Daimler AG „The Road to Emission-free Driving.“Document Transcript
The Road to Emission-free Driving.
The Daimler initiative: Playing a key role in shaping emission-free mobility.As the inventor of the car and the truck,Daimler assumes responsibility for their future.Our Road to Emission-free Driving stands forour commitment to securing sustainablemobility. Our aim is to markedly reduce fuelconsumption and emissions already todayand to eliminate them entirely in the long High-tech internal combustion engines “The Road Map to Sustainable Mobility” Hybridization made to measure Locally emission-free drivingterm. To this end, we are developing a broad with the battery and the fuel cellspectrum of state-of-the-art drive technolo-gies that meet the specific requirements The world is changing at a rapid pace – and with it the overall conditions under which automobiles operate. Individual mobility and the transport of goods are basic human requirements, In our “Road to Emission-free Driving” initiative, we are concentrating on three key areas of development:placed on today’s and tomorrow’s mobility which must be upheld for future generations. We must therefore make road vehicles as sustainable and safe as possible. This • optimizing vehicles with state-of-the-art internal combustion engines,in all modes of road transportation. guiding principle is our obligation, which entails conserving resources, preventing emissions, and ensuring the highest possible level of road safety. This includes consistently • further increasing efficiency through made-to-measure hybridization, • locally emission-free driving with vehicles powered by the promoting the development of intelligent mobility concepts for battery and the fuel cell. urban regions. As the successors to Carl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, the inventors of the car and the truck, we are With well-founded research findings gained in the course of passionate in pressing ahead with further innovations – as we successful large-scale projects for testing alternative vehicle have already demonstrated with more than 80,000 patent and drive concepts, we have laid the foundations for locally applications since Carl Benz first presented his Patent Motor emission-free driving. Car in 1886. The experts at Daimler are not expecting one single technology to play a dominant role in sustainable mobility, but are setting out to provide tailor-made solutions to suit all requirements. This applies to all four modes of road transportation: individual mobility in passenger cars; public and private short- and long-range transport in buses; goods transport by van and truck; and special vehicles for public services, municipal applications, and industry.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 04-05Society and mobility.We are shaping the future. Mobility is the engine ofgrowth and prosperity for every modern society.There are currently more than 900 million vehicles on the the global transport volume will have doubled by the year 2030, An intelligent blend of drive concepts for all mobility scenariosworld’s roads. Experts predict that this figure will more than as compared to the figure for 2000. Each year, some 60 million The key to environmentally compatible mobility that also caters to specific individual requirements is an intelligent blend of innovativedouble within less than 30 years. Motor vehicles – both people move from rural areas to the cities, where they want to internal combustion engines, hybrid drives, and emission-free electric vehicles powered by the battery or the fuel cell.passenger cars and commercial vehicles – play a crucial role be mobile. More than 50 million jobs throughout the world arein this worldwide development. dependent on the automotive industry. If cars and commercial Long-distance transport Rural transport Urban transport vehicles are to continue to play a significant role in the economyThe automobile is at the crossroads of various interests in which and society, they must become more efficient and cleaner. We areincreasingly high, diversified, and mutually influencing requirements convinced that the key to sustainable mobility lies in innovation.are placed on its technology. Customers demand safe, comfortable, We are living out this principle with a multi-track, intelligent blendhigh-performance vehicles which at the same time are to be more of drive systems that caters to all of today’s and tomorrow’sand more economical and environment-friendly. These increasing mobility requirements.demands and the dynamically growing global need for mobility standin stark contrast to dwindling oil reserves, rising energy costs, andincreasingly stringent regulations that are by no means uniform on Vehicles with internal combustion enginesan international scale. The task at hand is therefore to make theautomobile fit for the future – after all, no other transport medium Whether it be cars, buses, vans, oroffers so much individual freedom. At the same time, motor Hybrid vehiclesvehicles – trucks, buses, vans, and passenger cars – are one of heavy-duty trucks: Daimler offersthe world’s most powerful engines of growth and prosperity. premium solutions for all mobility Plug-in vehicles | Vehicles with range extenderThese days, 80 percent of all goods in the industrialized nations ofEurope are transported by truck. According to logistics experts, requirements. Electric vehicles with battery Electric vehicles with fuel cellTransportation volumes and emissions in German road traffic planned drive variants (target) implemented drive variants (current)700 % Introduction of three-way catalytic converter Transport volumes500 % CO2300 % HC CO NOx100 % PM 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030Diverse technical improvements have brought about a significant reduction in noxious emission levels, despite the increase in transport volumes.A turnaround has also been achieved in CO2 emissions. (Source: TREMOD)
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 06-07The future of mobility.Our solution: an intelligent blend of drive concepts.The age of electromobility will not be ushered in atthe press of a button. “No other premium carmaker is in a better overall position than we are to fulfill the entire spectrum of expectations placed on sustainable mobility.” An interview with Dr. Thomas Weber, member of the Board of Management of Daimler AG with responsibility for Group Research & Mercedes-Benz Cars Development.The future of the automobile is electric. This provocative How long will diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicles remainstatement at times leads to false conclusions: It is not the what they have been for many decades – the mainstay ofelectric car alone, whether powered by the fuel cell or the mobility in road transport?battery, that represents the technology for a mobile future. State-of-the-art internal combustion engines, both with andRather, the key to the mobility of the future lies in electrifi- without hybridization, are an indispensable option for the future.cation of the drivetrain. And this begins not with the drive They are needed, first of all, simply because electric drive unitsunit itself, but already in the auxiliary units of the engine will not initially be able to be produced in required quantities and– for example, electrically regulated power steering units, at viable costs in the high-volume segment – and because theor water pumps that only cut in when actually required. The necessary infrastructure is still lacking. Over the next fewbattery is the key component for all electrification mea- decades, the quality of internal combustion engines will thereforesures – and at the same time presents the greatest technical continue to determine how much fuel is in fact saved and whatchallenge. Its efficiency and economy determine the success levels of emission can thereby be prevented. One thing is certain:or failure of opportunities for the future of mobility. How do Despite all progress, the electric automobile will not be able tothe carmakers intend to get to grips with CO2? What drive replace vehicles powered by internal combustion engines in thetechnology is the most suitable for reducing fuel consump- short term, but will gradually extend the range of drive systemstion? And how can this all be reconciled with the desire for for the future. Modern diesel and gasoline models will remain thesafety, comfort, and driving pleasure? mainstay of the automotive world for a long time to come – inConvincing answers to all these questions are given by Dr. individual transport with passenger cars, especially on longThomas Weber, member of the Board of Management of journeys, and above all in goods transport by truck. As a resultDaimler AG with responsibility for Group Research and the engineers from Daimler and Mercedes-Benz have devised aMercedes-Benz Cars Development. broad-based approach in which the internal combustion engine is by no means obsolete but continues to play an important role.Daimler has been a moving force behind the overall develop-ment of road transportation for 125 years – from individual Does that mean that even the electric vehicle is just one ofmobility in passenger cars to goods transport in commercial several options?vehicles. Where is it all heading, Dr. Weber? In public discussion, the impression has arisen that the era of theOur objective is to secure sustainable mobility on a long-term electric automobile will be starting tomorrow. In fact, however,basis – as anchored in our “road map.” We intend to be leaders in while electric vehicles – whether they are powered by fuel cells orgreen technologies while, on the other hand, not neglecting batteries or incorporate a range extender – offer enormoustypical Mercedes-Benz virtues such as safety, comfort, or superior potential in terms of environmental compatibility, they are yet todriving pleasure. We make high investments to this end. However, reach large-scale production maturity. Along with a number ofDaimler and Mercedes-Benz do not only stand for topics of the technological challenges such as sufficient production capacity forfuture such as electric automobiles powered by the fuel cell or the powerful and safe batteries, a comprehensive charging infrastruc-battery. Our current models already today incorporate effective ture still remains to be established, as does a hydrogen fillingtechnologies for even more efficiency, environmental compatibility, station network. Locally emission-free, quiet, and highly efficientand safety. In the first stage, we are setting out to achieve this with driving is of particular interest above all in densely populated citiesour BlueEFFICIENCY measures for passenger cars with state-of- where restricted access and environmental zones are now the rulethe-art internal combustion engines. These include downsizing, rather than the exception. The second generation of the smarthigh-pressure supercharging, direct injection, and strategic fortwo electric drive, of which a small series went into productionoptimization measures on the vehicle itself, for example in matters in mid-November 2009, is exemplary for an urban automobile.of aerodynamics, lightweight design, and energy management. On one single battery charge it attains a range of up to 135Great potential for further enhanced efficiency is also offered by kilometers, which is well suited to city application and is adequatemade-to-measure hybridization in a number of stages. for more than three-fourths of all drivers.