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  • 1. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 1 Effective Engagement: building relationships with community and other stakeholders Book 1an introduction to engagementVersion 3
  • 2. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 1 Effective Engagement: building relationships with community and other stakeholders Book 1an introduction to engagement
  • 3. 2 Book 1: an introduction to engagement Published by: The Community Engagement Network Resource and Regional Services Division Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment 8 Nicholson Street EAST MELBOURNE 3002 Melbourne, September 2005 © State of Victoria, Department of Sustainability and Environment 2005 This publication is copyright. Reproduction and the making available of this material for personal, in-house or non-commercial purposes is authorised, on condition that: • the copyright owner is acknowledged • no official connection is claimed • the material is made available without charge or at cost • the material is not subject to inaccurate, misleading or derogatory treatment. Requests for permission to reproduce or communicate this material in any way not permitted by this licence (or by the fair dealing provisions of the Copyright Act 1968) should be directed to the Customer Service Centre, 136 186 or email Authorised by the Victorian Government, 8 Nicholson Street, East Melbourne Printed by Digitalhouse, 244 Dorcas Street, South Melbourne 3205 Printed using recycled materials ISBN BOOK 1 1 74152 241 2 ISBN BOOK 2 1 74152 247 1 ISBN BOOK 3 1 74152 253 6 ISBN CD-ROM 1 74152 265 X ISBN SET 1 74152 259 5 A version of this publication is available at For more information contact the Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) Customer Service Centre 136 186. For copies of this publication, please call Information Victoria on: 1300 366 356 within Australia (local call cost) 61 3 9603 9900 (International call) This publication may be of assistance to you but the State of Victoria and its employees do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication. Version 3
  • 4. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 3Acknowledgments iThis set of three books builds on the Community Engagement Project A special note of thanks to:work undertaken to develop versions Team: Martin Butcher, Robert Chaffe, • The Coastal Cooperative Research1 and 2 of Effective community Kate Henderson, Frankie MacLennan. Centre for the kind permission toengagement: workbook and tools, Community Engagement Strategic reproduce various tools from thecommencing in 2002 and published Reference Group: Julie Ann Ashley, Citizen Science 2004. The contributors to previous Annie Bolitho, Beth Burley, Chris • The Department of Sustainabilityversions are acknowledged and this Corrigan, Peter Darmody, Fiona Dunn, and Environment’s Communitybody of work has been the foundation Alex Edwards, Simon Lynch, Dianne Engagement Network.for continuous improvement in the Marshall, Pauline McCarthy, Murraypractice of engaging communities and • Staff from the Department of McIntyre, Julia Roache, Ian Stewart.other stakeholders. Sustainability and Environment Other major contributors: John and our project partners for theirSince then, there have been significant Amor, Vikki Cail, Earle Cleaver, Alistair contributions towards the review,policy shifts, organisational changes Christie, Jon Cuddy, Andrea Delaney, testing and practice of variousand developments in the field. This Lucy Gannon, Dominique Horne, aspects of the theory, planninglatest version, Effective engagement: Peter Howden, Nicole Hunter, Emily process, tools, worksheets andbuilding relationships with community Jenke, Fleur Maidment, Megan templates.and other stakeholders, draws on McCarthy, Cathryn Pilioussis, Heather • Various project areas from thethe recent research, learning and Shaw, Leon Soste, Wendy Taylor, Department of Sustainability andexperiences of a range of practitioners. Kim Wilson. Environment, the Department ofIt also reflects the need for congruencebetween engagement, organisational Usability testers: Meredith Hartley, Primary Industries and externalcapability and integration to build Derek McCormack, Greg Milne, partners, who tested thisresilient relationships, resulting Daniel Mudford. publication’s relevance with theirin a more holistic approach to communities and contributed case Publishing: Victor Trifkovic, studies.engagement. Rebecca Rose. • Victorian Catchment ManagementMany people from diverse Photographs: − Martin Butcher, Authorities for contributing to thebackgrounds and disciplines have Robert Chaffe, Rachael Dawkins, development of the websitecontributed to the discussion, thinking Andrea Delaney, Kate Henderson, associated with this publication.and testing of the concepts, models Celeste Hervey, Erin Jancauskas,and practices in these three books, and John Kane, Trish Kevin, Gavan Lamb,the associated website. In particular, Kate McArthur, Adrian Newman,we would like to acknowledge Josette O’Donnell, Tracey Pennington,those people who have provided Andrew Pritchard, Peter Riches,leadership, vision and input during the Henry Schneider, Annette Taylor,development of this resource. Justin Teague, Glenn WatsonWorkbook Project Manager Lyneve (The Standard), Lyneve WhitingWhiting and Editor Peter Riches led and the DSE photo library.the development, ensuring rigour, Illustrations: Simon Kneebone.establishing relationships and managingthe integration of content to ensure Sponsors: Regional Servicesrelevance to a wide range of (Department of Sustainability andorganisations and the communities Environment) through Ian Voigt,with whom they work. Judy Backhouse and Ken King.
  • 5. 4 Book 1: an introduction to engagementForewordEffective engagement: building In keeping with DSE’s Capabilityrelationships with community and Framework and our commitment toother stakeholders is a practical building organisational capacity, thisplanning guide that captures and publication includes an extensive toolkitshares information about tools widely to assist staff design and implementused in engagement activities. engagement activities.Originally launched in March 2004 to You will see changes that reflect theassist the Department of Sustainability feedback from staff as well as newand Environment (DSE) and the information from practitioners, includingDepartment of Primary Industries a range of case studies and samples of(DPI) to build organisational capabilities practical community engagement effective engagement, the publication To increase the reach of this publication,has found its way all around Australia, it is also now available on the web.ranging from local government to the To ensure that DSE is well placed tonot-for-profit sector to ambulance deliver on the Victorian Government’sservices. agenda, we will need to work inI am proud to say the previous version an inclusive way with the Victorianof the publication was recognised community. This will ensure that thein the Victorian Public Sector People policy, program or project we deliver hasManagement Awards in the Managing considered the diversity of opinion andEthically section for its excellence. is well placed to gain understandingSo it is with great interest that I note and support in the community.the continuous improvement and the This workbook is for all staff.sharing of learning that is taking place. I encourage you to make full use ofThe Victorian Government, through it as we work with communities,its Growing Victoria Together (GVT) other government and non-governmentpolicy, is committed to working closely agencies to achieve better outcomeswith Victorian communities to capture for Victoria.diversity of opinion and give moreVictorians the opportunity to be heardon issues that matter to them.This requires better access to decision-making processes. DSE is thereforecommitted to seeing stakeholder andcommunity engagement embedded inpolicy and project work. Lyndsay NeilsonDSE’s portfolio is complex and the Secretaryrange of views and opinions held in Department of Sustainabilitythe community can be diverse and and Environmentpolarised. In this challenging environment,it is important that staff have access toengagement methodologies andrelationship-building tools.
