Women's Rights, & Gatsby (Summer 2012)


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Women's Rights, & Gatsby (Summer 2012)

  1. 1. + Women in Early 20th Century America Suffrage, Consumerism, Changing Gender Roles
  2. 2. + The Fight for Suffrage: Early Organizing 1790s-1850s 1860s  1790: All free inhabitants of New  1859: rubber vulcanized—reliable Jersey have the right to vote condoms available soon after. U.S. birth rate begins to decline.  1807: Women lose their voting rights in New Jersey  1868: 14th Amendment to Constitution essentially defines “citizen” and  1848: Seneca Falls, NY: 1st “voter” as male women’s rights convention in the U.S  1869: 2 major women’s orgs founded  “Declaration of Sentiments and (split over 15th Amendment) Resolutions” signed  National Women’s Suffrage (organizing principles for Association (more radical, women- suffrage movement) only)  American Women’s Suffrage  1854: Massachusetts grants Association (supported women property rights amendment, included men)
  3. 3. + The Fight for Suffrage: State-by-State 1870s 1880s-1890s  1870: 15th Amendment enfranchises  1883: Women in Washington territory black men granted full voting rights  1869-70: Utah and Wyoming  1887: U.S. Supreme Court organized into territories; women have disenfranchises women of Washington territory suffrage rights in both states  1890: NWSA & AWSA merge to  1874: Founding of Women’s Christian become National American Women’s Temperance Union Suffrage Association  1878: Women’s suffrage amendment  1890: Wyoming admitted to the Union first introduced in U.S. Congress with women’s rights to suffrage intact  1883: Women in Washington territory  1893: Colorado passes women’s granted full voting rights suffrage
  4. 4. + The Fight for Suffrage: Taking it Public 1890s-1900s 1910-1912  1896: Formation of the National  1910: Washington, now a state, Association of Colored Women in grants women full voting rights Washington, D.C.  1910: First large-scale suffrage  1896: Utah admitted to the Union with parade, held in NYC women’s rights to suffrage intact  1911: California grants women full  1903: Formation of Women’s Trade voting rights Union League of New York (later International Ladies’ Garment  1912: Progressive Party (Teddy Workers Union, ILGWU) Roosevelt’s party) makes suffrage part of their political platform  1909: 20,000 women workers strike in the NYC garment district  1912: Kansas and the Arizona and Alaska territories grant women the right to vote
  5. 5. + The Fight for Suffrage: Taking it to D.C. 1913-1917 1918-1923  1913: Congressional Union (later  1918: President Woodrow Wilson issues a statement in support of women’s suffrage National Woman’s Party) formed; stages sit-ins and hunger strikes to  1918: The 19th Amendment passes the draw attention to suffrage cause. House of Representatives  1914: Women win the right to vote in  1919: Women are granted voting rights in Nevada and Montana Oklahoma, Michigan and South Dakota  1916: First woman in the House of  1919: The Senate finally passes the amendment Representatives (Jeannette Rankin, Montana)  1920: 19th Amendment ratified by state legislatures; becomes law August 26th  1917: New York State grants women  NAWSA disbands, its members form the full voting rights; other states grant the League of Women Voters right to vote in presidential elections  1923: The ERA is first proposed. (Still has never been passed!)
  6. 6. + Changing Views of Women Additional Factors During Prohibition  Roles of women during the Civil  Increasing consumer power War and especially WWI  Fashion  Home  Women as advocates for and providers of services to the  Greater interest in birth control poor and needy  First as a social issue  Hull House, Jane Addams,  More & better barrier methods 1890 become available  Emerging consumer society  More rigorously educated  Mt. Holyoke, 1837  Growth of advertising  2-3 generations of college- educated women
  7. 7. + So it isn’t just about suffrage!  By the mid-1920s, women are emerging as equal players  Especially true among upper classes (wealth enables privilege)  Fitzgerald’s novel depicts a set of related anxieties about shifting, ungrounded gender roles  Best embodiment of these anxieties is not Gatsby or Tom but Nick (esp. when talking to or about Daisy or Jordan)
  8. 8. + F. Scott & Zelda  Fitzgerald, like Nick, is involved with 20s high society after his first novel is a success  F. Scott & wife Zelda are literary celebrities of their day; live a high-flying life of alcohol and parties  F. Scott borrows from their relationship and Zelda’s writing in his own works, & is generally thought to have done so without her consent