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 08-09The future of mobility. Mobility needs variety. Daimler is oriented towards the diverse requirements for mobility. Our solution for the future of mobility comprises a hitherto unique blend of products.So the energy storage medium will become the key technology? with or without hybrid module, supplemented by fuel cell vehicles. For more than a century, automobiles ran almost exclusively developments to secure sustainable mobility: with individualThat’s right. A crucial requirement for any electric drive system is In rural driving, this scenario can be additionally supported by on fuels derived from mineral oil. And for good reason: Short mobility by car, public transport with buses, and goods transporta powerful, safe, and reliable energy storage unit. The performance plug-in hybrids and fuel cell automobiles. In urban traffic – refueling times, high operating ranges, a comprehensive with light commercial vehicles and heavy-duty trucks. Mobilityof the entire electrical system depends on the battery, starting especially in the increasing number of mega-cities throughout the infrastructure, and favorable prices made the internal needs variety.with its charging capacity. For this reason, Daimler is concentrat- world – the streetscape will be dominated by locally emission-free combustion engine the driving force of mobility. However,ing above all on developing a powerful traction battery. It must vehicle concepts with battery and fuel cell drive. there are now signs of a turnaround. Customer benefits and environmental compatibility in focus.have a long service life and a high level of crash safety as well as This interdisciplinary grouping together and synergetic networkingbeing suitable for recycling. All these requirements are fulfilled by Highly diverse drive technologies in coexistence. of numerous activities for emission-free driving in all modes of road With these prospects in mind, is it still conceivable that athe new lithium-ion battery, which has already demonstrated its Major advances have been made in the electrification of the transportation is unique throughout the world. Daimler’s approach large Mercedes-Benz sedan would consume less than foursuitability in hybrid applications. Its advantages lie above all in drivetrain, and small series of vehicles powered by the battery involves vehicle concepts with modular drive technologies that liters per 100 kilometers?its compact dimensions in combination with a considerably and the fuel cell have already undergone practical trials with consistently take into account both customer benefits and Our Mercedes-Benz S 500 Plug-in HYBRID technology-bearer,higher performance as compared with the nickel-metal hydride customers. The battery as an energy storage medium has environmental compatibility. presented at the 2007 IAA, is the world’s first luxury-segmentbatteries used to date. likewise reached a new level of performance with state-of-the-art The three key points of emphasis in development are: model in the three-liter category. This was achieved by means ofAnd thanks to its innovative cooling system and temperature lithium-ion technology. With its “Road to Emission-free Driving” • optimization of vehicles with state-of-the-art internal combustion state-of-the-art hybrid drive technology and strategic optimizationmanagement, it has proved highly reliable independently of initiative, Daimler offers a product blend that is unique in the engines, measures in matters of aerodynamics, lightweight design, andclimatic conditions and has excellent cold-starting ability. We are industry, with highly diverse drive concepts to meet all mobility • further increases in efficiency through made-to-measure energy management. Our F 800 Style research vehicle is giving usalso investigating further future-oriented battery concepts. Our requirements in urban, rural, and long-distance transport. hybridization, and a glimpse into the future of the large sedan with the star: With itsgoal is to further increase energy density and to reduce weight • locally emission-free driving with vehicles powered by the efficient plug-in hybrid drive and a CO2 bonus for battery-electric– even though in our view, some of these concepts are still far It is also clear that a wide variety of different drive technologies fuel cell and the battery. operation, it achieves a certified fuel consumption of just 2.9 litersfrom reaching series maturity. will continue to exist side by side for quite some time to come. As In this process, the company benefits from a broad basis of of gasoline per 100 kilometers. This yields an extremely low CO2 the inventor of the automobile and the world’s largest commercial knowledge gained over many years of its own research activities. emission level of only 68 grams per kilometer. Whichever driveWhat does this all mean for Daimler’s strategy? vehicle producer, Daimler is therefore intensively pursuing further technologies are used, comfortable, superior, and safe premiumThe outcome is an intelligent blend of drive concepts. In view automobiles such as the Mercedes-Benz E-Class and S-Class stillof the various vehicle categories, application profiles, and number among our core competencies. And this will remain soindividual customers’ wishes, we are employing a number of in future.different concepts with made-to-measure drivetrain solutions The Road to Emission-Free Mobilityto suit all customers. Long-distance transport will continue tobe dominated by state-of-the-art internal combustion engines Mercedes-Benz Cars Mercedes-Benz Vans Daimler Trucks, Daimler Buses Mercedes-Benz smart BlueEFFICIENCy Intelligent Drive BlueEFFICIENCy Shaping Future TransportationOur strategy sets out to markedly reduce the fuel consumption and CleanDrive Technologiesemissions of our vehicles already today and to eliminate them entirely Efficient internal combustion engines x x x xin the long term. Hybridization made to measure x x x x Emission-free x x x x electric drive Alternative fuels x x x x Documentation of diversity: Drive technologies in cross-sector application.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 10-11 A-B The quality of our internal combustion engines determines Perhaps the best documentation of this performance is the fact how much fuel will be saved over the next 20 years and what that the 40-tonne Mercedes-Benz Actros BlueTec combination quantities of emissions can thereby be prevented. Combustion broke the world fuel efficiency record in May 2008, with justHigh-tech internal engines both with and without the hybrid option will continue to 19.44 liters of diesel fuel per 100 kilometers. With a payload of constitute the mainstay of our mobility for many years to come. 25 tonnes and an average speed of 80 kilometers per hour, this For all the major advances that attract widespread publicity, the series-produced truck consumed only 0.8 liters per 100 tonne-kilo-combustion engines. electric car will not be able to replace vehicles powered by the meters on the test course in Nardo, corresponding to a CO2 emission internal combustion engine in the near future. Modern diesel- and level of 20.5 grams per tonne of payload per kilometer (g / tkm). gasoline-powered vehicles will remain the driving force of mobilityThe most important parameter for reducing fuel for a long time – in individual transport with passenger cars, especially on long journeys, and above all in goods transport by truck.consumption and emissions is the innovative,energy-efficient internal combustion engine.Cylinder cross-section – clean, efficient internal combustion engines willbe the mainstay of mobility for some time to come.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 12-13High-tech internal combustion engines. Development of fuel consumption reduction: Mercedes-Benz C-, E-, and S-Class 1990 – 2011Constant optimization: Internal combustion engines Gasoline Dieselare the mainstay of mobility. C-Class E-Class S-Class C-Class E-Class S-Class l / 100 km 10 -44 % -48 % -37 % -48 % -42 % 5 -45 % 10.2 6.4 12.8 6.6 13.6 7.6 8.0 4.4 8.4 4.9 11.0 5.7 190 E 1.8 300 E-24 420 SE 190 D 2.5 300 D 300 SD C 180 Komp. BlueEF. E 250 CGI BlueEF. S 350 BlueEF. C 220 CDI BlueEF. E 250 CDI BlueEF. S 250 CDI BlueEF. Mercedes-Benz passenger cars 1990 – 2011: Exemplary reductions in fuel consumption (NEDC figure) in the C-, E-, and S-Class. 1990 2011The first of three focal points on Daimler’s “road map” is the equivalent to 117 grams of CO2 per kilometer. The world’s most Already today, more than 500,000 vehicles from all the corporateoptimization of vehicles with internal combustion engine. fuel-efficient luxury sedan with internal combustion engine, the truck, bus, and van brands are on the move throughout the world BLUETEC technologyConstant improvements and new developments are making Mercedes-Benz S 250 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY, offers the highest level with “CleanDrive Technologies.” They illustrate various approachesgasoline and diesel engines not only more powerful, but of driving comfort and safety, but consumes just 5.7 liters per 100 to the ambitious aim of the zero-emission commercial vehicle.above all more efficient and cleaner: According to a recent kilometers. Along with the clean, efficient BLUETEC technology for diesel A modular concept, BLUETEC reduces the various raw emissionsACEA study, 100 modern vehicles produce less emissions on engines, low-emission and quiet natural gas drive systems are a within the engine and subsequently purifies the exhaust gas. Allaverage than one single automobile from the 1970s. The Gasoline models that are just as economical as diesels – this is further option especially in city traffic. Alternative fuels also have emission components are considerably reduced step by step, fordiesel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles has been reduced made possible by the new generation of BlueDIRECT six- and the potential to cut emissions and to reduce our dependence on example with the oxidation catalytic converter and the particulateby more than one-third. eight-cylinder engines, which since 2010 have been successively fossil energy sources. trap. A further important aim is to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. introduced in numerous Mercedes-Benz model series. The power This is the only exhaust component that is still inherently higher inWith BLUETEC, Daimler has been offering clean diesel technol- and torque of these engines have been increased over the pre- The BlueEFFICIENCy package in all passenger car series. diesel engines than in gasoline engines. For this purpose, AdBlue, aogy in commercial vehicles since 2005 and – in an adapted decessor versions, while consumption has been reduced by up Daimler is grouping together measures for fuel consumption harmless aqueous carbamide solution, is injected into the exhaustversion – also for passenger cars since 2006. As well as reducing to one-fourth. In terms of fuel economy, the state-of-the-art reduction in gasoline and diesel car models in so-called stream. Ammonia is thereby formed, which reduces up to 80 percentpollutant emissions, BLUETEC also cuts fuel consumption by two to BlueDIRECT gasoline direct injection engines from Mercedes-Benz BlueEFFICIENCY packages, which will be available for 128 