  • 6. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 5Contents 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Changing the Way Government Works – the Victorian Government Commitment 6 1.2 Victoria’s Diversity 7 2 Using the Effective Engagement Kit 8 2.1 Purpose 8 2.2 Who Is It For? 9 2.3 Feedback 9 3 What is Community Engagement? 10 3.1 Defining Community Engagement 10 3.2 Benefits of Successful Engagement 11 3.3 Principles of Engagement 12 3.4 Participatory Engagement 13 3.5 Related Concepts 14 4 Planning and Managing Engagement 16 4.1 Initial Considerations 16 4.1.1 Forming a Project Team 16 4.1.2 Managing Risk 16 4.1.3 Occupational Health and Safety 17 4.2 Stakeholders in the Project 17 4.2.1 Stakeholder Identification 17 4.2.2 Engaging Diverse Groups 18 4.3 A Model for Engagement 26 4.3.1 IAP2 Public Participation Spectrum 26 4.3.2 Implications for Engagement 28 4.3.3 Exploring the Types of Engagement 30 Appendix A Glossary 40 Appendix B Recommended Resources 42 B.1 Publications 42 B.2 Websites 42 Appendix C Bibliography 44 C.1 Publications 44 C.2 Websites 45 Appendix D Diversity Groups Additional Contacts 46 D.1 General 46 D.2 Indigenous 46 D.3 Culturally and Linguistically Diverse 46 D.4 People with Disabilities 47 D.5 Young People 47 D.6 Seniors 47 D.7 Gender 47 Appendix E Feedback Sheet 48
  • 7. 6 Book 1: an introduction to engagementIntroduction1.1 Changing the Way Government Works – the Victorian Government CommitmentThe Victorian Government is committed For government, the challenge is to Government is committed to a futureto open, accountable democracy. The extend the capacity to listen closely in which all Victorians are livingPremier, the Hon. Steve Bracks, has said to interest groups, as well as to those sustainably within their natural andthat genuinely democratic governments who may be under represented in built environments. In addition toare required to place greater emphasis current decision-making. Longer term economic and social policy directions,on establishing a true democratic results may be enhanced by including Our Water Our Future action plan3 ispartnership between the people and their a diversity of views from a range another demonstration of the importantinstitutions. These views are outlined in of interests. Another challenge for relationship between the environmentGrowing Victoria Together: a vision for government is to support communities and people. Many contributors areVictoria to 2010 and beyond. It states to build their capacity to more actively needed to work towards such athat a vibrant democracy is achieved participate in development of our complex, multi-dimensional aim.through greater public participation and shared future. To this end, government Productive and effective relationshipsmore accountable government. One of is also making a commitment to spanning the diversity of communityGVT’s measures of success is that more community strengthening, something and the breadth of VictorianVictorians from all backgrounds are that is explored further in section 3.5. Government departments are neededgiven the opportunity to have a say on for the Victorian community to achieve The Victorian social policy documentissues that matter to them.1 its sustainability goals. A Fairer Victoria: creating opportunityThis requires a commitment to greater and addressing disadvantage provides a This journey will require a commitmentflexibility and innovation in, and by framework for addressing disadvantage from staff and managers, a willingnessgovernment. and lack of opportunity. It is one of the to challenge current practices, and a many government mechanisms to foster desire to learn from each other andOne of the challenges ahead is for a the strengthening of communities, listen to a diversity of opinions, to ensuregreater diversity of Victorians to be particularly those groups who have Victorians have the opportunity to bemore actively involved in decision- traditionally been less involved in heard on issues that matter to them.making. This can be achieved through decisions affecting their local andappropriate engagement to increase broader community.2participation in decisions that affectVictorians and their local communityfrom an environmental, social, economicand cultural perspective.1 State Government of Victoria (2005) Growing Victoria Together: a vision for Victoria to 2010 and beyond, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne2 State Government of Victoria (2005) A Fairer Victoria: creating opportunity and addressing disadvantage, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne3 State Government of Victoria (2005) Our Water Our Future action plan, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne
  • 8. 11.2 Victoria’s Diversity Total population of Victoria SeniorsUnderstanding the diversity and • 4,612,097. • The population is ageing. Currently,dynamism of the Australian and 17% of the population is 60 years of Indigenous AustraliansVictorian population is fundamental for age or over. This will grow to nearly • 0.6% of the total Victorian population 25% in 2021.developing the capability to engage the (25,078) are Indigenous in the delivery of its vision • The number of seniors in rural Victoriafor sustainability. An ageing population, • 52% live outside of the Melbourne will grow twice as rapidly as those inincreased cultural diversity, lower birth metropolitan area compared with metropolitan areas in the next 20rates, higher education rates, significant 27% of the non-Indigenous years.change in religious affiliations and population. Genderincreased participation of women in • 57% are under 25 years of agelabour markets – coupled with the compared with 34% for the total • 51% (2,365,889) of Victorians areongoing, rapid rate of technological population. female and 49% (2,246,208) arechange – present challenges and male. • 2.9% are over 65 compared withopportunities for decision-makers. 12.6% for the total population. • Women comprise 54.3% of Victorians with Bachelor degrees, and 38.5% ofIt is important to be aware that there Birthplace Victorians with postgraduate degrees.will be diversity within the commonly • 24% of Victorians (1,083,048) were • There were 55,100 female apprenticesused community or social categories. born overseas in 233 different and trainees in training as of 31For example, not all men will share countries. March 2004, comprising 41.1% ofthe same view on an issue and neitherwill all Muslim women. In addition, • 44% of Victorians were either born the total number of apprentices andany individual may be described by overseas or have at least one parent trainees.more than one of these categories; for born overseas. • Victorian women’s average weeklyexample, a female may be young, from • 72% of those born overseas were earnings are 20% lower than those ofSudan and have a physical disability. born in non-English speaking Victorian men. countries.The following snapshot of information Disabilityfrom the Australian Bureau of Statistics Religion • 18.7% of Victorian women and2001 Census illustrates the diversity of • 72% of Victorians follow 116 17.2% of Victorian men (395,300)Victorian communities and highlights different religions. have some form of disability that isthe need for effective engagement by considered profound, severe,government. Languages spoken moderate or mild. • 21% of Victorians speak a language • There are an estimated 150,000 other than English at home, people with severe or profound comprising 180 different languages disabilities in Victoria. and dialects. Young people • 34% of the population is under 25. • 19% of Victorians (932,000) are between the ages of 12-25. • 74% of all young Victorians live in metropolitan Melbourne.
  • 9. 8 Book 1: an introduction to engagementUsing the Effective Engagment kit2.1 Purpose • Book 1 outlines the principles and Creating an Engagement Plan is aThis kit comprises three books, Book 1: importance of effective engagement fluid and circular process. There is noan introduction to engagement, Book and sets out a model for developing ‘right way’ to approach community2: the engagement planning workbook best-practice engagement activities engagement. Every situation andand Book 3: the engagement toolkit, with communities and other circumstance is different and requires aplus a CD-ROM. The purpose of the stakeholders. tailored approach to enable appropriatekit is to provide you with the necessary • Book 2 is a practical guide that takes participation. This kit cannot provideinformation and resources to plan the you step-by-step through an a proven formula for success butcommunity engagement component engagement planning process using offers an exploration of the theory ofof a project – from design and delivery an ‘evidence-based’ approach. This engagement, guidance in planning andthrough to evaluation and incorporation book also provides a number of a number of tools that may be useful.of learning. sample engagement planning documents and engagement caseThis is the third edition of this studies.publication. Its development providedthe opportunity to build on the work • Book 3 is a listing of variousundertaken in previous editions as well engagement tools with details of theiras to capture and share the experiences purpose, use and requirements.and learning of staff across theorganisation and beyond.
  • 10. 3 22.2 Who Is It For? 2.3 FeedbackWhile this kit has been designed for This publication is an evolving documentDSE staff in a variety of roles – ranging developed in consultation with DSE andfrom policy, research, statutory, partner agencies for staff and otherproject and service-focused roles – it users. The relevance and completenessis a valuable tool for all practitioners of the three books is the responsibilitycommitted to engaging the community of the people who use it. Feedbackand other stakeholders. on its usefulness, and any ideas for amendments or inclusions such as newThese books will be of interest to theory, your experience in the form ofanyone planning a project with diverse a case study or additions to the toolkit,stakeholder groups, where managing are central to its dynamics and facilitating effectiveparticipation is crucial to achieving a A feedback form is included insuccessful project outcome. Appendix E for your consideration.This kit will also be useful for DSE andother government staff in statutoryroles. While the form, timing andmethod of engagement may be set outin an Act or Regulation, the theory andprinciples as set out in these books canbe applied to a variety of situations;from preparation of notice requirementsthrough to holding public informationsessions.
