diagnostic and Planning Guide
  143. 160. Self-Diagnostic Rating Scale Competencies for the Role of Adult Educator/Trainer <ul><li>The self-diagnostic rating scaling is a six point scale that helps show you where you are and what performance level you need to be at to reach your goal. </li></ul>
  144. 161. Six point scale of Self Diagnostic
  145. 162. Model of the six point scale of Self-Diagnostic
  146. 164. Training Delivery Problems and Solutions
  147. 165. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the purpose of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the methodology of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the difference between a novice and expert trainer </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize expert solutions to common novice training problems </li></ul>
  148. 166. The purpose of the study <ul><li>Determine difficulties novice trainers experience </li></ul><ul><li>during the delivery of training </li></ul><ul><li>Gather reports from experts on how they handle </li></ul><ul><li>such situations </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize information into useful aid that defines </li></ul><ul><li>training delivery problems and provides specific </li></ul><ul><li>solutions </li></ul>
  149. 167. Methodology of the study <ul><li>Survey trainers to determine the most frequent </li></ul><ul><li>training delivery problems the novice trainer </li></ul><ul><li>experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze data and synthesize results into 10-15 </li></ul><ul><li>major delivery problems </li></ul><ul><li>Identify experts to respond to major training </li></ul><ul><li>delivery problems </li></ul>
  150. 168. Methodology of the study continued <ul><li>Survey the training experts through a </li></ul><ul><li>questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare job aids </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List training delivery problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepare final report </li></ul>
  151. 169. Difference between a novice and expert trainer <ul><li>Intellect </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Experts have a minimum of two years experience </li></ul><ul><li>Must receive recognition from colleagues or academicians </li></ul>
  152. 170. Expert solutions to common novice training problems <ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Be well prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Use ice breakers </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the fear </li></ul>
  153. 171. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t apologize </li></ul><ul><li>Have an attitude of an expert </li></ul><ul><li>Share personal background </li></ul>
  154. 172. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Personal experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Report personal experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Report experiences of others </li></ul><ul><li>Use, analogies, movies, or famous people </li></ul>
  155. 173. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Difficult learners </li></ul><ul><li>Confront problem learner </li></ul><ul><li>Circumvent dominating behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups for timid behavior </li></ul>
  156. 174. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Ask open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Plan small group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Invite participation </li></ul>
  157. 175. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Plan well </li></ul><ul><li>Practice, practice, practice </li></ul>
  158. 176. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Adjust instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Know group needs </li></ul><ul><li>Request feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Redesign during breaks </li></ul>
  159. 177. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Answering questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase learner’s questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I don’t know” is okay </li></ul></ul></ul>
  160. 178. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask concise questions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  161. 179. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit informal feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Do summative evaluations </li></ul>
  162. 180. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Media, Materials, Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have back-ups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enlist assistance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  163. 181. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Media, Materials, Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be prepared </li></ul></ul></ul>
  164. 182. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Media, Materials, Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visit facility beforehand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrive early </li></ul></ul></ul>
  165. 183. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Openings and closings </li></ul><ul><li>Openings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop an openings file </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memorize </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relax trainees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  166. 184. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Openings and closings </li></ul><ul><li>Closings </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize concisely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thank participants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  167. 185. Expert solutions to common novice training problems continued <ul><li>Notes are necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Use cards </li></ul><ul><li>Use visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul>Dependence on notes
  168. 186. Summary <ul><li>The purpose of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between a novice and expert trainer </li></ul><ul><li>Expert solutions to common novice training problems </li></ul>
  169. 188. A Model for Developing Employee Work Effectiveness in New Roles and Environments
  170. 189. Objectives <ul><li>Discuss new employee learning taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss individual domain </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss people domain </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss organizational domain </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss work task domain </li></ul><ul><li>ID new employee development system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain challenges for educational institutions </li></ul>
  171. 190. New Employee Learning Taxonomies <ul><li>Four content domains for new employee learning </li></ul><ul><li>- Individual </li></ul><ul><li> -- Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li> -- Expectations </li></ul><ul><li> -- Breaking in </li></ul>
  172. 191. New Employee Learning Taxonomies <ul><li>- People </li></ul><ul><li> -- Impression </li></ul><ul><li> -- Management </li></ul><ul><li> -- Relationships </li></ul><ul><li> -- Supervisor </li></ul>
  173. 192. New Employee Learning Taxonomies <ul><li>- Organization </li></ul><ul><li> -- Culture </li></ul><ul><li> -- Savvy </li></ul><ul><li> -- Roles </li></ul><ul><li>- Work tasks </li></ul><ul><li> -- Work savvy </li></ul><ul><li> -- Task knowledge </li></ul><ul><li> -- Knowledgeable skills and abilities </li></ul>
  174. 193. Individual Domain <ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking in </li></ul>
  175. 194. People Domain <ul><li>Impression management </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor </li></ul>
  176. 195. Organizational Domain <ul><li>Organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational savvy </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational roles </li></ul>
  177. 196. Work Task Domain <ul><li>Work savvy </li></ul><ul><li>Task knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge, skill and abilities </li></ul>
  178. 197. New Employee Development System <ul><li>Foundational learning programs </li></ul><ul><li>External job training </li></ul><ul><li>Employee based training programs </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in the workplace </li></ul>
  179. 198. Challenges for Educational Institutions <ul><li>Develop the individual domain </li></ul><ul><li>Teach basics skills in the people and organizational domains </li></ul><ul><li>Build awareness of the entire scope of learning tasks after employment </li></ul><ul><li>Develop organizational skills </li></ul>
  180. 199. Summary <ul><li>New employee learning taxonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Individual domain </li></ul><ul><li>People domain </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational domain </li></ul><ul><li>Work task domain </li></ul><ul><li>New employee development system </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for educational institutions </li></ul>
  181. 201. Linking Learning and Performance in HRD
  182. 202. Objectives <ul><li>Recognize the four domains of performance for HRD/PI </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehend the distinction between performance outcomes and drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the importance of HRD/PI in the pursuit of whole system improvement </li></ul>
  183. 203. Four domains of performance for HRD/PI <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Critical performance subsystem </li></ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul>
  184. 204. Distinction between outcomes and drivers <ul><li>Performance outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Performance drivers </li></ul>
  185. 205. Importance of HRD/PI in the pursuit of whole system improvement <ul><li>Proper analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Team intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul>
  186. 206. Summary <ul><li>Four domains of performance for HRD/PI </li></ul><ul><li>Distinction between performance domains and measures </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of HRD/PI in the pursuit of whole system improvement </li></ul>
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