of the nitrogen oxides to harmless nitrogen and water in the down-five percent; this means up to 2,000 liters less diesel consumption have come another step closer to matching the diesel power units. Mercedes-Benz passenger car models by the end of 2011. stream SCR catalytic converter. More than 382,000 trucks and busesper vehicle and year. This technology also constitutes the basis Depending on individual model series, the tailor-made packages from Daimler equipped with BLUETEC are now proving their worth infor compliance with the next stage of Euro 6 emissions legislation; The targeted BlueEFFICIENCY measures enhance fuel economy – comprise various measures within the engine and a combination the harsh conditions of everyday operation. A truck with BLUETEC, forand it is the key to our trucks’ and buses’ compliance with the especially with the ECO start / stop function, which is already of numerous technologies for reducing a vehicle’s weight. The example, emits about 60 percent less nitrogen oxides and 80 percentstringent EPA 10 limits of the NAFTA states and JP 09 in Japan. standard in many vehicles and which Mercedes-Benz will offer in BlueEFFICIENCY package also includes low rolling-resistance less soot particles. more than 50 models across its entire product range as of mid-2011. tires, optimized aerodynamics, and the ECO start-stop functionIn passenger cars too, Daimler is the pioneer of efficiency. The most In the commercial vehicle sector, too, Daimler is shaping the future as a preliminary to hybridization.economical model of the new-generation Mercedes-Benz C-Class of mobility with its highly efficient, clean drive systems: With itsis now even more fuel-efficient: The C 220 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY “CleanDrive Technologies” for non-pollutant drive systems andwith manual six-speed transmission and standard ECO start / stop alternative fuels, Daimler’s Commercial Vehicle division is shapingfunction consumes an average of only 4.4 liters of diesel fuel the future of mobility.per 100 kilometers – 0.4 liters less than in the past. This isThe BLUETEC fleet of Daimler Trucks: Light delivery vehicles, agile vans, multi-functional special vehicles (Unimog, Econic), heavy-duty trucks, andcomfortable buses. Mercedes-Benz E-Class Coupé BlueEFFICIENCy The Mercedes-Benz E-Class Coupé creates a special link between emotion and efficiency. The most aerodynamic coupé variant also sets a new record in terms of air resistance: With a Cd figure of just 0.24, this model has been the world’s most aerodynamically refined series-produced automobile since 2009.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 14-15High-tech internal combustion engines. New Engine Generation The New Engine Generation stands for the latest interdisciplinary engine development from Daimler Trucks. The Fuso “6R10” engine complies with JP 09, currently the world’s most stringent emissions standard and is already installed, for example, in the new Fuso Super Great.Optimized gasoline engines. In the absolute top segment, the CLS 63 AMG is setting standards Optimized diesel engines. emissions of only 86 grams per kilometer. This agile city car thusPerformance and agility matched with high fuel economy – this with the new AMG V8 biturbo engine. Its key data: 5,461 cc In Mercedes-Benz passenger cars, the fourth generation of defends its world-leading position as the CO2 champion amongwas the objective in the ongoing development of CGI (stratified displacement, a maximum output of 386 kW (525 hp) and 700 common-rail direct injection (CDI) adapts fuel injection even more vehicles with internal combustion engine.charged gasoline injection) engines for Mercedes-Benz passenger newton-meters of torque, and fuel consumption of only 9.9 liters precisely to various conditions of load and engine speed. The highercars. The CGI process enhances combustion efficiency. The precisely per 100 kilometers (NEDC figure) with CO2 emissions of 231 g / km. injection pressure increases the engine’s output and, thanks to its New Engine Generation stands for the latest interdisciplinary enginemetered quantity of gasoline required in a given driving situation is With these figures, the CLS 63 AMG not only significantly superior combustion, reduces raw emissions. The piezo injectors development from Daimler Trucks. The Fuso “6R10” engine compliesinjected into the cylinders. In May 2010, Mercedes-Benz reached a undercuts the values of all its direct competitors, but is also more also match the fuel injection to the momentary driving situation. with JP 09, currently the world’s most stringent emissions standard.new milestone in efficiency: Thanks to further innovations such fuel-efficient than much less powerful vehicles. This means lower levels of emission, fuel consumption, and noise. This powerful engine is being used for the first time in Japan in theas third-generation direct injection, a fully variable valve train, The four-cylinder CDI engine in the Mercedes E-Class develops 150 Fuso Super Great. All engines of the New Engine Generation (exceptnew combustion processes, and a multi-spark ignition, the new kW (204 hp) while only consuming 5.3 liters per 100 kilometers. As the EPA 07) include BlueTec emission technology for a significantBlueDIRECT V6 and V8 engines consume up to 24 percent less fuel compared to the predecessor model, this means a 20 percent higher reduction in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, particulate matter,than their predecessors, despite generating greater power and torque. output and 24 percent lower CO2 emissions. The V6 turbodiesel unit, and CO2 – and are the same time highly economical. The 6R10 forFurther savings will be made in future with fuel-efficient stratified used for example in the Mercedes-Benz C 350 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY, the Fuso Super Great, with a displacement of 12.8 liters and powercombustion processes, reduced friction within the engine, and lower in combination with the 7G-TRONIC PLUS automatic transmission outputs currently ranging from 257 kW (350 hp) to 338 kW (460 hp),power consumption in the auxiliary units. and the ECO start / stop function offers superior output and torque: is ideally suited to the customer requirements of the Japanese mar- 195 kW (265 hp) and 620 Nm – with a combined consumption ket. In future, the New Engine Generation will also power Mercedes- figure of 5.9 liters per 100 kilometers. Benz trucks. This already opens the door to maximum-efficiency The new CDI technology is also used in Daimler’s smallest vehicle: combustion engines of the next generation, which in conjunction The current smart fortwo cdi has a combined fuel consumption with BlueTec emission technology, exhaust gas recirculation, and a figure of just 3.3 liters per100 kilometers, corresponding to CO2 closed-loop diesel particulate filter will meet the Euro 6 standard.BlueEFFICIENCy is the trademark for highly economical, environmentally compatible Mercedes-Benz passenger cars. The fleet will have grown to a Requiring just 19.44 liters of diesel per 100 kilometers, the 40-tonne Mercedes-Benz Actros trailer / tractor combination holds the Guinness Worldtotal of 128 models by the end of 2011. Record in the category “most fuel-efficient 40-tonne truck.” During a seven-day trial drive over 13,000 kilometers on the Nardo test circuit in southern Italy in May 2008, the Actros demonstrated that the vision of the “one-liter vehicle” is already a reality in the commercial vehicle sector.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 16-17High-tech internal combustion engines. “Power plants” for high-tech engines: The development and introduction of synthetic diesel fuels from biomass, by the name of “SunDiesel,” have been at the focus of Daimler’s attention since 2005.Driving with natural gas: NGT (natural gas technology). The Mercedes-Benz Sprinter NGT BlueEFFICIENCY with bivalent Synthetic fuels help cut consumption and emissions.In terms of both ecology and economy, natural gas drive is a viable natural gas drive has also been available since 2008. The Mercedes-alternative to conventional drive concepts. In comparison with Benz Citaro CNG is manufactured both as a solo and an articulated The development of fuels goes hand in hand with that of drive systems. New alternative fuels provide further potential forconventional gasoline or diesel fuels, its advantages lie in a lower bus with natural gas engine; more than 1,600 of these vehicles are reducing fuel consumption and emissions.carbon content and low-emission combustion. Moreover, natural already in operation throughout the world. This was the firstgas engines run very quietly and produce less CO2 than diesel line-service urban bus with natural gas drive to comply with the EEVengines. To date, natural gas vehicles still have the disadvantages (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) exhaust standards. The Since conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel will continue 4. Hydrogen is the energy medium for fuel cell automobiles.of intricate fuel storage in bulky pressure cylinders and a limited Mercedes-Benz Econic NGT likewise undercuts the Euro V and EEV to predominate for a number of years to come, their optimization The hydrogen used in the fuel cell reacts with oxygen tofilling station infrastructure. Thanks to their bivalent drive units, limits and is characterized by low noise emissions; around 1,000 of is a top priority. The objective: universal availability of high-quality yield water. Until now, the world’s hydrogen requirementsNGT passenger cars such as the Mercedes-Benz E 200 NGT these trucks are on the roads of Europe in municipal service, and sulfur-free fuels. have been largely fulfilled by the reformation of steam fromBlueEFFICIENCY or the B 170 NGT BlueEFFICIENCY can run either collecting, and distribution operations. 1,300 natural gas vehicles on natural gas. Since this hydrogen production process stillon natural gas or on premium gasoline. the basis of the MT45 walk-in delivery van have been delivered since 1. CNG (compressed natural gas) is a promising option for gives rise to CO2 emissions as a result of the carbon content 2000 by the Freightliner Custom Chassis Corporation (FCCC). certain applications, since it has a lower carbon content than of the natural gas, appropriate economically viable processes gasoline or diesel. for hydrogen production from renewable sources must be developed. Hydrogen generated by this means is the fuel of 2. BTL (biomass-to-liquid) fuels will acquire increasing significance the future, which in combination with the fuel cell ensures as soon as they are produced on a large-scale industrial mobility free of pollutants and CO2. Environment-friendly basis. Daimler is promoting the development and application hydrogen production processes include electrolysis usingWhether it be the Mercedes-Benz Citaro, the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter, the Mercedes-Benz Econic, or the Mercedes-Benz B-Class and E-Class: Natural of largely CO2-neutral synthetic biofuels which make optimal electricity generated from renewable sources (at hydroelectric,gas engines comply with the stringent EEV standards. use of the biomass, are free of sulfur and aromatics, and do wind, solar or geothermal power plants) and the gasification not directly compete with food and fodder production. They of biomass. can be excellently matched to the requirements of the internal combustion engine. 