  • 11. 10 Book 1: an introduction to engagementWhat is community engagement?3.1 Defining Community The word ‘community’ is also a Cavaye extends this definition as very broad term used to define it specifically relates to the role of Engagement groups of people; whether they are government, noting communityWhenever a group of practitioners stakeholders, interest groups, citizen engagement “... is the mutualgather to discuss ‘what is engagement,’ groups, etc. A community may be communication and deliberationa discussion about diversity of a geographic location (community that occurs between governmentterminology usually emerges. of place), a community of similar and citizens.”5Depending on the situation in which interest (community of practice), oryou are working, ‘engagement’ a community of affiliation or identitycan cover consultation, extension, Community engagement can take (such as industry or sporting club).communication, education, public many forms and covers a broadparticipation, participative democracy ‘Community engagement’ is therefore range of activities. Some examples ofor working in partnership. a planned process with the specific community engagement undertaken purpose of working with identified by government practitioners include:For our purposes, ‘engagement’ is groups of people, whether they areused as a generic, inclusive term to • Informing the community connected by geographic location,describe the broad range of interactions of policy directions of the special interest or affiliation, to addressbetween people. It can include a government. issues affecting their well-being .4variety of approaches, such as one- Linking the term ‘community’ to • Consulting the community asway communication or information ‘engagement’ serves to broaden part of a process to developdelivery, consultation, involvement and the scope, shifting the focus from government policy, or buildcollaboration in decision-making, and the individual to the collective, with community awareness andempowered action in informal groups or associated implications for inclusiveness, understanding.formal partnerships. to ensure consideration is given to • Involving the community through the diversity that exists within any a range of mechanisms to ensure community. that issues and concerns are understood and considered as part of the decision-making process. • Collaborating with the community by developing partnerships to formulate options and provide recommendations. • Empowering the community to make decisions and to implement and manage change.4 Queensland Department of Emergency Services (2001) Charter for community engagement, Community Engagement Unit, Strategic and Executive Services, Queensland Department of Emergency Services5 Cavaye, Dr. J (2001) ‘Community engagement framework project: scoping and review paper’, Cavaye Community Development/ CEO Committee on Land Resources, Queensland, citing OECD (2001) ‘Engaging Citizens in policy-making: information, consultation and public participation’, PUMA Policy brief No 10, July 2001, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
  • 12. 33.2 Benefits of Successful For government: For stakeholders and communities: Engagement • Community input can improve the • With purposeful and well-plannedEffective engagement is a vehicle that quality of policy being developed, engagement, there will becan be used to build more resilient making it more practical and relevant. opportunities for a diversity ofrelationships with community. It can • Community input can ensure services voices to be heard on issues thatlead to the identification of mechanisms are delivered in a more effective and matter to people.for building a community’s strength efficient way for that community. • Communities can expect governmentand its ability to join with government • Engaging with communities is a way to meet certain standards ofand other stakeholders in dealing with for government to check the health of engagement and give feedbackcomplex issues and change. the relationship face-to-face. It can on government’s ability to meet also explore ways in which those standards.The following is a summary of thebenefits of successful engagement for government and community could • Communities are able to identifyboth government and stakeholders. work more closely on issues of priorities for themselves. concern to the community. • There may be more ownership of • Engaging with communities is an solutions to current problems or opportunity for government to check building plans for the future so that its reputation and status. Asking the the community shares in decision- community how the organisation is making and has a higher level of meeting local needs could be a responsibility for creating that future. positive or at least informative • Engagement can foster a sense of engagement exercise. belonging to community and • Early notice of emerging issues puts considerable benefits from working government in a better position to together on behalf of the community. deal with those issues in a proactive • Individuals may become empowered way, instead of reacting as anger and and proactive with regard to issues conflict arise. that affect them. • Good engagement enhances the reputation of the government as open, accountable and willing to listen.
  • 13. 12 Book 1: an introduction to engagement3.3 Principles of Additional principles that apply to the relationship between stakeholders and Engagement the organisation implementing theBroad principles underpin engagement engagement are:and a practical knowledge andadaptation of these will increase the • A commitment to reciprocity thateffectiveness of your engagement includes stating what you require ofactivities. In a review of existing the community, and delivery of whatliterature and theory, Petts and Leach6 you will provide in exchange. Establishdeveloped a list of engagement what you are promising as part of theprinciples which includes: engagement process. This could include provision of information or feedback• a need for clarity of objectives, on how contributions have influenced and of legal, linked and seamless decisions, through to implementation processes of stakeholder decisions.• consensus on agenda, procedures • Building genuine relationships with and effectiveness community and other stakeholders.• representativeness and inclusiveness • Valuing the opportunities diversity• deliberation has to offer.• capability and social learning Brown and Isaacs7 have developed• decision responsiveness the Six ‘C’s model as a set of basic principles to guide any engagement• transparency and enhancement planning process. of trust. The Six ‘C’s of Successful Community Engagement Capability The members are capable of dialogue. Commitment Mutual benefit beyond self interest. Contribution Members volunteer and there is an environment that encourages members to ‘have a go’ or take responsibility/risks. Continuity Members share or rotate roles and, as members move on, there is a transition process that sustains and maintains the community corporate memory. Collaboration Reliable interdependence. A clear vision with members operating in an environment of sharing and trust. Conscience Embody or invoke guiding principles/ethics of service, trust and respect that are expressed in the actions of the community.Note: the six Cs may be seen as targets or filters to measure the quality of thefunctioning of the community.6 Petts, J & Leach, B (2000) ‘Evaluating methods for public participation: a literature review’, R & D technical report, E135, Environment Agency, Bristol7 Brown, J & Isaacs, D (1994) ‘Merging the best of two worlds the core processes of organisations as communities’ in P Senge, A Kleiner, C Roberts, R Ross & B Smith (eds.) The fifth discipline fieldbook: strategies and tools for building a learning organization, Doubleday/Currency Publications
  • 14. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 133.4 Participatory The greater the degree of decision-making, Pretty and Hine8 have developed a the higher the level of ownership of the typology of ‘participation’ to differentiate Engagement decision and, consequently, the greater actions according to the level of powerGovernments, agencies and organisations the likelihood of a positive project outcome. agencies wish to devolve to participantshave relied on forms of community and in determining outcomes and actions.stakeholder participation for many years. Therefore it is important to consider theParticipation is used to describe the activities implications of your proposed level of In determining the level of participation, itof steering committees and reference groups, participation when designing your is necessary to first identify the purpose ofwhich provide direction, guidance and engagement approach. The key message the engagement. This publication adoptscommunity representation. In addition, for designing engagement processes is to the International Association of Publicparticipation is an essential part of avoid promising a level of participation Participation (IAP2) Public Participationextension, education and other learning and power that is never intended to be Spectrum (see section 4.3.1) as aactivities that encourage people to adopt given, or designing processes that claim to transparent model for determining thenew technologies and share experiences. be empowering, but merely offer ‘token’ most suitable types of engagement to levels of participation. match the purpose and to manage moreEngagement that is participatory often effectively the dilemmas and trade-offsresults in community and other stakeholders regarding participation.having ownership of a direction, course ofaction or decision, and its implementation. Typology of Participation Typology Characteristics of each type Manipulative Participation is simply pretence, with ‘people’s’ representatives on official boards but who are not elected participation and have no power. Passive People participate by being told what has been decided or has already happened. It involves unilateral participation announcements by an administration or project management without listening to people’s responses. The information shared belongs only to external professionals. Participation by People participate by being consulted, and external people listen to views. These external professionals define consultation both problems and solutions, and may modify these in light of the people’s responses. Such a consultative process does not concede any share in decision-making, and professionals are under no obligation to take on board people’s views. Participation People participate by providing resources, for example labour, in return for food, cash or other material for material incentives. Much on-farm research falls into this category, as farmers provide their land but are not involved incentives in the experimentation or the process of learning. It is very common to see this called participation. People have no stake in prolonging activities when the incentives run out. Functional People participate by forming groups to meet predetermined objectives related to the project, which can participation involve the development or promotion of externally initiated social organisation. Such involvement does not tend to be at early stages of project cycles or planning, but rather after major decisions have been made. These institutions tend to be dependent on external initiators and facilitators, but may become self-dependent. Interactive People participate in joint analysis, which leads to action plans and formation of new local institutions or participation the strengthening of existing ones. It tends to involve interdisciplinary methodologies that seek multiple perspectives and make use of systematic and structured learning processes. These groups take control over local decisions, and so people have a stake in maintaining structures or practices. Self-mobilisation People participate by taking initiatives independently of external institutions to change systems. They develop contacts with external institutions for the resources and technical advice they need, but retain control over how resources are used. Such self-initiated mobilisation and collective action may or may not challenge existing inequitable distribution of wealth and power.8 Pretty, J & Hine, R (1999) Participatory appraisal for community assessment, Centre for Environment and Society, University of Essex
  • 15. 14 Book 1: an introduction to engagement3.5 Related ConceptsThere is a large body of literature onthe subject of community engagementwith broad agreement on the basicconcepts, principles and good practiceapproaches. This theoretical bodyprovides the foundation for theguidelines and processes of communityengagement outlined in the threebooks of this kit. The following tableprovides a brief exploration of someconcepts closely related to communityengagement.Recommendations for further readingare provided in Appendix B.
