Westward ExpansionL. M. FreerEN272FIT/SUNY
Frederick Jackson Turner “The Significance of the Frontier in American History”  (1893) Famously argues that the frontie...
By 1900: only AZ, NM, and  OK are still territories1860s-                                     1880s-   Statehood in 1889: ...
Post-Civil War Migration Unprecedented in scale.          “Romance of the West”  Why?                               Exi...
“Manifest Destiny”   A widely used philosophical statement and idea during times of European settlement   A belief that ...
Late 19thC Conflicts Post-Civil War                  Most conflict between the   Army moves West                U.S. an...
Westward Expansion (Revised Summer 2012)
Westward Expansion (Revised Summer 2012)
Westward Expansion (Revised Summer 2012)
Westward Expansion (Revised Summer 2012)
Westward Expansion (Revised Summer 2012)
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Westward Expansion (Revised Summer 2012)

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Westward Expansion (Revised Summer 2012)

  1. 1. Westward ExpansionL. M. FreerEN272FIT/SUNY
  2. 2. Frederick Jackson Turner “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) Famously argues that the frontier is “closed” Claims that westward expansion helped further nationalism, individualism, and democracy And that it made the United States unique among nations Theory has a lasting impact: Black Elk’s story (written in the 1930s) is the very beginning of a corrective narrative
  3. 3. By 1900: only AZ, NM, and OK are still territories1860s- 1880s- Statehood in 1889: 70s Nevada, Dakota, Arizona, Idaho, 90s •North Dakota •South Dakota •Montana •Washington Montana, and Wyoming Territories organized Statehood: Statehood in the 1890s: •Nevada 1864 •Wyoming 1890 •Nebraska 1867 •Idaho 1890 •Colorado 1876 •Utah 1896
  4. 4. Post-Civil War Migration Unprecedented in scale.  “Romance of the West” Why?  Exists from the very  Metal ores beginning  Homestead Act (1862)  Mythos overlays  Pasture/range land reality, fuels decisions to migrate  Transcontinental Railroad (1866-69)  Landscape, rugged lifestyle  Dime novels, Wild West Western Economies: Shows  Mining: gold, silver, then  Last chance for “new” other ores  Cattle Ranching  How is this romantic vision connected to ideas of the  The “Long Drive” “American Dream”? (1866-1880s)
  5. 5. “Manifest Destiny” A widely used philosophical statement and idea during times of European settlement A belief that territorial expansion (“from sea to shining sea”) was a divine right Most advocates believed that Anglo-Saxon Christian society was more advanced or enlightened than other cultures Also relies upon the idea that America is exceptional, a unique country whose ideals were destined to spread around the world Term first appears in an 1845 periodical, and quickly gains steam; first used in Congress in 1846 There is some opposition to this idea, but Western expansion quickly becomes a solution to a growing population (and a tool to win elections) War with Mexico (1845-1848) results in the acquisition of a significant part of the Southwest, including California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico. (“Mexican Cession”)  Seen as proof that this philosophy is correct and divinely-inspired Despite this, Manifest Destiny wasn’t originally seen as a doctrine of force; it was considered a means through which immigrants could establish new U.S. states
  6. 6. Late 19thC Conflicts Post-Civil War  Most conflict between the  Army moves West U.S. and Native peoples  Violence between white ends in the 1870s settlement and Native cultures intensifies  Geronimo & the Apaches hold out until 1886 Late 1860s  Final big conflict is over the  Plains tribes moved towards 2 big reservations Ghost Dance religious revival of 1890  Buffalo decimated  Wounded Knee Massacre,  Makes traditional December 1890 nomadic culture impossible to continue

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