5. Biofuels of the first generation, such as bioethanol or biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester, RME), are suitable for the 3. GTL (gas-to-liquid) fuels are the cleanest and highest-quality short to medium term as blend additives for conventional fuels for diesel engines after BTL fuels. GTL diesel is free of fossil fuels – within the range of concentrations suitable for sulfur and can be well matched to the requirements of the the respective vehicles – as long as negative consequences internal combustion engine. for food production are prevented. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO), which give rise to only few emissions and are produced on an industrial scale, are suited as an interim solution prior to the introduction of second-generation biofuels and can be blended with conventional fuels without restric- tion in high quantities.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 18-19 The key to greater efficiency and environmental compatibility A further option is the plug-in hybrid, in which the battery can be lies in the electrification of the drivetrain. This offers great recharged from a domestic power socket to extend the vehicle’s potential for improvement, which is being realized for example in “electric” operating range. The Mercedes-Benz Vision 500 Plug-inHybridization made to measure. auxiliary units, the automatic start / stop system, and hybridization. HYBRID provides a glimpse of this full-hybrid technology. With the For this second stage of Daimler’s “road map”, we have developed next-generation S-Class, Mercedes-Benz will incorporate this a modular hybrid system that offers various possibilities for highly efficient combination of internal combustion engine andA milestone for further enhanced efficiency. extension in terms of performance and range of vehicle applications. electric motor into series manufacture. All hybrid drive variants can be realized on this basis: from so-called mild hybrids, with electric recuperation and boost function, up to purely electric driving.Electric drive – hybrid drive units, which combine internal combustionengines and electric motors, represent a milestone along the roadtoward enhanced drive system efficiency.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 20-21Hybridization made to measure.Boosting efficiency. The modular hybrid system issuited to a wide range of applications in passengercars and commercial vehicles. Mercedes-Benz Vision S 500 Plug-in HyBRID: The luxury category on the way to the three-liter automobile.Mercedes-Benz S 400 HyBRID: the first production vehicle The disc-shaped electric motor is conveniently located in the The future of the modular hybrid system is shown by the The near-series diesel hybrid study car.with a lithium-ion battery. torque converter housing between the engine and the 7G-TRONIC Mercedes-Benz Vision 500 Plug-in HyBRID. The combination of various hybrid modules is also demonstrated inWith the Mercedes-Benz S 400 HYBRID introduced on the market seven-speed automatic transmission. The compact unit also This vehicle’s hybrid module also allows driving in purely electric the Vision Mercedes-Benz E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID. This study carin 2009, Daimler was the first European manufacturer to offer a functions as a starter motor and generator. The hybrid module for mode. The more powerful, likewise disc-shaped electric motor equipped with the new four-cylinder diesel engine sounds out thehybrid passenger car from large-series production. The modular example includes the ECO start-stop function. During braking, differs only slightly from the hybrid module in the Mercedes-Benz fuel-savings potential with its low combined consumption figure ofconcept, realized in this premium automobile for the first time, the electric motor functions as a generator and can recuperate S 400 HYBRID and can also be integrated into the 7G-TRONIC just 4.5 liters per 100 kilometers. The highly efficient emissionshows how hybrid drive configurations can be efficiently realized kinetic energy. The energy recovered by this means is stored in a housing. This configuration leaves sufficient space for an isolator control unit combines the functions of oxidation catalytic converter,to meet a wide variety of requirements. The key component is a new high-voltage lithium-ion battery specially developed for coupling additionally located between the internal combustion diesel particulate filter, and BLUETEC with AdBlue injection. Thebattery based on lithium-ion technology, which is superior in automotive application. The major advantages of the lithium-ion engine and the electric motor: It separates the two drive units in near-series Mercedes-Benz E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID study vehicleterms of power output and storage capacity. The second element battery over conventional batteries are its higher energy density purely electric mode so that the combustion engine can be cut off thus also has the potential to comply with BIN5 and EU6, theis the compact hybrid module, which develops 15 kilowatts in the and more favorable electrical efficiency despite its more compact completely. Moreover, this configuration allows full recuperation world’s most stringent emission standards.Mercedes-Benz S 400 HYBRID. dimensions and lower weight. The battery has an exceptionally without drag loss in the engine. With a certified consumption of high cycle stability – a service life of at least ten years is attainable only 3.2 liters of gasoline per 100 kilometers and a purely electric under normal conditions of use. operating range of 30 kilometers, the Mercedes-Benz Vision S 500 Plug-in HYBRID offers green technology in a fascinating luxury-category vehicle. The modular hybrid systemMercedes-Benz S 400 HyBRID: The first hybrid vehicle to be offered by a European manufacturer. The modular hybrid system, which makes for great versatility in terms of power output and range of applications, reconciles economy with driving pleasure: Hybrid modules and batteries can be combined with various performance data of the economical, high-torque gasoline and diesel engines. Just like the engines, all hybrid modules are compatible with the 7G-TRONIC automatic transmission. On this basis, diverse, highly customer-oriented hybrid drive variants can be realized – up to the full hybrid, which can also operate in purely electrical mode. A further option is the plug-in hybrid, in which the battery can also be recharged from a domestic power socket to increase the “electric” operating range. Batteries Hybrid modules Transmission Combustion engines · 7 Ah · 15 kW · 7G-TRONIC · R4 gasoline engine · 30 Ah · 45 kW · 7G-TRONIC PLUS · R4 diesel engine · 45 Ah · 65 kW · V6 gasoline engine · V6 diesel engine Ah = ampere-hour kW = kilowatt
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 22-23Hybridization made to measure.No other manufacturer offers more commercial vehicleswith hybrid drive.With its hybrid modules, Daimler is also setting new standards the electric motor and optimizes the characteristics of the diesel Off to a good start with fleet tests.in the commercial vehicle sector. engine. This not only significantly reduces fuel consumption and Alternative drive technologies from Daimler Trucks and Daimler exhaust emissions by up to 15 percent, but also makes for less Buses are now being put to everyday use with customers inIn commercial vehicles, too, Daimler is pressing ahead with drasti- noise emission. Use of the start / stop function during stops at further product segments and regions. In North America, mostcally reducing fuel consumption, CO2 levels, and exhaust emissions. traffic lights reduces fuel consumption, emissions, and noise to of the 1,500 Freightliner M2 hybrid trucks have already beenThese activities are grouped together in the “Shaping Future zero. The first fifty Atego BlueTec Hybrid trucks were delivered to delivered to customers. Thomas Built Buses is now producingTransportation” initiative launched in late 2007. A key role in the German customers from the goods distribution sector in early hybrid versions of the company’s legendary school buses. Inquest for the drive system of tomorrow is played by hybrid technolo- 2011. The Mercedes-Benz Atego BlueTec Hybrid received the Japan, the Fuso Aero Star Eco Hybrid is now already the secondgies, which depending on the type of application are expected to “German Sustainability Award” in the category of “Germany’s generation of hybrid buses to be launched on the market. Inbring about savings in diesel consumption of up to one-third. most sustainable products / services” in 2010 and was voted London, Europe’s largest fleet test with hybrid trucks was already “Truck of the Year 2011.” initiated with ten Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid vehicles inWith the Mercedes-Benz Atego BlueTec Hybrid, we are offering this August 2008. The Global Hybrid Center in Kawasaki, Japan, alsoparticularly low-emission technology ex-factory for the first time in World leader in hybrid drive systems for commercial vehicles. opened in August 2008, now coordinates the worldwide hybridEurope. Its compact, lightweight four-cylinder diesel engine with a Large numbers of buses and trucks of Daimler’s Orion, Freight- activities of Daimler Trucks and is currently developing newdisplacement of 4.8 liters develops an output of 160 kW (218 hp) liner, and Mitsubishi Fuso brands are already in operation with systems. The first of a total of 30 Mercedes-Benz diesel hybridand a maximum torque of 810 Nm. It also features a water-cooled customers in the United States and Japan. With some 3,200 buses have already been in regular everyday service since 2010.electric motor, which has a peak output of 44 kW and a maximum Orion Hybrid buses on the roads of North America, more than This new vehicle concept is already shaping the technological shifttorque of 420 Nm and is supplied by lithium-ion batteries with high 1,500 Freightliner vehicles, and over 1,100 light trucks and buses towards the zero-emission vehicle.energy and power ratings. from Mitsubishi Fuso, Daimler is world market leader in hybridThe electric motor is located behind the combustion engine and drive systems for commercial vehicles. Together with the naturalclutch, but in front of the transmission. In so-called parallel gas-powered Mercedes-Benz trucks, buses, and vans in Europe,hybrid mode, the electric motor and combustion engine can the fleet of vehicles delivered by Daimler to its customers already The Mercedes-Benz Atego BlueTec Hybrid received the 2010 Germanpower the truck either alone or in tandem. This architecture numbers more than 15,500 commercial vehicles with alternative Sustainability Award and was voted “Truck of the year 2011.”allows electric starting, regenerative braking, and boosting by drive concepts in practical operation.The Mercedes-Benz Citaro G BlueTec Hybrid articulated bus and the commercial vehicles from Fuso are already today heralding the technological change More than 1,000 hybrid vehicles such as the Freightliner M2 106 Hybrid have already left the production line at the commercial vehicle plant intowards the zero-emission vehicle. Mount Holly, North Carolina (left). Over 2,200 Orion hybrid buses are now a regular sight on the roads of the United States (right).