  • 16. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 15 Community Engagement Related Concepts Active listening Sometimes known as empathetic listening, active listening is where an individual confirms they have heard and understood by paraphrasing the information back to the speaker. Active listening can be applied in many situations involving the engagement of others, including facilitation and consultation processes used in community engagement. It is used to demonstrate the information has been received and understood, whether it is in an individual conversation, a survey or workshop. Appreciative Appreciative inquiry rejects the more traditional ‘problem-focussed’ approach and instead seeks to inquiry identify what is working well or opportunities for positive change. Appreciative inquiry as an engagement approach aims to encourage imagination, innovation and flexibility with stakeholder groups and build on the positives that already exist (e.g. collecting good news stories, visioning for a sustainable future). Community As a stakeholder scoping tool, community profiling is a means to achieve an increased understanding profiling of the diversity of the community. The purpose of undertaking a stakeholder profiling exercise is to ensure inclusiveness and therefore a better engagement process and outcome. A community of concern may be defined by geography (place), identity (industry or affiliation) or interest. The type and level of documentation collected when undertaking a profile is determined by the purpose and complexity of the engagement. Participatory profiling is where the community is actively involved in the research, resulting in the community having greater participation in determining an appropriate course of action. Community The basic premise of community strengthening is that valuable knowledge and ideas are readily strengthening available within communities, and the role of government is to develop mechanisms for sharing this knowledge. Community strengthening helps to mobilise community skills, expand networks, harness energy and resources and apply them in ways that achieve collaborative and positive social change. Systems thinking A systems approach encourages the exploration of the relationships between social, environmental and economic interactions. This approach resists breaking a problem into its component parts for detailed examination. By examining the links and interrelationships of the whole system, patterns and themes emerge that offer insights and new meaning to the initial problem. In a community engagement context, encouraging a diversity of views can lead to a new understanding of the situation and the identification of opportunities for action that may not have otherwise occurred.99 Bawden, R & Macadam, R (1991) in Bawden, R (1995) Systemic development: a learning approach to change, Centre for SystemicDevelopment, UWS, Hawkesbury
  • 17. 16 Book 1: an introduction to engagementPlanning & managing engagementBook 2: the engagement planning 4.1.1 Forming a Project 4.1.2 Managing Riskworkbook provides a step-by-step Team Risks associated with communityprocess for developing an Engagement engagement can be classified as either:Plan. In the following section, Team support and mentoring iswe address some of the broader an important component of the • risks you are trying to address byconsiderations in planning and engagement process. While the nature conducting the engagement, ormanaging effective engagement, and of a project sometimes requires people • risks that could prevent you fromexplore a model for matching the type to work on their own, there are a achieving the objectives of yourof engagement to your purpose. number of advantages in developing engagement. the Engagement Plan within a team, such as: Business units or project teams that4.1 Initial Considerations have deliverables for which they areIncluding an explicit community • It allows for the inclusion of a responsible often cite the communityengagement component within your depth and breadth of views, as one of their sources of risk. This riskoverall project can sometimes be the ensuring diversity is built into can be related to either the communitydifference between project success the planning process. not doing something that is requiredor failure. How you approach the • The workload and the learning to achieve the desired outcome, ordevelopment of an Engagement Plan opportunities can be distributed the community doing somethingfor your project will be dependent more evenly. If the purpose of the that prevents the project teamon the size of the project, the level of engagement is to encourage action from achieving their objectives (e.g.complexity and the number of staff and change, the people directly blockades). Engaging the key projectinvolved. For medium to large projects, involved in the process are more stakeholders is often a strategy used toit is recommended you treat community likely to move with the change. mitigate this risk.engagement as a separate, discrete Engagement team members may comeproject component. Accordingly, we If risk mitigation is your goal for from within your existing project team, conducting the engagement, this shouldrecommend you develop a specific or they may be external, dependingEngagement Plan for working with be clearly stated up front. You also need on the skills required. The composition to be careful that your engagement isthe various project stakeholders. of the project team may also change actually going to reduce the likelihood throughout the development and of the risk eventuating. By not DSE staff can arrange for a Project implementation of the Engagement conducting the engagement properly, Office facilitator to run a scoping Plan. The team composition will reflect you could increase the risk instead of workshop to help develop the the different tasks and skill sets required mitigating it. engagement component of their at each step of the engagement process. overall project implementation Further information and specific Depending on the dimensions of your processes to manage risk in a plan. Engagement Plan, the following criteria community engagement can be found may assist in developing a project team in the ‘Risk Management’ section of for the engagement component of your Book 2: the engagement planning project: workbook. • the range of experience and skills (e.g. local knowledge, familiarity with community engagement processes, existing relationships with stakeholders) • the physical location of team members • the level of diversity within the team (internal and external to your overall project).
  • 18. 44.1.3 Occupational Health DSE staff are required to complete a 4.2 Stakeholders in the and Safety Job Safety Analysis (JSA) to identify ProjectThe health and safety of employees, and assess occupational healthvolunteers, contractors and community and safety risks associated with 4.2.1 Stakeholdermembers is critical to any engagement undertaking work duties within Identificationactivity, event and program. Risks to the workplace. This procedure is Stakeholder identification and analysishealth and safety need to be identified designed to ensure DSE maintains a is integral to the engagement planningin the planning stage, and a risk control safe and healthy workplace for all its process. By understanding andplan developed, implemented and employees, contractors and visitors. managing the relationship betweenmonitored. The JSA includes a Site Safety stakeholders (including community Survey which is an onsite check of members) you increase the likelihoodOften the engagement component of the job environment, to be used of achieving your desired overallyour project will require you to bring when conducting activities at non- project outcome. Conversely, failurestakeholders together in public places DSE locations. This also applies to appreciate the dynamics of the(e.g. local hall, park). In such instances, to activities involving DSE staff relationships that exist betweenit is recommended you first undertake a being run by other organisations. stakeholders can lead to obstructionssafety audit of the site to identify local DSE requires that a level equal to that have a negative impact on yourhazards and risks. A site safety audit is or higher than DSE’s own OH&S overall project.used to record each hazard or risk andthen outlines the proposed action to and risk management practices Book 2: the engagement planningcontrol these. This can include simple be followed by staff, contractors workbook will take you throughthings such as making sure water is and volunteers of the non-DSE the process of identifying the keyavailable for all participants. The organisation. stakeholders and their interest in theprocess should also cover disability DSE staff should refer to the project, their level of influence and(e.g. mobility, sight, hearing), gender ‘Policies & Procedures’ section of what they consider to be a successfuland specific cultural requirements. the organisation’s intranet for the outcome.All organisations participating in the latest versions of the Job Safety Book 3: the engagement toolkitproject are advised to meet regularly Analysis and Site Safety Survey. provides a range of tools for identifyingduring the course of the engagement Non-DSE staff are advised they need the best course of action to engage andto ensure all OH&S controls are being to complete similar documentation communicate with stakeholders.implemented within the agreed to ensure they meet public liabilitytimelines. responsibilities, and should referWhere OH&S issues are identified during to their own organisation’s OH&Sthe course of the engagement, the and risk management policies andimpact of these hazards or risks should assessed. If they are considered tobe high risk, activities should cease untileffective controls are implemented.
