Before we look at each or these skills, I want to talk about something you can do at a very early age with you child that will benefit them in all of these areas. It is something that you are probably already doing, but you may not know how great the benefits are. It is READING ALOUD TO YOUR children!!!!~
The most obvious things you can do to with children is to read aloud. Young Children learn about the world around them through experiences, conversation, exploration, and play. Lack of background knowledge makes reading more difficult in elementary school, especially in the later grades when reading to learn replaces learning to read. A child who has listened to a book about glaciers will have an easier time understanding a story about climbing Mt. Everest You may not realize the importance of reading aloud- and all that a child can learn from simply listening. The most critical benefit is that the child gains knowledge of things, people and places. BENEFITS FROM READING ALOUD TO YOUR CHILD Increase speaking and listening vocabulary- a child with a large listening and speaking vocab has an enormous advantage in learning to read. Develops background knowledge about a variety of topics Becomes familiar with rich language patterns Think about what all a child can learn from just being read aloud: books are read: from left to right, front to back, letters correspond with words in our speaking vocabulary, SOOOO Continue reading to your child every day!!!!!!!!!!
Beginning at an early age children are exposed to print in their everyday life Print awareness concepts are learned when an adult reads- while reading the adult will show the child the book and interact with the child as the story is being read aloud While your child is strapped in the car seat on the way to the grocery store, she see the stop sign, a McDonalds sign, and in the grocery story will see Life, Total written on cereal boxes or may notice Pepsi, Coke on a billboard While watching Sesame Street on TV she/he may see letters and words. Print is everywhere in your child’s environment-on signs, t-shirts, food boxes, books, television All of this exposure to print provides your child the opportunity to begin studying letters well before receiving any instruction for adults in his/her life.
A child not only needs to be aware of the print surrounding her, a child need to understand some concrete concepts about how a book is read before beginning to read. Expose children to different types of printed materials,-books, magazines, newspapers, and menus Label objects in the classroom or home- Read big books and point to the words and follow the print with your finger as you read aloud, this way children can begin to understand that the story is read from the words, not the pictures, and that short spaces separate words
Preschool children can begin to explore letters by playing with alphabet puzzles, magnetic upper-and lower-case letters, sandpaper letters, and alphabet lotto games. Post an alphabet chart at the child’s eye level.
Learning to read is an amazing feat, performed by an amazingly complex organ, the brain. As Dr. Sally Shaywitz, author of &quot;Overcoming Dyslexia&quot; and co-director of the Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention, often states, &quot;Reading is peculiarly human and yet distinctly unnatural.&quot; Reading has been described by neuroscientists as a &quot;high wire balancing act for the brain.&quot; Learning to read is one of the most complex things a human being does. Humans could speak for about thirty thousand years before they devised systems to write and read, and literacy continues to be an elusive goal for most of the world’s people.’ To read, we must translate a visual symbol system into speech and translate speech into meaning, and all of this must take place very rapidly so that we have mental space to think about and learn what we are reading.
This is one of several effective interventions for phonemic awareness and phonics..very inexpensive. Lessons do not have to be done in order but can be pulled out to respond to specifically identified skills children need.
Ready, Set, Read! What Parents Need to Know and to Do to Ensure Their Children are Ready to Learn to Read
Become a Reading Advocate for Your Child!All parents want their children to learn to read inKindergarten and first grade.
Many children—as many as 35% will struggle as they begin to learn to read.http://www.childrenofthecode.org/Tour/c1/indeThis website will help you get your child to get ready, set, read!
There are four areas that arefoundational for getting children readyto read: Language/Vocabulary Development3. Print Awareness4. Knowledge of the Alphabet5. Phonological AwarenessLet’s explore each area. Learn what they are, find some resources, and provide some learning activities for your children.
Vocabulary What is it? ◦ to know the meanings of words read ◦ to know the meanings of words heard ◦ to use a variety of words in spoken and written language
Research Evidence Children enter school with a listening vocabulary ranging between 2500 to 5000 Vocabulary differences at grade 2 may last throughout elementary school (Biemiller & Slonin, 2001) Children who enter with limited vocabulary knowledge grow more discrepant over time from their peers who have rich vocabulary knowledge ( Baker, Simmons & Kame’enui 1997) 86-98% of the words recorded in each child’s vocabulary consisted of words also recorded in their parents’ vocabularies ( Hart & Risley, 2000)
Children must develop “receptive language”.This is their listening and followingdirections language.