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 24-25 The future has begun: Numerous electric and fuel cell test are already in operation today. But there are still a number of vehicles have proven their worth in field trials. The technical challenges that will prevent electric automobiles from being a feasibility of electromobility has thus been demonstrated. The familiar sight on the roads in the near future. Boosting operatingBattery and Fuel Cell. manufacture of highly diverse vehicles is now under way: The range and performance, cutting systems costs, and establishing smart fortwo electric drive, Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-CELL, an infrastructure are the requirements that yet remain to be Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL, Mercedes-Benz Vito E-CELL, fulfilled for trouble-free, comfortable operation.Locally emission-free driving. Electric vehicles powered Fuso Canter E-CELL, and Mercedes-Benz Citaro FuelCELL Hybridby the battery and the fuel cell make an importantcontribution to sustainable mobility.Charging sockets – recharging with electricity for locally emission-freedriving with standardized charging plugs.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 26-27Battery and fuel cell.Daimler is developing state-of-the-art lithium-ionbatteries – indispensable for the electrification ofthe drivetrain. The lithium-ion battery: The heart of all future electric drive systems. The fuel cell – electromobility with a long operating range. The energy storage medium is the key to electrification of A powerful, safe, and reliable energy storage medium is a crucial element of With their generous operating range and short filling times, fuel the drivetrain. all electric drive systems. The performance of the entire electrical system on cell automobiles are also well suited for long-distance travel since To secure its pioneering role over the long term, Daimler acquired board an automobile is determined to a large extent by the battery, starting they generate the electricity for powering the vehicle directly on a 49.9 percent share in the Evonik subsidiary Li-Tec in 2008. The with its charging capacity. Daimler is therefore concentrating on developing a board from hydrogen. In local traffic, they operate just as cleanly joint venture “Deutsche Accumotive GmbH & Co. KG” was also powerful traction battery. In addition to fulfilling specific performance criteria, as battery-powered vehicles and without harmful emissions. Fuel established, in which Daimler holds a 90 percent share. The aim it must have a long service life, not represent a hazard in an accident, and cells generate electricity in a chemical reaction between hydrogen of this cooperation is the development and production of lithium-ion be recyclable. A highly promising prospect is lithium-ion battery technology, and oxygen, which yields only pure water vapor. Daimler has been batteries specifically designed for use on board road vehicles. As of which has already proven its worth in hybrid applications. Its advantages lie investigating the use of fuel cell technology to power road vehicles 2012, Daimler will thus have at its disposal exclusive production above all in its compact dimensions in combination with a considerably higher since 1994. The Group’s pioneering achievements are underscored capacities for advanced lithium-ion batteries, which can then be performance in comparison with conventional battery technologies. Further by 180 patent applications in this field of technology. In the course manufactured according to requirements for all automotive advances will be achieved with the lithium-ion flat cell, which has a higher of broad-based practical trials with fuel cell vehicles, a total of 100 applications – from hybrid to electric automobiles, and for both energy density and even more compact dimensions. passenger cars, buses, and vans have been on the move in everyday passenger cars and commercial vehicles. Daimler thus has use with customers, during which time they have already covered direct access to the key technology for emission-free driving. Standardizing lithium-ion technology. more than 4.5 million kilometers and provided important insights Thanks to its powerful cooling system and intelligent temperature manage- for the ongoing development of the emission-free drivetrain. This ment, the lithium-ion battery from Daimler constantly operates within the provided the basis for manufacture of the first series-produced fuel optimum temperature range of between 15 and 35 degrees Celsius. This cell vehicle, the Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL, as of late 2009. ensures reliability independent of climatic conditions, along with full efficiency and excellent cold-starting behavior throughout the battery’s service life. Economical production of the lithium-ion battery under conditions of large- series production is essential for widespread automotive application. Daimler Daimler is the world’s first automotive manufacturer to develop and, is therefore working to secure cell standardization for this battery technology. The objective of this development is standardized, industrialized production as of 2012, to produce and market its own batteries for automotive of lithium-ion batteries both for hybrid and for fuel cell and purely battery- powered vehicles – series production is to commence in 2012. Daimler application. benefits in lithium-ion technology from a broad range of expertise accumulated over many years of research work. The group has registered more than 600 patents for battery-powered vehicles over the past 30 years, including more than 230 in the field of lithium-ion technology. With Deutsche Accumotive, Daimler has its own manufacturing facilities for state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. As of 2012, these power units will be produced on demand for all automotive applications – in hybrid and electric passenger cars and commercial vehicles. Standardized plugs for the charging cable (above), for example, are an initial step towards establishing a close-knit infrastructure. Advances in efficiency will be provided by the innovative lithium-ion flat cell (below).
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 28-29Electromobility today.Zero emissions, full emotions. Electric vehicles fromDaimler are not only particularly clean and quiet, butalso offer maximum driving pleasure.A calculation that makes sense. in 6.5 seconds, this agile city car is hard to beat at traffic lights. The first family car for city driving. The Gullwing electrified.Our electric vehicles have lower levels of fuel consumption and Its highly efficient lithium-ion battery is well protected in the The A-Class E-CELL is the first series-produced battery-powered An electric car for both country roads and the racetrack wasnoise pollution than conventionally powered vehicles, offer the sandwich underfloor unit between the axles. The two-seater can electric car from Mercedes-Benz. This family-friendly five-seater, created by Mercedes-AMG in the summer of 2010 in the form ofsame amount of safety and spaciousness – and provide no end of be recharged either from a domestic power socket or at a public which is entirely suitable for everyday use, offers a spacious, the SLS AMG E-CELL concept car. This vehicle is powered bydriving pleasure. Thanks to the electric motor maximum torque is charging station. A single battery charge is sufficient for a range of versatile interior and trunk – with no compromise in spacious- four synchronous electric motors located near the wheels, withavailable right from the start, allowing powerful acceleration. These 135 kilometers, which is ideal for city traffic. Large-scale produc- ness and variability, since the two highly efficient lithium-ion a combined peak output of 392 kW (533 hp) and a maximum torquefeatures are shared by all current and future electric vehicles from tion of the smart fortwo electric drive is due to commence in 2012. batteries are safely and conveniently located in the underfloor of 880 Nm. Acceleration from 0 to 100 km / h in 4.0 seconds and aDaimler, such as the smart fortwo electric drive, Mercedes-Benz Pure electric driving pleasure on just two wheels is promised by unit. They make for a range of over 200 kilometers (NEDC figure). high-voltage lithium-ion battery with a capacity of 48 kWh areA-Class E-CELL, Vito E-CELL, SLS AMG E-CELL, B-Class F-CELL, the smart prototypes escooter and ebike. The smart escooter A quiet, locally emission-free electric motor provides a peak further outstanding figures of this Gullwing model. The fascinatingCitaro FuelCELL HYBRID, and Fuso Canter E-CELL. offers safety systems that are unique for this category of vehicle, power of no less than 70 kW (95 hp) and a generous torque of super sportscar with locally emission-free electric drive will be such as ABS, airbag, and Blind Spot Assist, and its 4 kW (5.4 hp) 290 Nm. With an acceleration from 0 to 60 km / h in 5.5 seconds available in the showrooms as of 2013.A locally emission-free, agile city car. electric motor provides it with a range of up to 100 kilometers. and an electronically limited top speed of 150 km / h, the electricIt has everything on board that makes a smart a smart – except a With the ebike, the cyclist is assisted by an electric motor up to a A-Class is designed to meet the requirements of urban mobility.combustion engine. Rather, the smart fortwo electric drive is speed of 25 km / h. These smart two-wheelers, introduced in Production of a total of 500 units of the A-Class E-CELL began inpowered by a 30 kW (41 hp) electric motor: economically, quietly, late 2010, perfectly round off the range of vehicles for emission- Rastatt in late 2010.and locally emission-free. With an acceleration from 0 to 60 km / h free urban mobility.Daimler’s generous offer of electric vehicles ranges from city cars and bikes to vans and the super sportscar (right). Ideally suited for locally Five seats and full flexibility in the interior make the Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-CELL the ideal electric family car. The absolute superlative amongzero-emission city mobility are the smart fortwo electric drive and the prototypes smart escooter and ebike (left). electric vehicles in terms of performance, drive technology, and design is the SLS AMG E-CELL (right).