  • 19. 18 Book 1: an introduction to engagement4.2.2 Engaging Diverse GroupsThe Victorian community is diversewith people of different backgrounds,needs, values and aspirations. Victoria’sdiversity reflects the many characteristicsthat capture difference between people.Observable and unobservable, thesecharacteristics include ethnicity, gender,age, tenure, functional background,socio-economic background, values,sexual orientation and physical andmental ability.This broad definition of diversity buildson the concept of equal opportunity.It goes beyond the concept of rectifyingthe disadvantage of target groupsby emphasising the importance ofan inclusive culture and of valuingdifference between individuals andcommunities. While we should aim tobe inclusive in all our work, at However, do not be daunted by the Over time you will build your owntimes it may be necessary to tailor our volume and complexity of diversity networks, become more aware of theengagement processes and activities to statistics or by the anecdotes about relevant issues and of what questionsenable some communities or individuals working inclusively. This section has to ask that relate to your work. Beingto fully participate. been designed to provide some insights inclusive will become an everyday part and information about working with of your thinking and planning.To assist with your planning, we have diverse communities to help you askprovided the following information the right questions, successfully directto help you engage some of the DSE staff should refer to the your lines of inquiry and find further Department’s intranet, under Socialcommunities who are often overlooked assistance where required.or who face additional barriers to and Cultural Diversity, for moreparticipation. For example, a young A selection of organisations who can information and resources to assistadult may be studying, seeking work assist you to engage with Indigenous, with engaging diverse groupsand raising young children (like many culturally and linguistically diverse within the community.other Victorians), but they may also (CALD) people, young people, seniors,have recently arrived from a war-torn women and people with disabilities hascountry, suffered torture and have been provided in Appendix D.English as a second language. This is notan uncommon occurrence in Victoria.
  • 20. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 19Here are some general considerations • These contacts can also provide • Initially, you may have to negotiatefor working more inclusively. These advice about the most effective ways ways to help these communities toare followed by some specific of communicating with particular work with you. For example, whenconsiderations for engaging different communities and also vital practical you bring a group of stakeholdersstakeholder groups: knowledge, such as where and how together for the first time, you may a particular group meets or whether find the issues and concerns they raise• Building trust is often the first step in you would need interpreters. are slightly different, or outside the successfully engaging communities that • Community agencies often operate scope of your project. What do you have in the past been marginalised or on low and unpredictable levels of do? You might first try working with engaged in a tokenistic way. This may funding. This can limit their capacity the group to address their immediate initially take time and involve a lot of to participate in an engagement goals or priorities, possibly bringing learning for you, but it will provide process regarding planning or in other agencies to assist. By long-term benefits. environment issues, especially in the demonstrating a willingness to• Some groups are networked within a address the immediate concerns of face of more pressing or short-term community structure, while others are the stakeholders, you are more likely issues such as helping clients to find represented by peak bodies. They are to build a relationship of trust that accommodation, find a job or cope valuable starting points for getting will make it easier to work with this with a mental illness. assistance with approaching and group and others during the current communicating with the group that project and in the future. you wish to engage (refer to Appendix D). Building partnerships for long-term benefits: a practical example In 1997, the Inner West Region Migrant Resource Centre was the first MRC to work with an environment department. They were initially supported by DSE’s Coast Action/Coastcare program to explore different cultural perceptions of coastal resources. Even though this MRC has closed, the networks established through this collaboration still operate successfully.
  • 21. 20 Book 1: an introduction to engagementIndigenous Cultural awareness training is also aThere are a number of reasons why very important aspect of engagingproject or program teams could decide Indigenous communities. This is likely toto engage Indigenous communities assist you in the following areas:- not least of which is that there may • improved understanding of the issuesbe a legislative requirement for them that are important to Indigenousto do so. For example, The Native people and their communitiesTitle Act (1993) includes a Right to • creating more sustainableNegotiate, which means that native title relationships between Indigenousholders must be consulted in advance people and the wider communityif a government plans to grant certain • the opportunity to explore theinterests to their land. disadvantages resulting from theAnother consideration is the protection dispossession of Aboriginal land.of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage which To identify which Indigenousexists throughout the lands and waters communities need to be engaged, it isof Australia. All aspects of the landscape necessary to determine which groups sitmay be important to Indigenous people within (or perhaps just adjacent to) theas part of their heritage. Maintaining focus area of the project. While someIndigenous heritage ensures a projects have clear boundaries, otherscontinuing role for Indigenous people may be issue-based and thereforein caring for country, something that is without such obvious borders. Inbeneficial to everyone. most cases there are specific contact people or groups within a community responsible for specialised industries such as housing, health, education and land and natural resource management.
  • 22. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 21 Challenges to Indigenous Engagement10 Fact Implications Solutions you might try Some communities Unable to attend • Allow for longer lead times and include travel reimbursement costs are economically meetings or other in the project budget so that no-one is out of pocket. disadvantaged, engagement activities and individuals due to lack of transport • Meet at community organisations or homes if required. even more so. or finances. • When meeting at other venues, you may need to arrange transport. Community business If community members • Ensure engagement teams are flexible. Multiple attempts may be regarding death, choose not to participate required to capture some audiences. funerals, ill health due to those matters, or any matter of do not be judgmental • Always allow a long lead time and re-attempt to hold your meeting concern can and or view your attempts or engagement activity. will impact on your as a failure. • Arranging a local person or organisation to facilitate any of the meeting or engagement above can assist you to fulfil your requirements. activity arrangements.Making it easy for Indigenous peopleto participate in your activities For DSE staff, the first point of contact when engaging IndigenousThe availability of private transport is a groups should be the Department’sreal issue for many people in Victoria’s Indigenous Facilitators. They willIndigenous communities. This is help you to identify the groupsfurther compounded when engaging and individuals you will need tocommunities in a regional context, and include in your engagement process,where Indigenous Elders are required to facilitate this process and provideattend meetings. their own insights into the issue the project is addressing.10 Shaw, H (2005) ‘A guide to assist staff to engage with Indigenous communities’, unpublished paper, Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne
  • 23. 22 Book 1: an introduction to engagementCulturally and Linguistically • Different communication styles may • It is important to understand and be required, depending on the group accommodate the considerable timeDiverse and underlying influences such as: commitments of community leaders.When working with culturally As the main contact point for a − sensitivities to discussing personaland linguistically diverse (CALD) community, the leaders will often topics and making decisions onstakeholders, consider the following: receive many external requests from behalf of their community• Working face-to-face in the early government and the private sector for − proficiency in English (written stages of relationship building is consultations, information or and verbal). Some people from extremely important, so you will feedback from the community on a non-English speaking backgrounds need to allocate sufficient time in wide range of issues. At the same may, understandably, lack the planning your engagement. time, community members also rely confidence to use their English• At times, including a social component heavily on their leaders to help them in a public speaking situation in a presentation or event can help with their own difficulties. − literacy in a first language. break down any barriers or fears that • Local councils may have good Remember that for many refugees, people may have about participating. contacts and networks with CALD their schooling may have been This could include sharing food, tree communities in their area, including repeatedly interrupted or ceased planting or a trip to the beach. neighbourhood houses, ethno-specific altogether due to war, political agencies and English-as-a-second- upheaval or having no access to language classes. They may also have formal education services CALD workers on staff. − previous experiences with • Consider early on in the engagement governments, especially in the the possibility of using interpreters to country of origin; torture or assist with the translation of written corruption may be commonplace material or to interpret during in some countries workshops or meetings. − preferred methods to receive and communicate information, such as local papers, radio, word-of-mouth, organisations and the internet. For example, the Somali community in Victoria does not have any print media, so ethnic talkback radio is their prime source of information and their opportunity to discuss ideas and provide feedback − awareness of government programs and processes.