Expresses wants and needs Responds to questions Names pictures/objects Initiates conversations Speaks in sentences Imitates Retells simple storiesChildren must develop“expressive language”.
Use High-Quality Oral Language•Model good language use <INSERT AUDIO EXAMPLE WITH ICON>•Engage in daily oral language <INSERT AUDIO EXAMPLE WITH ICON>•Read aloud good literature•Use less “business” talk at home
Business Talk Conversations ◦ Come here! ◦ Tell me about… ◦ Stop that! ◦ How was ….? ◦ Be quiet! ◦ What do you think ◦ Sit down and eat! about…? ◦ Go watch TV! ◦ Why is …..? ◦ Clean your room! ◦ Do you think …..? ◦ Go to sleep! ◦ Who is …..? ◦ Get in the tub! ◦ What do you like?Less “Business” Talk—MoreConversations!
Picture Books to Read Aloud to an Infant or Toddler AUTHOR TITLEAhlberg, Janet & Allen Each Peach Pear PlumArnold, Tedd No Jumping on the BedBarton, Byron TrucksBrown, Margaret Wise Goodnight MoonBruna, Dick MiffyCarlstrom, Nancy White Jesse Bear, What Will You WearGibbons, Gail TrainsHill, Eric Where’s Spot?Martin, Bill Jr., & John Archambault Chicka Chicka Boom BoomMartin, Bill, Jr., & Eric Carle Brown, Brown Bear, What Do You See?Numeroff, Laura Joffe If you Give a Mouse a CookieOxenbury, Helen Tom and Pippo Make a Friend
Books for a First-Grade Student Beginning Reader-First Stage Author TitleBrown, Laura Krasny •Rex and Lilly: Playtime •Rex and Lilly :Family TimeEastman, P.D. Go, Dog Go!Seuss, Dr. Hop on PopZiefert, Harriet •Cat Games •Harry Goes to Fun Land •A New House for Mole and Mouse
Print Awareness What is it? Knowledge that people read the text, not just look at the pictures Awareness of how to read a book-right side up, starting with the first page and continuing to the end; the left page is read first, and the text is read from left to right Understanding that words are units separated by white spaces
Ways to Help Your Child Develop Print AwarenessWhat Your Child Needs to Know What You Can Do to HelpWords are read, not the pictures Point to the printed words as you read aloudWords are read across the page Follow along with your finger as you readfrom left to right.A book is read turned “right side up,” Ask your child to open the book to the firstand pages are turned from right to page for you. Ask her to turn the pagesleft.Words are composed of letters. Make a sign for your child’s door with her name. Show your child the letters in her name. In books show your child that the white space separates the word.Each letter has a capital and small letter Although children are generally taught the capitalform and be written in many fonts letters first, it helps if they have an awareness that there are two forms for each letter. Take one letter (for example, an A) and pint out all the different sizes and shapes of A’s.
Children should be able to recognize and toname all the letters of the alphabet—capital and lowercase and out of order!
Most educators recommend teaching the skills inthe following order: AGE SKILL ACTIVITY 2-4 Letter naming •Recite/Sing the ABCs •Read ABC books 4-5 Letter recognition •This is a B •Use plastic letters •Read ABC books •Form letters in clay, bubbles, sand, etc. 5-6 Letter sounds •This is a B and it says /b/ •Read rhyming books •Do word activities involving recognition of beginning, ending, and rhyming sounds. •Match pictures of objects to letters
Discriminate and identify the 44 sounds in our spoken language Distinguish separate words in a sentence/ syllables in words Identify rhyming words Recognize common beginning, ending, and middle sounds of words Identify syllables in words Manipulate sounds in words to create new wordsPhonological Awareness
The 44 Sounds in the English Language5 Short-Vowel Soundsshort /ă/ in appleshort /ĕ/ in elephantshort /ĭ/ in igloo Insert icon/audioshort /ŏ/ in octopus of this….short /ǔ / in umbrella18 Consonant Sounds/b/ in bat /k/ in cat and kite/d/ in dog /f/ in fan/g/ in goat /h/ in hat/j/ in jam /l/ in lip/m/ in map /n/ in nest/p/ in pig /r/ in rat/s/ in sun /t/ in top/v/ in van /w/ in wig/y/ in yell /z/ in zip
7 Digraphs/ch/ in chin /sh/ in shipunvoiced /th/ in thin voiced /th/ in this/hw/ in whip * /ng/ in sing/nk/ in sink* (wh is pronounced /w/ in some areas)6 Long-Vowel Soundslong /ā/ in cake long /ē/ in feetlong /ī/ in pie long /ō/ in boatlong /ū/ (yoo) in mule long /ōō/ in flew3 r-Controlled Vowel Sounds/ur/ in fern, bird, and hurt/ar/ in park/or/ in forkDiphthongs and Other Special Sounds/oi/ in oil and boy/ow/ in owl and ouchshort /ŏŏ/ in cook and pull/aw/ in jaw and haul/zh/ in television
What do Kindergarteners have to learn? Are we sending them ready for Kindergarten??