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 30-31Electromobility today.A van with “green charging.” The silent light-duty truck. The future of local transportation. The first fuel cell automobile in series production.With the first battery-electric truck available ex-factory from an The near-series Fuso Canter E-CELL study vehicle shows how The latest fuel cell technology is also used in the Mercedes-Benz Manufacture of a small series of the Mercedes-Benz B-Classautomotive manufacturer, Mercedes-Benz is opening up a new emission-free mobility can be realized in the next-highest weight Citaro FuelCELL Hybrid city bus. The hybrid system with fuel F-CELL commenced in late 2009. With its 700-bar hydrogen tankchapter in drive technology for light commercial vehicles. Its class. The purely electrically powered light-duty truck is based on cell, electric motor, and lithium-ion batteries is characterized by in the sandwich floor unit, the first fuel cell passenger car fromzero-emission drive and its maximum payload of 900 kg make a Canter with a gross vehicle weight of 3.5 tonnes. Its 40 kWh outstanding environmental compatibility: This bus emits no Mercedes-Benz to be produced under series conditions attains anthe Mercedes-Benz Vito E-CELL ideal for use in inner-city zones lithium-ion batteries housed in the chassis frame allow a range pollutants during operation and is almost silent, so it is ideal for operating range of around 400 kilometers. Its electric motorand environmentally sensitive areas. The lithium-ion batteries of 120 kilometers. The 70 kW (95 hp) electric motor, positioned use in highly burdened inner-city areas and in mega-cities. On develops an output of 100 kilowatts, with a torque of 290 newton-of the Vito E-CELL are located in the underfloor unit and thus between the batteries and the driven twin-tired rear axle, has a the roof are seven cylinders containing 35 kg of hydrogen in all. meters, and thus has the power rating of a two-liter gasoline engine.do not restrict load space. They have a combined capacity of 36 maximum torque of 300 Nm and accelerates the electric truck The water-cooled lithium-ion batteries have a capacity of 27 kWh, The clean, quiet, and powerful fuel cell drive unit consumes 3.3 literskWh, which is sufficient for a range of around 130 kilometers. to its limited top speed of 80 km / h. The Canter E-CELL is the which is sufficient to power the electric motors at a constant 120 per 100 kilometers (diesel equivalent) and makes for a top speedThe Vito E-CELL thus meets the average customer requirements next step after the successful Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid with parallel kW (163 hp). The Mercedes-Benz Citaro FuelCELL Hybrid makes for of 170 km / h. The next step toward market introduction hasfor a range of 50 to 80 kilometers per day, plus a generous hybrid drive, of which more than 1,100 units have been sold. permanently zero-emission local public transport and thus already been taken: In December 2010, Mercedes-Benz deliveredreserve. Its electric motor has an output of 60 kW (82 hp), with constitutes a key element of mobility for the future. the first of a total of 200 B-Class F-CELL cars in Germany and the280 Nm of torque and a top speed of 80 km / h that is highly United States. In California alone, 70 B-Class vehicles with fuelsuitable for this type of vehicle. The dynamic performance of cell will be handed over to customers by 2012.the Vito E-CELL is therefore in keeping with the accustomedhigh level of modern diesel engines. Following its successfulstart in the major cities of Berlin and Stuttgart, this electricallypowered van has been in active service in Spain’s Basque countrysince early 2011.An initial batch of 100 Mercedes-Benz Vito E-CELL vans, the first in the world to be equipped with electric drive ex-factory, were delivered to Emission-free, quiet as a whisper, and easy on natural resources: The Mercedes-Benz Citaro FuelCELL Hybrid (left). The Mercedes-Benz B-Classcustomers by the end of 2010; a further 2,000 units are planned for 2011 (left). The Fuso Canter E-CELL with the latest-generation fuel cell drive F-CELL (right) makes for emission-free driving with a range of up to 400 kilometers and accommodates up to five people.celebrated its world premiere in 2010 at the IAA Commercial Vehicles (right).
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 32-33Projects with a future.For a mobile future. Daimler creates initiatives for theinfrastructure and mobility.Daimler is supporting the establishment of a close-knit infra- Ambassadors of the fuel cell. The H2 Mobility initiative for a hydrogen infrastructure.structure for demand-based electromobility. Electric cars with fuel cells can revolutionize our mobility once In September 2009, the leading industrial enterprises reached anHowever, this calls for investments that can only be shouldered again. The vehicle technology of the B-Class F-CELL has reached agreement on the establishment of a close-knit hydrogen supplythrough a concerted effort in conjunction with partners from the maturity, but the refueling infrastructure remains a limiting infrastructure for Germany. Daimler, EnBW, Linde, OMV, Shell,industry. According to a recent McKinsey study, setting up an factor. To demonstrate the efficiency and everyday practicality Total, Vattenfall, and the National Organization for Hydrogen andappropriate infrastructure for around a million fuel cell vehicles of this pioneering technology while at the same time pressing Fuel Cell Technology (NOW) have the common aim of expeditingin Europe by 2020 will cost about three billion euros. As part of ahead with the development of a global hydrogen filling station series manufacture of electric vehicles with fuel cell. The memo-the H2 Mobility initiative for Germany, we are expecting demand network, the F-CELL World Drive with the B-Class F-CELL was randum of understanding is based on an initiative by Daimler andfor 1,000 hydrogen filling stations; this will entail an overall launched on 29 January, 2011 – one day after the official 125th Linde concerning the establishment of a comprehensive hydrogeninvestment of one billion euros. An appropriate infrastructure birthday of the automobile: around the world in 125 days over filling station network.is also required for battery-powered vehicles. We are assuming around 30,000 kilometers, through highly diverse climate zones,a demand for 400,000 charging points to be installed by 2020, and over a wide variety of road surfaces from asphalt to gravel.which calls for an investment of up to two billion euros. Daimler The B-Class F-CELL has thus become the global ambassador ofwill continue contributing to the development of the infrastructure a new, locally emission-free mobility of the future. To secure fuelwith a holistic approach, for example as a member of the Clean supplies for the cars throughout all stages of this tour, hydrogenEnergy Partnership (CEP) for the promotion of hydrogen as a fuel tank vehicles are stationed at the various starting and endof the future. Only by this means can a convincing overall solution points. The objective is to ensure that drivers can refuel withbe realized, from the vehicles themselves up to a charging and hydrogen anywhere in the world in future – as with gasoline andrefueling infrastructure for electricity and hydrogen. diesel today.In the F-CELL World Drive, three Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL cars are being driven around the world in 125 days. The first public hydrogen filling station in the state of Baden-Württemberg – a joint venture of OMV, Linde, and Daimler (above). The Mercedes-Benz HySyS Sprinter F-CELL has been established as part of an EU project. Mercedes-Benz HySyS SprinterSprinter F-CELL. Mercedes-Benz HySyS F-CELL As part of the EU-funded HySYS project, a Mercedes-Benz Im Rahmen des EU-Förderprojektes HySYS Sprinter wurde 2010 einwith a fuel cell drive system and tested was equipped Mercedes-Benz Sprinter mit in 2010. The aim of this project, initiated by 25 project partners Brennstoffzellenantrieb aufgebaut und ge- in 2005,testet. Ziel des 2005 von 25 Projektpartnern drive and was to advance the development of fuel cell system components Projektes war es, Brennstoff- between aufgelegten and to enhance the cooperation OEMs, suppliers, and institutes throughout Europe. zellenantriebs- und systemkomponenten weiterzuentwickeln und die Zusammenarbeit zwischen OEMs, Zulieferern und Instituten im europäischen Raum zu verbessern.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 34-35Projects with a future.e-mobility: The future is electric. Baden-Württemberg is set to become a model region for Electromobility is feasible in all areas of mobility As the inventor of the car and the truck, Daimler is demonstratingWith its intelligent, solution-oriented approach, the e-mobility electromobility. About 200 vehicles of the smart and Mercedes-Benz brands that electromobility is feasible in all major areas of mobility – bothproject of Daimler together with partners from the political sphere The e-mobility Baden-Württemberg initiative was jointly launched equipped with either battery-electric or fuel cell drive are on in individual travel and in goods and public transport. EnBW willand energy suppliers is answering the question of how electro- by EnBW Energie Baden-Württemberg AG and Daimler in June the move for the e-mobility Baden-Württemberg initiative: the have established more than 700 electric charging points and eithermobility can be made economically viable in practice. Electric 2010. Its objective is to transform the state of birth of the auto- Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-CELL and B-Class F-CELL models, the two or three hydrogen filling stations throughout Baden-Württembergvehicles of the Mercedes-Benz and smart brands have already mobile into a model region for locally emission-free electromo- Mercedes-Benz Vito E-CELL and Citaro FuelCELL Hybrid, and by the end of 2011. The company’s public charging stations areproved successful since 2009 in e-mobility projects in Germany, bility within the next two years. The initiative’s starting point is the the smart fortwo electric drive. supplied exclusively with hydroelectric power.France, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland. Further state capital, Stuttgart; a further regional focus will be Karlsruhe.markets include Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, Denmark, EnBW is contributing its expertise in energy logistics to thisthe Czech Republic, and North America (the United States and strategic partnership for the development of intelligent, customer-Canada). Daimler, for example, is providing over 100 electric friendly battery charging models and in network management andvehicles for the Berlin project; and the partner RWE is installing control, and is providing a diversified blend of energy sources.500 electric charging stations throughout the city that are to be As a supplement to the ongoing e-mobility projects, the newsupplied exclusively by electricity from renewable sources. initiative is specifically focused on diversity. Daimler’s “Road to Emission-free Driving” also extends to new customer offers, service concepts, and financing solutions. We are thereby contributing to an all-encompassing package concept centered on the mobility of the future.The e-mobility project is setting out to establish worldwide open standards and to expedite the development of vehicle technology and an In the state of birth of the automobile, vehicles from Daimler powered by both batteries and the fuel cell are on the move as part of the e-mobilityintelligent infrastructure. Baden-Württemberg project.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 36-37Projects with a future.car2go has developed from a pilot project to the reference markfor intelligent inner-city mobility.Modern mobility concepts for the city. therefore in full swing: The Hanseatic City of Hamburg was added Buses to the fore. order to relieve the strain on the transportation system and thusIn the car2go mobility concept launched in Ulm in late 2008, in April 2011, and car2go was likewise presented in Vancouver, A further mobility concept for the future, especially for rapidly ensure mobility in the long term for all social strata. Moreover,Daimler is meeting customer demands for flexible urban mobility. Canada, in early 2011. And by the end of the year, this innovative growing major cities, is the bus rapid transit system (BRT). Line- CO2 emissions are further reduced with state-of-the-art engineIn the area of Ulm and Neu-Ulm, and since late 2009 in Austin, mobility program will also have been introduced in Amsterdam. service buses traveling at short intervals are allotted separate technology and freely flowing bus operations without traffic jams.Texas, USA, the initiative provides smart fortwo vehicles that Requests by further cities have also been received for this creative, lanes of traffic with their own traffic light phases. Buses are given A further advantage for metropolitan transport operators: BRT iscan be hired at any time of day or night following initial registration versatile, and economical mobility initiative for the inner-city traffic priority, so that they can travel at up to 100 km / h. This ensures cheaper in purchase and maintenance than rail systems. BRT is– and can simply be left on a designated parking space or on a of tomorrow. rapid, comfortable travel even in rush-hour traffic. Daimler is thus a sustainable concept for the future which Daimler has alreadypublic street after use. Usage is charged on a minute-to-minute particularly committed to BRT solutions, since only reliable, safe successfully implemented together with cities such as Istanbul,basis; this fee covers tax, insurance, mileage, and even fuel. Daimler has developed a further innovative urban mobility concept public transport can entice customers to make the change from Nantes, Mexico City, and Bogotá. that allows users to remain flexibly and independently mobile individual transport. This is important especially in large cities inIn view of the high level of customer acceptance, in March 2011 without a car of their own. With car2gether, Daimler has beenthe vehicle fleet was not only boosted by 50 percent, but also offering a modern form of ride-sharing since September 2010.completely updated: The smart fortwo car2go edition is the car2gether is a web-based carpool community that can pro-world’s first factory-configured car-sharing vehicle, fitted with cess and communicate offers from drivers and requests fromstart-stop function, newly developed telematics, and a solar roof prospective passengers. Matched ride-share offers can be rapidlyto relieve the load on electrical consumers.In Ulm, Neu-Ulm, and Austin alone, car2go has already registered communicated via smartphone while on the move or from a home computer – practically on a real-time basis. By this means, rides Traffic volumes in major cities will continue to rise – and there willimpressive figures after a good two years: car2go is availed of bymore than 35,000 customers, who have rented cars more than in the project cities of Ulm and Aachen can be organized on the spur of the moment; the system is excellently suited for everyday be increasing demand for efficient transport systems.600,000 times overall. The extension of this car-sharing project is use and can reduce the burden on the environment.car2go – an intelligent mobility concept with the slogan “Just get in and drive off” – has been chosen for the ÖkoGlobe (EgoGlobe) award. The intelligent In Istanbul alone,bus rapid transit is used by about 600,000 commuters daily.mobility concept car2gether is the basis of “ride-sharing 2.0.”