  • 24. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 23People with Disabilities Some people may have more than one • Some people with disabilities haveMost people with a disability do not type of disability. For example, a person carers. It is important to address anyrequire specific disability supports and who has a vision impairment may also communication to the person withlive independently in the community. have an intellectual disability. the disability and not to their carer orHowever, many people with a disability, friend. It is also important to be When engaging with people withand their parents, families and carers mindful of the carer’s needs in disabilities:face inequalities and barriers to organising any engagement activities. • Ask the people you are planning toparticipation in the community. • In general, all engagement should be engage what their needs are. They inclusive so that people withThe main types of disabilities are: will be in the best position to tell you disabilities can participate in the same• Intellectual disability how you can best assist them to ways as others in the community. (For example, a person who has contribute to the engagement However, some people with significantly below average processes. disabilities may have difficulties, for intelligence [based on an IQ test], or • Use organisations or community groups example, being heard or understood who may have difficulty with everyday that support people with disabilities in a large public forum, and it may be life skills.) to help arrange and conduct your necessary to organise smaller forums• Physical disability engagement (see Appendix D for a that better suit their needs. (For example, a person who uses a listing of organisations and their • If choosing venues to get together, wheelchair or has difficulties with contact details). consider whether the site is accessible communication.) • Put the person first, not their (public transport, ramps), whether• Sensory disability disability. Describe ‘a person with a the building is internally accessible (For example, a person who is Deaf, disability’ rather than ‘a disabled (suitable door widths, accessible toilets) blind or has a vision or hearing person’. Remember that you are and whether it meets the specific impairment.) engaging with the person, not with requirements of the people you are the disability they may have. engaging (Braille and tactile signage,• Psychiatric disability (For example, a person who has a hearing augmentation system).11 mental illness.)• Acquired brain injury (For example, a person who was not born with a disability, but acquired their disability; perhaps through a car accident or drug abuse.)• Neurological impairment (For example, a person who has a degenerative condition such as multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s Disease or motor neurone disease.)11 Department of Human Services (2004), Inclusive consultation and communication with people with a disability, Disabilities Services Division, Victorian Government Department of Human Services, Melbourne
  • 25. 24 Book 1: an introduction to engagement Young People Seniors As with many of the diverse groups Senior Victorians are a growing part that exist in our society, young people of our population. They have a wealth have valuable contributions to make if and diversity of skills, knowledge and enabled to participate. The following life experiences that can enrich our tips may be helpful in engaging young work. It is important to respect their people: wisdom and to think about their needs in planning any engagement. Some • Do not consider all young people as considerations include: one homogenous group. Characteristics such as gender, age • Many seniors are fit, healthy and and cultural background need to be mobile, but it is important to be considered. As with the broader aware of the changing mobility of community, consider which young seniors and the impact it can have on people would be interested and their ability to participate. Two benefit from involvement. significant changes are when people • Building trust with young people is a stop driving and when they can no fundamental basis for effective longer walk unaided. engagement. Consider strategies and • Be aware of the difficulties some tools that are appropriate to establish seniors may have with vision and trust with young people. hearing when selecting and using • Consider whether organisations and engagement tools. agencies who work with young • Do not assume seniors will not take people could assist with your up newer technologies. However, they engagement. may be limited by lack of confidence, • Provide information to young people previous experiences or income, and in ways they can understand. It may therefore require additional assistance be helpful to engage a young person to overcome these barriers. to assist in your planning. Where • Seniors may have time to participate possible, test your planning and any in engagement activities, but prepared material with a small remember that they are increasingly number of young people to ensure taking on additional family roles, in relevance. particular, childcare for grandchildren. • Avoid making assumptions about • Be aware of possible inter- what may interest young people; generational differences between instead allow them to define what is community facilitators and seniors important from their perspective. that may impede clear • Consider issues of privacy and communication, such as language consent. Consent needs to be and values. informed, freely given, specific and • Do not always segregate seniors into current to be valid.12 discrete groups for engagement. It • When considering venues to meet can be beneficial to mix age groups, with young people, think about resulting in a broader understanding places young people may like to of issues by staff and community gather and consider related issues members. such as safety and proximity to public transport.12 Youth Affairs Council of Victoria (2004), Taking young people seriously - consulting young people about their ideas and opinions: a handbook for organisations working with young people, Office for Youth, Department for Victorian Communities, Melbourne
  • 26. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 25GenderIt is important to create opportunitiesfor both men and women to beengaged in your engagement process.Men and women are still not equallyrepresented in decision-making arenas.For example, women still make themajority of the household purchasingdecisions and influence consumptionpatterns. If we are not addressinggender imbalances generally in theengagement process, then we are notonly missing out on vital sources ofinformation, but on opportunities forcommunity advocacy of our objectives(e.g. to encourage use of environment-friendly products or reduce the demandfor over-packaged products).The following tips are designed to assistyou plan engagement activities withgreater sensitivity towards gender issues:• Be mindful of the multiple • Rural women can face additional • Where appropriate, try to involve a responsibilities of parents when barriers to participation such as balance of men and women in your planning any engagement. Think of distance, access to alternative forms engagement to ensure that ways to engage both groups in your of transport and access to childcare participation reflects community process if possible. For example, – particularly to cover the long hours diversity or your client base. The children could be involved in a that may be taken up by travel. Office of Women’s Policy (see creative learning activity about your • Women are generally under- Appendix D) operates a Women’s topic while the parent(s) are represented on boards and Register that can put you in contact contributing to your community committees and this can make with women who are skilled, engagement activity. it hard for an individual woman experienced and interested in formal• For some women from culturally and to break into that domain and committee or board appointments. linguistically diverse backgrounds, you contribute fully. Consequently, • When investigating tools for may need to provide women-only retention rates can be low. You engagement, consider whether the opportunities for engagement. may need to provide extra support tools may need to be modified to and address group culture issues. ensure you get a better gender representation in views, opinions and decisions.
  • 27. 26 Book 1: an introduction to engagement4.3 A Model for Note: IAP2 use the term ‘public’ to refer Previous editions of this workbook to what we have called ‘community’ or used a model entitled The Wheel of Engagement ‘stakeholders’. In this workbook, we ask Engagement13 as the foundation4.3.1 IAP2 Public you to consider all stakeholders in your for determining the purpose of project, not just those in the ‘broader’ engagement and the level of Participation Spectrum community (or public), but also those participation of a defined stakeholder/The International Association for Public within your own organisation, including community.Participation (IAP2) has developed yourself and/or your project team.the Public Participation Spectrum to The IAP2 Public Participation Spectrumdemonstrate the possible types of Each type of engagement shown in the has been used here to highlight anengagement with stakeholders and spectrum is explored in more detail in additional possible level of engagement,communities. The spectrum also shows section 4.3.3. ‘collaboration’. Missing from this modelthe increasing level of public impact as however, but explicit in The Wheel ofyou progress from ‘inform’ through to Engagement, is the ‘social capacity’‘empower’. component of engagement - the ability of stakeholders/community to act. This concept is further explored in section 4.3.2 under ‘Human, Social and Community Capacity’.13 The Wheel of Engagement was developed by K Pryosusilo, C Pilioussis, P Howden, E Phillips & M Gooey of the Community Strategies Section of Catchment and Water Division in the previous Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment
  • 28. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 27IAP2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION SPECTRUM INCREASING LEVEL OF PUBLIC IMPACT INFORM CONSULT INVOLVE COLLABORATE EMPOWER Public Public Public Public Public Participation Participation Participation Participation Participation Goal: Goal: Goal: Goal: Goal: To provide the public To obtain public To work directly with To partner with To place final with balanced and feedback on analysis, the public throughout the public in each decision-making in objective information alternatives and/or the process to ensure aspect of the the hands of the to assist them in decisions. that public concerns decision, including public. understanding the and aspirations the development of problems, alternatives are consistently alternatives and the and/or solutions. understood and identification of the considered. preferred solution. Promise to Promise to Promise to Promise to Promise to the Public: the Public: the Public: the Public: the Public: We will keep you We will keep you We will work with We will look to you We will implement informed. informed, listen to you to ensure that for direct advice what you decide. and acknowledge your concerns and and innovation in concerns and aspirations are directly formulating solutions provide feedback reflected in the and incorporate on how public alternatives developed your advice and input influenced the and provide feedback recommendations decision. on how public input into the decisions to influenced the the maximum extent decision. possible. Example Example Example Example Example Tools: Tools: Tools: Tools: Tools: • fact sheets • public comment • workshops • citizen advisory • citizen juries • web sites • focus groups • deliberate polling. committees • ballots • open houses. • surveys • consensus-building • delegated decisions. • public meetings. • participatory decision-making.© Copyright IAP2. All rights reserved.