DIBELS Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy SkillsQuick one minute assessments that let us know if our students are “on track” to be readers. Help schools provide enough instruction to get students back on track as readers. Helps schools see where they need to focus to help our children learn to read at each grade Helps us see where we as parents can help at home to help our children learn to read
Phonological awareness must be mastered before children are able to conquer phonics.Phonics is the skill of looking at letters and producing the sounds the letters make. If children do not have sound awareness mastered, they will struggle with phonics. A struggle with phonics will result in having trouble reading.Phonological Awareness…
When children enter Kindergarten in Alabama, they take a diagnostic test called DIBELS. This test checks to see if children are “on track” to be readers. Kindergarteners are tested on alphabet knowledge and phonological awareness. The research (insert link to research) tells us that if these two things are not in good shape, children may have trouble learning to read.Dynamic Indicators of Basic EarlyLiteracy Skills
What is Letter Naming Fluency (LNF)? It is a one minute assessment It is an indicator of risk of reading problems It is not one of the 5 areas identified by the National Reading Panel and Reading First as one of the critical areas of reading It is tested in fall, winter, spring of K also fall of first grade Students should be able to name 25 random letter names in one minute by the end of K
Probe 1 c c N u Q M u h S i Letter Naming n b e N F f o a K k g p k p a H C e G D b w F i h O x j I K Fluency x t Y q L d f T g v T V Q o w P J t B X Target goal of at least Z v U P R l V C l W 40 by spring of Kindergarten R J m O z D G y U Y Z y A m X z H S M E Student identifies q n j s W r d s B I upper- and lower-case letters for 1 minute r A E L c c N u Q M Total: ____/110
What is Initial Sound Fluency (ISF)? One minute assessment given at beginning and middle of K Outcome goal of identifying 25 first sounds in words in one minute by middle of K. Example: ◦ Shown four pictures and told the picture names, the student can point to the one that begins with the correct sound given. Point to the one that begins with mmmm
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills University of Oregon Initial Sound Fluency -Sample Example This is mouse, flowers, pillow, letters (point to each picture while saying its name). Mouse begins with the sound /m/ (point to the mouse). Listen: /m/, mouse. Which one begins with the sounds /fl/?
What is Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)? One minute assessment given middle of K, end of K and in beginning, middle, and end of first grade Outcome goal is to be able to separate words into individual sounds by the end of K and to be able to do at the rate of 35 sounds per minute Reaching outcome goal critical skill for becoming a good reader and speller Continue to test through first grade, goal doesn’t go up
Example Say these specific directions to the student: I am going to say a word. After I say the word, you tell me all the sounds in the word. So, if I say, “sam,” you would say /s//a/ /m/. Let’s try one (one-second pause). Tell me the sounds in “mop”. If the student says /m/ /o/ /p/, you say, very good. The sounds in “mop” are /m/ /o/ /p/.
Administration Look at this word (point to the first word on the practiceDirections probe). It’s a make-believe Practice word. Watch me read the word: Items /s/ /i/ /m/ “sim” (point tosim lut each letter then run your finger fast beneath the whole word). I can say the sounds of the letters, /s/ /i/ /m/ (point to each letter), or I can read the whole word “sim” (run your finger fast beneath the whole word). Your turn to read a make-believe word. Read this word the best you can (point to the word “lut”). Make sure you say any sounds you know.
Parents can download samples of DIBELS tests to guide them in helping their children with the skills assessed. It is important that parents focus on helping their children learn the skills measured and not “teach them the test”.https://dibels.uoregon.edu/
What about time? Time to play (games, games, games!) ◦ 15-20 minutes daily Time to work (practice, practice, practice!) ◦ 20-30 minutes daily Time to celebrate (brag, brag, brag!) ◦ 10-15 minutes daily
Learning the skills thoroughly is critical for helping children get…Ready, Set, Read!