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 38-39Tomorrow’s electromobility.Ideal solutions to meet all the requirements ofmobility of the future.Flexible vehicle architecture for customized mobility. corresponding to only 68 grams of CO2 per kilometer. By reason Mercedes-Benz Concept BlueZERO: Pioneer of a new A space-saving location out of harm’s way.With the F 800 Style research car, Mercedes-Benz is showing of its excellent fuel efficiency, the F 800 Style with plug-in hybrid generation of electric vehicles. The three BlueZERO variants were realized on the basis of thehow various sustainable drive solutions can be implemented in nevertheless has the driving performance of a sportscar (0 to Another concrete example of environmentally responsible electro- unique sandwich floor architecture which Daimler introduceda single large vehicle. One of the most significant innovations in 100 km / h in 4.8 seconds, maximum speed 250 km / h). Its top mobility for everyday use is the near-series Mercedes-Benz more than ten years ago, also with a view to integrating alternativethe F 800 Style is its newly developed flexible vehicle architec- speed in electric mode is 120 km / h. The F 800 Style thus also Concept BlueZERO. On the basis of a vehicle architecture, the drive units for the Mercedes-Benz A-Class, and was subsequentlyture for large sedans – the only such system in the world. This meets the requirements of long-distance travel. intelligent modular concept makes for three models with different further developed for the Mercedes-Benz B-Class. The vehicle hashighly flexible platform allows the integration of various alterna- drive configurations that can fulfill all customer requirements for five fully functional seats and is entirely suitable for everyday use,tive drive technologies in a classic sedan architecture. In the F-CELL version of the Mercedes-Benz F 800 Style, an sustainable mobility: with a payload of 450 kilograms and a luggage space of more than electric drive unit with fuel cell makes for locally zero-emission 500 liters. The principal drive components are installed in theThe Mercedes-Benz F 800 Style with plug-in hybrid drive makes driving over a range of almost 600 kilometers. The electric motor, • The BlueZERO E-CELL with purely battery-electric drive has a vehicle’s underfloor unit for a low center of mass and optimalfor locally emission-free electric driving in city traffic. Its drive with an output of around 100 kW (136 hp), develops a generous range of up to 200 kilometers. protection, in addition to saving space. This ensures a high level ofunit consists of a V6 gasoline engine developing approximately torque of approximately 290 Nm. The fuel cell of the F 800 Style • The BlueZERO F-CELL with fuel cell makes long-distance travel safety, particularly in the case of an accident.220 kW (300 hp) with next-generation direct injection and a is positioned in the front section, while its compact electric motor possible thanks to its electric range of around 400 kilometers.hybrid module with an output of around 80 kW (109 hp), so that is located near the rear axle. The lithium-ion battery and the four • The BlueZERO E-CELL PLUS with electric drive and additionalits overall power output is in the order of 300 kW (409 hp). hydrogen tanks are installed behind the rear seats, where they are internal combustion engine as a generator (“range extender”)Thanks to its efficient drive system and the CO2 bonus for afforded maximum protection in the case of an accident. The fuel has an overall operating range of up to 600 kilometers and canbattery-electric operation, this vehicle has a certified fuel cell drive components are derived from the E-Drive modular system cover up to 100 kilometers in purely electric mode.consumption of just 2.9 liters of gasoline per 100 kilometers, developed by Mercedes-Benz for a variety of electric vehicles.The Mercedes-Benz F 800 Style research vehicle is designed both as a plug-in hybrid and as a variant with electric drive on the basis of fuel cell Emission-free driving with a generous range and various drive solutions: The Concept BlueZERO F-CELL with fuel cell technology and a range of overtechnology. 400 kilometers (left) provides absolutely clean individual mobility. The electric drive unit with range extender in the Concept BlueZERO E-CELL PLUS makes for a range of up to 600 kilometers, 100 kilometers of which are emission-free (right).
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 40-41The driver plays the key role. The obligation of tradition.Modern drive and assistance systems make for tan- Innovations for sustainable mobility – a journeygible savings and help protect the environment – but through the decades. Since the invention of the auto-it is the human driver who plays the decisive role. mobile in 1886, we have reinvented it many times over.Gasoline, diesel, hybrid, electric? The choice of the optimal not be underestimated. Several minimal changes in individual Whether it be in comfort, safety, design, or drive technolo- powerful internal combustion engine and the benefits of itsdrive system largely depends on personal mobility require- driver behavior together have the potential to markedly gy – we have set new standards in every decade. The most extensive operating range.ments. Product blends matched to individual needs constitute influence a vehicle’s fuel consumption and thus also its outstanding innovations in drive systems technology include the Development of electric drive was taken up once more in the latethe heart of Daimler’s “Road to Emission-free Driving” pollutant emission levels. These factors account for no less first diesel car of 1936, the Mercedes-Benz 300 SL introduced in 1960s. NECAR 1, the first automobile with fuel cell drive, wasinitiative. However, aside from all technical new develop- than 20 percent of overall fuel consumption. Reducing 1954 as the first series-production automobile with gasoline direct launched in 1994. Since that time, the development of thisments and advances in drive systems, fuels, and assistance consumption is thus a key factor in the quest for emission- injection, and the first series-produced car with turbodiesel engine technology has made enormous progress: Locally emission-freesystems, the driver still plays a significant role that should free driving for the future. (1977). Common-rail direct injection (CDI, 1997) and BLUETEC, the fuel cell and electric vehicles have proved their worth in fleet trials technology for the world’s cleanest diesel vehicles, are further and are already on the roads today in small production series. milestones of drive systems technology. Daimler’s “electrifying” pioneering achievements also include the Daimler has repeatedly made pioneering achievements – in alterna- Mercedes-Benz S 400 HYBRID (2009) – the first hybrid model with tive drive systems as well. The first passenger cars and commercial lithium-ion battery – and the Mercedes-Benz Vito E-CELL (2010), vehicles with battery-electric or hybrid drive came into existence in the first series-produced fully electric van.Seven hints for economical driving 1906, but they could not hold their own against the increasingly1. Start off prudently. Bear in mind before setting off that 5. Simply switch off. Savings potential is also provided by during the cold phase, i.e. over the first four kilometers, deactivating the engine at traffic lights, railroad crossings, Invention of the automobile the engine consumes fuel at a much higher rate – at and in traffic jams. Switching off already saves fuel when times corresponding to between 30 and 40 liters per the vehicle is stationary for more than ten seconds. 1886 1896 100 kilometers. 6. Wind traps. Every kilogram of unnecessarily stowed Carl Benz applies for a patent for his three- Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft in Cannstatt2. Anticipate. An anticipatory driving style makes for luggage is ballast that increases a vehicle’s weight and wheeled “vehicle with gas engine operation” – delivers the first motorized truck to London. effective fuel savings. thus also its fuel consumption. Open windows, soft-tops, the world’s first automobile.3. Benefit from the overrun cutoff. When approaching and sunroofs, along with roof racks, give rise to turbulence traffic lights or an obstacle, the overrun cutoff helps save and especially at higher speeds increase fuel consumption fuel. The fuel supply is interrupted when the accelerator by up to five percent. 1894 1900 pedal is released. 7. Good maintenance pays off. Only a well-adjusted The Benz motor velocipede: the first automobile The Mercedes 35 PS, the prototype of all4. Shift up early. The higher the gear, the lower the engine engine yields optimal fuel consumption. Regular mainte- manufactured in large-scale series production. modern passenger cars. speed and fuel consumption. So shift up briskly through nance checks should thus be a matter of course. And the gears. don’t forget to check the tire pressure. 1895 The first omnibus with gasoline engine marks the beginning of motorized public transport.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 42-43The obligation of tradition.Gasoline injection Diesel Hybrid drive1954 1924 2005 1902The dream sportscar Mercedes-Benz 300 SL, the Premiere of the world’s first series-produced A world-record drive over 160,000 kilometers The Mercedes Simplex race car wins racesfirst series-produced vehicle with gasoline direct diesel truck. demonstrates the performance and efficiency with hybrid drive and electric hub motors atinjection. of CDI technology. the front wheels.1968 1936 2008 1969Mercedes-Benz 250 CE with electronically The Mercedes-Benz 260 D is the world’s first With only 19.44 liters of diesel per 100 kilometers, At the IAA in Frankfurt, Daimler presents thecontrolled gasoline direct injection. series passenger car with diesel engine. the Mercedes-Benz Actros sets the Guinness World Mercedes-Benz OE 302 electric test bus – an early Record for the “most fuel-efficient 40-tonne truck.” example of hybrid drive technology.1985 1977 2009 1979Optionally available closed-loop emission control The Mercedes-Benz 300 SD S-Class model for The Mercedes-Benz E 250 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY is Launch of a five-year model trial with a total ofsystem with three-way catalytic converter. the U.S. market is the first series-produced a highly economical vehicle with a combined fuel 13 Mercedes-Benz OE 305 electric-diesel hybrid turbodiesel passenger car. consumption figure of just 5.3 liters per 100 buses in regular line service. kilometers.2006 1997 2010 2003Mercedes-Benz CLS 350 CGI with the CDI (common rail direct injection) technology in The S 250 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY is the first 5-liter The Mercedes-Benz F 500 Mind research vehicleeconomical piezo gasoline direct injection and the Mercedes-Benz C 220 CDI model sets new car in the luxury class. is powered by a diesel engine with hybridspray-guided combustion process. standards in fuel efficiency. module.2009 2005 2006All four- and six-cylinder gasoline engines for the The first Mercedes-Benz Actros trucks and The Mercedes-Benz Hybrid Sprinter 316 CDI isnew Mercedes-Benz E-Class Coupé operate with semitrailer tractors with BlueTec are delivered Europe’s first van with hybrid technology.state-of-the-art direct fuel injection. in January.2010 2005 2007With its new BlueDIRECT engines, Mercedes-Benz The first Mercedes-Benz Citaro city buses with In trial operation in late 2007: the Fuso Canterattains an unprecedented efficiency boost for V6 the new BlueTec technology follow in May. Eco Hybrid.and V8 gasoline power units.