  • 29. 28 Book 1: an introduction to engagement4.3.2 Implications for It is also worth noting that the level of Human, Social and tasks can be high at the ‘inform’ end Engagement Community Capacity of the spectrum, while the strength of There is an accepted governmentThe Level of Public Impact the relationship between yourself and imperative to look at participatory the stakeholder/community may be low.As you move through the spectrum processes that build the capacity As you move through the spectrum,from the left to right – inform through of community, other stakeholders tasks begin to differ and the strengthto empower - there is a corresponding as well as ourselves, to respond to of relationships increases throughincrease in expectation for public social, environmental and economic consult, involve, collaborate and finallyparticipation and impact. In simply challenges. Consequently, an to empower, where the main focus is‘informing’ stakeholders there is no understanding of human, social and not the task but the importance of theexpectation of receiving feedback, and community capacity is required for relationship.consequently there is a low level of effective engagement planning andpublic impact. At the other end of the It is sometimes assumed the level of implementation.spectrum, ‘empowering’ stakeholders difficulty involved in the engagementto make decisions implies an increase in process increases with the level of Community capacity is the sum ofexpectations and therefore an increased participation, with ‘inform’ being two important concepts – humanlevel of public impact. perceived as being easy by comparison and social capacity. Human capacity to ‘empower’. In reality, where is the skills, knowledge and abilities of engagement is effective to its purpose, individuals. Social capacity is the nature no part of the spectrum is harder or and strength of relationships and level more preferable than another. Indeed, of trust that exists between individuals. the need for different skills and depth These two elements can be mutually and trust in relationships can make all reinforcing. For example, individual skills parts of the spectrum both challenging can be applied much more effectively and rewarding. in an environment where there is trust and cooperation. Similarly, a close-knit community can respond more quickly to change if there is a range of individual skills and leadership abilities available to sustain development. INCREASING LEVEL OF PUBLIC IMPACT INFORM CONSULT INVOLVE COLLABORATE EMPOWER(Excerpt from the Public Participation Spectrum.Copyright IAP2. All rights reserved.)
  • 30. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 29The increasing level of public impact of The process of disseminating Community engagement is anthe IAP2 Public Participation Spectrum information (inform) is fundamental to investment in both the present andhas implications not just for the effect many government and non-government the future of a community’s humanof the engagement on the community, activities. While this serves to build and social capacity. For example:but also the ability of the community individual knowledge (human capacity),to participate or respond positively to it contributes only minimally to social • If communities are not adequatelythis impact. capacity. This is particularly true of one- informed, an imbalance in way processes such as newsletters or knowledge is created thatAs part of your engagement planning privileges some and alienates media may need to consider: others. However, engagement activities from• What is the community’s capacity • If involvement is promised, or further along the spectrum, such as a (human and social) to participate action from a consultation participatory extension or education or meet your expectations? expected, but not delivered, program, can not only build individual• What is your role in building knowledge (e.g. through the subject trust between the community community capacity? or nature of the program), but also and government is eroded.• What is your capacity (human and build relationships between those Future approaches may then be social) and others in the project to who are learning together. Skills compromised by current actions. build community capacity (see the learnt are often reinforced through • If representatives of some segments ‘Learn’ section of Book 2: the peer support, exchange of ideas and of the community are empowered engagement planning workbook experiences. While there is an increasing and not others, this can further for further details)? level of expectation in participation divide a community.In addition, social relations constitute and a greater reliance upon the • If leadership programs are notan additional resource for individuals abilities of those involved to meet this sensitive to community structureand communities. By understanding expectation, the positive impact on or diversity, they can erode anythe dynamics of these relationships, learning and relationships extends the trust the leader has built withinit is possible to achieve mutually potential success of the activity for that community.beneficial outcomes.14 See the the government/organisation and the‘Stakeholder Analysis’ section of stakeholder/community.Book 2: the engagement planningworkbook for further details.14 Voyer, J-P (2004) ‘A network approach to facilitating and measuring social capital’, Expert workshop on measurement of social capital for public policy, Synthesis Report, June, Statistics Canada
  • 31. 30 Book 1: an introduction to engagement4.3.3 Exploring the Types of Inform INFORM Engagement The ‘inform’ column of the spectrum PublicThe following section explores each type describes the communication of Participationof engagement from the IAP2 Public information to the community or other Goal:Participation Spectrum, from ‘inform’ stakeholders and is the foundation of allthrough to ‘empower’. It explains the community engagement processes. To provide the publicunderlying principles, provides examples The overall goal of this type of with balanced andof how they can be used and any engagement is to provide stakeholders objective informationadditional considerations for each with balanced and objective to assist them intype of engagement. information. This process can provide understanding the the basis for building knowledge and problems, alternativesAfter reading this section, you will be skills in the community in order to assist and/or solutions.well placed to select the appropriatetype or types of engagement when decision-making and change through:developing your own Engagement Plan • increasing understanding of issues, Promise toin Book 2: the engagement planning alternatives or solutions the Public:workbook. • increasing stakeholder/community ability to address issues We will keep you • increasing community compliance informed. with regulation and other requirements associated with change. Those you inform can range from the general public to key stakeholder groups and organisations. The processes used can be proactive (information dissemination) or responsive (responding to questions from the community). Informing involves one- or two-way communication over various timeframes. Example Tools: Examples include one-off communication such as brochures or media releases through to longer • fact sheets term, intensive processes such as • web sites community education. • open houses. (Excerpt from the Public Participation Spectrum. Copyright IAP2. All rights reserved.)
  • 32. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 31 “... know who you are trying to reach and how they are most likely to access and understand the information ...”General Guidelines Additional Considerations:The following are general guidelines Although information is essentialfor disseminating information for all participation, it is not in itselfeffectively within the community: participatory, nor is it directly linked to the adoption of this information.• Know who you are trying to reach and how they are most likely to The link between knowledge and access and understand the implementing change is strongest information (refer to ‘Community when the people who are expected Profiling’ in section 3.5.). to implement change are involved in developing the knowledge that provides• Ensure information provided is: the capacity to act. − high quality Often the solutions offered during − consistent the informing process, by way of − timely knowledge and skills, tend to be − appropriately targeted technical or scientific, and may not − clear and easily understood by allow for a full understanding of the your audience. complexity of the issue. Refining your audience and key messages through market research may miss links that could be explored through other processes such as ‘involve’, ‘collaborate’ or ‘empower’.
  • 33. 32 Book 1: an introduction to engagementConsult CONSULTThis column of the spectrum describes There are a range of ways consultation Publicthe process of eliciting feedback on can occur, including processes that Participationinformation provided. The goal of require little or no dialogue. Examples Goal:this type of engagement is to obtain include written consultation (e.g. afeedback on analysis, alternatives or one-off survey in a newsletter, or To obtain publicdecisions. documents made available for public feedback on analysis, comment) through to those involving alternatives and/orConsultation actively seeks community dialogue and debate such as public decisions.views and input into policy, plans and meetings, focus groups and processesdecisions. The responsibility for the where the stakeholder/community isdecisions remains with government or able to influence proposed options.the organisation doing the consulting. Processes for gaining rural intelligence, social research and attitudinal surveys would also be included here. Promise to the Public: We will keep you informed, listen to and acknowledge concerns and provide feedback on how public input influenced the decision. Example Tools: • public comment • focus groups • surveys • public meetings. (Excerpt from the Public Participation Spectrum. Copyright IAP2. All rights reserved.)
  • 34. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 33 “... ensure the purpose of the consultation is clear, including what is being consulted on and what is non-negotiable ...”General Guidelines Additional Considerations:The following are general guidelines Consultation is an effective processfor appropriate and timely in community engagement, as longconsultation processes; building on as the expected levels of participationfrom those guidelines outlined under and commitment are expressed and‘inform’: matched with the expectations of all relevant stakeholders.• Ensure the purpose of consultation is clear, including what is being It is important to fulfil the promise consulted on and what is non- of providing feedback on how this negotiable. input has influenced the decision, otherwise stakeholders may not take up• Know who you are trying to ownership of the decision, particularly consult, the most effective way to where change in attitudes, values or reach them and get a response. practices is concerned.• Allow enough time for a response to consultation requests.• Coordinate requests so that, where possible and appropriate, you ask for views once, not several times.• Provide feedback on the results of consultation.• Ensure and demonstrate that the views of those consulted are taken into account in the outcome.• Present all information simply and clearly.• Ensure adequate resources are allocated to the process.