Some people there are who, being grown, forget the horrible task of learning to read. It is perhaps the greatest single effort that the human undertakes, and he must do it as a child.- John Steinbeck, 1982 Nobel Prize Winner for Literature
Game Apps MeeGenius! – Free Small Talk Phonemes – Free Phonics Genius – Free Mels Phonics NonPhonics Lite Part 1 & Part 2 – Free ABC Magic Phonics – Free Zap Phonics Reading Games – Free Phonic Soup – Free Match Phonics – Free Phonics Fun 1, 2 & 3 – Free First Words with Phonics Lite – Free BaldiMatch:Phonics - $ .99 Little Reader - $ .99 Phonics Dojo - $1.99 Hi! Phonics - $1.99 Montessori Crosswords – Learn Spelling with Phonics - $2.99
Counting, Matching, and Naming Letters G F What You Need •Set of plastic alphabet letters-preferable capital letters •Mat that you make on an 11” x 17” piece of firm paper. Trace the plastic letters and fill them in, in an arc shape, so that the plastic letters will fit over the letters written on the arc. The arc should extend from the lower left to the lower right corner. •What You Do •Ask you child to count how many letters there are. •Then ask your child to place the plastic letters on the matching letters on the arc of the mat. •Teach her the name of each letter, introducing about four new letters per day. For example, “This is the letter A.” •After she can differentiate the letter shapes and has been taught the names of each letter, ask her to say the name of the letter as she places it in the position on the arc. •Repeat often, until your child can recognize each letter, place it over the corresponding symbol on the arc on the mat, and say the name of each letter. Generally, it takes several weeks for a child to master all the letters.
Learning The Sequence of the Alphabet A ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ F C X EWhat You Need C Set of plastic alphabet letters A slightly different mat made on an 11” x 17” piece of firm paper. List the letters in order in a straight line across the top to provide a reference for the child. This time, instead of the letters composing the arc, draw a line to form the arc. Then provide three “anchors” by writing the letter A at the lower left corner of the arc, the letter Z at the lower right, and M and N at the midway point at the top of the arc.What You Do Ask your child to take the plastic letters out of the container and place them right side up in the center of the arc. Then ask her to find the A and place it. Next find the Z and place it, followed by the M and N. The child then begins with B, Then C, and so on, placing all the letters in order along the arc. When your child has finished sequencing the letters, ask her to check it by touching and naming each letter, starting with A and moving to Z. The alphabet across the top of the mat can serve as an additional reminder. Repeat this activity frequently until the child can place all the letters in the proper order within two minutes. Generally, it takes several weeks for a child to master this task.
Guess the LetterWhat You Need Two sets of plastic alphabet letters-preferably capital letters Two 11” c 17” mats with or without the letters filled in on the arc Two brown paper bags, or cloth bags, big enough to hold the lettersWhat You Do This is a game that two children can play together or you can play with your child. The object is to try to correctly identify and name the letters based on felling them without looking. The winner is the first player to fill in all the letters on her arc. The first player reaches into a brown paper bag and feels a plastic letter without looking at it. If she can correctly name it, then she gets to place it on the arc on her mat and choose another letter. She continues choosing letters until she makes a mistake. Once a mistake is made, the turn rotates to the next player The player who successfully identifies and places all the letters on her arc is the winner.
Snaky LettersWhat You Need Modeling clay or cookie doughWhat You Do Roll the pieces of clay or dough into snake-shaped pieces for your child to use. Help your child form the pieces into the shapes of letters. If you cookie dough, make sure the letters with enclosed circles (i.e., o, b, d, q) have plenty of space inside the circle before baking. This will assure that the circles will not close up when baked.
StraightTalk AboutReadingSusan L. Hall Ed.DLouisa C. Moats, Ed.Dhttp://www.amazon.com/Straight-About-Reading-Louisa/Moats
Parenting a Struggling ReaderSusan L. Hall, Ed.DLouisa C. Moats, Ed.Dhttp://www.amazon.com/Parenting-Struggling-Re
Road to theBenita A. Blachman, Ph.DEileen Wynne Ball, Ph.DRochella Black, M.S. Code http://www.amazon.com/Road-Code-Phonological-AwareneDarlene M. Tangel, Ph. D.