The Road to Emission-free Driving I 44-45The obligation of tradition. The ongoing development of the automobile is a process of constant evolution. We will therefore never cease to reinvent it – with enthusiasm and passion.Hybrid drive Electric vehicles with battery 1906 2010 20042008 Hybrid vehicles are marketed as “Mercédès Production start-up for the first small batch of Daimler hands over ten fuel cell passenger carsLong since a familiar sight on the roads of Mixte,” battery-powered vehicles as “Mercédès 500 Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-CELL cars. in Berlin and is thus the largest mobility partnermajor U.S. cities: the Orion VII Hybrid city Electrique.” in the “Clean Energy Partnership.” A total of 60buses. A-Class F-CELL vehicles are in use worldwide. 1908 2010 20092008 Germany’s first electrically powered fire The locally emission-free Mercedes-Benz SLS Concept BlueZERO: threefold verification of theThe Freightliner M2e Hybrid proves highly brigade convoy at the Berlin Fire Department. AMG E-CELL sportscar is presented. everyday practicality of alternative drive systems.reliable in daily operation. 1972 2011 20092009 The Mercedes-Benz LE 306 is the first electric Following a small series of 100 Mercedes-Benz Production start-up for fuel cell vehicles, withThe logistics company DHL tests the test van with battery-exchange technology. Vito E-CELL vehicles, delivery of a further 2,000 a small series of the Mercedes-Benz B-ClassMercedes-Benz Atego BlueTec Hybrid. units of this electric van begins. F-CELL. 1982 20092009 At the Hanover Trade Fair, Daimler presents The Mercedes-Benz Citaro FuelCELL Hybrid busThe Mercedes-Benz Citaro BlueTec Hybrid, a the Mercedes-Benz LE 306 – its first electric combines the advantages of the emission-freeserial diesel hybrid bus for everyday operation. passenger car, with a nickel-iron battery fuel cell with hybrid drive. weighing 600 kilograms. Electric vehicles with fuel cell 1992 1994 20112009 On the island of Rügen, 20 vehicles from Daimler presents NECAR (New Electric Car), the In the F-CELL World Drive, the B-Class F-CELLThe Mercedes-Benz S 400 HYBRID, the first Daimler are involved in a large-scale practical first fuel cell vehicle, based on the Mercedes-Benz is driven around the world in 125 days andproduction car with lithium-ion battery. trial with electric vehicles. 100 van. demonstrates its high everyday practicality and robustness – at times under extreme weather and road conditions. 1998 19992011 Daimler initiates long-term tests with an electric In NECAR 4, the fuel cell drive system and tankThe 1,000th Freightliner hybrid commercial vehicle for everyday use on the basis of the unit are housed in the sandwich floor unit ofvehicle leaves the production line in February Mercedes-Benz A-Class. the Mercedes-Benz A-Class for the first time.in the United States. 2009 20032011 The smart electric drive enters series production. In Madrid and Stuttgart, the first of 30 fuel cellThe first 50 Mercedes-Benz Atego BlueTec city buses based on the Mercedes-Benz CitaroHybrid trucks are delivered to customers in commence line service.Germany.
Our brands. Daimler passenger cars. Fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and Energy eﬃciency categories1,2. Fuel consumption CO2 emissions Energy eﬃciencyOur objective: Considerably reducing emissions urban extra-urban combined combined categoryalready today, and eliminating them altogether [ l/100 km], [kWh/100 km] and [kg H2/100 km] acc. to Directive 80/1268/EWG [ g/km]in the long term in both private and public Vehicles smart maximal minimal maximal minimal maximal minimal maximal minimal maximal minimalroad transport by means of state-of-the-art smart 6.4 3.3 4.4 3.3 5.2 3.3 119 86 E B - Daimler Trucks Mercedes-Benz Cars A-class 9.8 5.4 6.3 3.9 7.6 4.5 178 118 F Bing a broad spectrum of highly modern drive B-class C-class 8.3 18.6 5.3 5.6 5.0 8.5 3.8 3.7 6.2 12.2 4.4 4.4 145 285 114 117 C G A A E-class 13.9 5.9 7.8 4.0 10.0 4.7 234 123 F A CLS-class 13.9 6.4 7.6 4.4 9.9 5.1 231 134 F A S-class 21.8 7.0 9.9 5.0 14.3 5.7 334 149 G Aall modes of road transportation. CL-class SLK-class 21.8 12.0 13.5 6.1 9.9 6.2 7.2 4.1 14.3 8.4 9.5 4.9 334 195 224 128 G E E A SL-class 21.5 9.3 9.6 5.4 14.0 6.8 333 159 C G SLS AMG 19.9 19.9 9.3 9.3 13.2 13.2 308 308 G G ML-class 15.7 7.0 9.6 5.4 11.8 6.0 276 158 F A R-class 18.8 11.0 10.2 6.9 13.4 8.4 311 222 G C GLK-class 11.0 6.4 7.4 5.0 8.7 5.6 220 145 E A GL-class 19.0 11.1 10.8 7.5 13.8 8.9 322 235 G C Daimler Buses G-class 21.6 13.6 12.6 9.8 15.9 11.2 372 295 F G Maybach 23.6 22.6 11.3 10.7 15.8 15.0 368 350 G G Mercedes-Benz Vans Viano 16.5 8.7 9.5 6.3 12.1 7.1 284 187 G C Vito 16.5 8.4 9.5 6.1 12.1 7.0 284 182 G C Daimler Financial Services Sprinter 21.5 9.2 13.3 6.5 16.2 7.5 314 197 F B Electric vehicles kWh/100 km smart electric drive < 14 0 A+ A-class E-CELL 17.5 0 A+ Electric vehicle with fuel cell kg H2/100 km Daimler, an overview. B-class F-CELL 0.97 0 A+ 1 The ﬁgures for fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions shown were obtained in accordance with the prescribed measuring process (Directive 80/1268/EEC in the currently applicable version). The ﬁgures are not based on an individual vehicle and do not constitute part of the product oﬀer; they are provided solely for purposes of comparison between diﬀerent vehicle models. this carmaker is one of the leading producers of premium cars and is the largest Further information on the oﬃcial fuel consumption and the oﬃ cial, speciﬁc CO 2 emissions for new passenger cars can be found in the publication “Leitfaden über den Kra stoﬀ verbrauch und die CO 2 -Emissionen neuer Personenkra wagen” [Fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions in new passenger cars], which is available free of charge from showrooms and from Deutsche Automobil Treuhand GmbH. 2 The above table shows the fuel consumption and CO 2 emission levels plus the energy eﬃciency category of all model series available in Germany at the time of printing. For each vehicle class, the highest and lowest values are indicated for the models available in the german market. Further details on speciﬁc types of vehicle are available on the Internet. Fuel consumption levels in real driving operation can deviate from the test values in accordance with individual driving style. Stand 01/2012