  • 35. 34 Book 1: an introduction to engagementInvolve INVOLVEThe goal of this method of engagement However, while ‘involve’ assumes Publicis to work directly with the public a greater level of participation by Participationthroughout the process to ensure that stakeholders as they work through Goal:public concerns and aspirations are issues and alternatives to assistconsistently understood and considered. in the decision-making process, To work directly with the organisation undertaking the the public throughoutThe difference between ‘consult’ and engagement generally retains the process to ensure‘involve’ is the level of participation responsibility for the final decision. that public concernsexpected of the community and otherstakeholders. While consulting requires and aspirationsthe facilitator to seek feedback at a are consistentlygiven point in time, involving means understood anddeliberately putting into place a method work directly with stakeholders Promise tothroughout the process. the Public: We will work with you to ensure that your concerns and aspirations are directly reflected in the alternatives developed and provide feedback on how public input influenced the decision. Example Tools: • workshops • deliberate polling. (Excerpt from the Public Participation Spectrum. Copyright IAP2. All rights reserved.)
  • 36. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 35 “... work with the community to ensure their concerns are directly reflected in alternatives and solutions ...”General Guidelines Additional Considerations:The following are general guidelines This level of engagement demandsfor involving the community: a higher level of participation and inclusion with stakeholders. Those• Ensure all relevant people are given who develop Engagement Plans at this the opportunity to be involved. level must work with the community• Ensure you maintain a commitment to ensure their concerns are directly to enabling their involvement in the reflected in alternatives and solutions, process (have equity/access issues and be explicit as to how this input been considered that ensure that was incorporated within the decision– individuals are not unknowingly making process. disadvantaged?). It is also important to be clear in• Consider carefully what processes communications with stakeholders and/or structures are appropriate to avoid fallout from unrealised for the purpose and who is to be expectations. This may include engaged. stakeholders assuming they are able• Avoid misunderstanding and to make final decisions when this ambiguity by clearly establishing is not necessarily the case. Again, the basis for membership of bodies there needs to be an alignment of such as boards or committees (e.g. expectations to establish what is skills vs representation), the negotiable and what is not negotiable decision-making processes (e.g. at the beginning of the project. voting vs consensus) and roles and responsibilities at the outset.
  • 37. 36 Book 1: an introduction to engagementCollaborate COLLABORATEThe goal of this type of engagement is Collaborative partnerships can range Publicto partner with the community in each from loose affiliations through Participationaspect of the decision, including the to establishing formal boards or Goal:development of alternatives and the committees. In the case of DSE,identification of the preferred position. an example of a collaborative To partner with engagement arrangement can be seen the public in eachThis method of engagement further in the establishment of the Victorian aspect of theextends the level of participation Catchment Management Authorities. decision, includingand, consequently, the impact upon While the establishment of these the development ofthe community. Ownership is shared entities devolves management at a alternatives and thebetween the organisation and the local level, responsibility for final policy, identification of thestakeholders. There is a greater level legislative frameworks and overall preferred solution.of delegated decision-making, but budget decisions is still retained bythe organisation responsible for the government. Promise toengagement may still retain the overall the Public:decision-making power. We will look to you for direct advice and innovation in formulating solutions and incorporate your advice and recommendations into the decisions to the maximum extent possible. Example Tools: • citizen advisory committees • consensus-building • participatory decision-making. (Excerpt from the Public Participation Spectrum. Copyright IAP2. All rights reserved.)
  • 38. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 37 “... there must be clarity about the extent of decision-making power that is delegated and, in particular, what is not included ...”General Guidelines Additional Considerations:The following are general guidelines A far greater level of trust infor collaboration with the relationships is required to ensurecommunity: collaborative efforts are effective. Alignment of core values may need to• There must be clarity about the be considered to establish effective and extent of decision-making power productive collaborative partnerships. that is delegated and, in particular, While the investment required to ensure what is not included. relationships are productive maybe high,• Avoid misunderstanding and the combined efforts of partners may ambiguity by clearly establishing extend the ownership and success of the basis for membership of bodies the desired outcomes in ways that could such as boards or committees (e.g. not have been achieved through less skills vs representation), decision- participatory methods. making processes (e.g. voting vs consensus) and roles and responsibilities at the outset.• Where formal partnership arrangements are involved, governance arrangements need to be carefully considered.
  • 39. 38 Book 1: an introduction to engagementEmpower EMPOWERThe goal of this method of engagement The pilot mini-Citizen’s Jury conducted Publicis to place final decision-making in the by the Victorian Glenelg Hopkins Participationhands of the public. Catchment Management Authority to Goal: aid in the development of their DraftEmpowered communities share River Health Strategy15 is an example of To place finalresponsibility for making decisions empowerment. decision-making inand accountability for the outcomesof those decisions. the hands of the public.Legislative and policy frameworksgive power to communities to makedecisions. The community may havethe power to make a limited range ofdecisions (e.g. on a specified issue or fora limited time), or it may have extensive Promise todecision-making powers. the Public: We will implement what you decide. Example Tools: • citizen juries • ballots • delegated decisions. (Excerpt from the Public Participation Spectrum. Copyright IAP2. All rights reserved.)15 Bolitho, Dr A (2005) Citizen’s juries for natural resource management, Social Capacity Building Project Catchment Strategies, Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne
  • 40. Book 1: an introduction to engagement 39 “... empowered communities share responsibility for making decisions and accountability for the outcomes of those decisions ...”General Guidelines Additional Considerations:The following are general guidelines This is the most challenging approach tofor empowering communities: community engagement, but offers the greatest rewards in building capacity.• There must be clarity as to the There is a commitment by the initiators scope of the shared power and/or of the engagement to participate as decision-making capabilities. a stakeholder and to share power in• There must be clarity about roles decision-making to achieve collaborative and responsibilities. action.• Issues involving accountability need The promise by users of this process to be carefully considered. is to maintain a high level of active• Communities need sufficient engagement during the development, resources (human and social design and implementation of the capital) to enable an empowerment approach. Those who do not participate approach. to this extent risk breaking the principles of inclusiveness, transparency and trust. The rewards of an empowerment approach are often more innovative results that incorporate the knowledge of all participants as well as reduced conflict, greater ownership of outcomes and commitment to ongoing action.
  • 41. 40 Book 1: an introduction to engagementGlossaryAction learning Community capacity Extension“... a continuous process of learning “... consists of the networks, organisation, To work with communities to accelerateand reflection, supported by colleagues, attitudes, leadership and skills that allow the rate of change in particular aspectswith an intention of getting things communities to manage change and of endeavour, over and above thatdone.”16 sustain community-led development ...”20 being realised through the normal activities of the marketplace. Often usedAdult learning principles Community engagement in the context of agricultural or naturalAdult learning is a process of self “... mutual communication and resource management activities.directed inquiry.17 Adult learning deliberation that occurs betweenprinciples include: “... autonomous and government and citizens. It allows Human capacityself directed learning ... connection of citizens and government to participate The collective skills and abilities oflife experience and knowledge...goal mutually in the formulation of policy individuals within a community.and relevancy oriented ... practical ... and the provision of governmentand affording of respect ...”18 services ...”21 Learning style This concept seeks to explain howCapacity building (see Stakeholder engagement) different people prefer to learn inThe development of skills, abilities, Community profile different ways. Effective learners rely onrelationships and networks between all four different learning modes: active, “Community profiling involvesand within individuals and groups reflective, theoretical and pragmatic. documenting: the social environmentwithin a defined community. These learning styles coincide with stages in order to develop a more detailed in the action learning cycle: experiencing,Citizens understanding of the historical reviewing, concluding and planning.24 background of the community; theIndividuals within a community. statistical profile of the community; Project systemCommunity contemporary issues; political and The social, environmental, cultural and social structures; culture; and, attitudesGroups who share a common sense of economic conditions in which the project towards the proposal or proposedbelonging and where there is a level of exists. These conditions can influence change.”22trust between members: and have impact upon the implementation Community strengthening and outcome of a project.• Geographical – based around where people live, such as neighbourhood, “... is a process whereby communities, Project team suburb or town. government, business and philanthropic A group of people working together to• Interest – based around common organisations work together to develop a process and take action to interests, such as conservation, social achieve agreed social, economic and achieve their project goals. justice or sporting interest. environmental outcomes.”23• Identity – based on sharing a common identity such as age, culture or lifestyle.1916 McGill, I & Beaty, L (2001) Action learning: a guide for professional, management & educational development, Kogan Page, London17 Knowles, MS (1970) The modern practice of adult education: andragogy verses pedogagy, New York Association Press18 Lieb, S (1991) Principles of adult learning, Arizona Department of Health Services/South Mountain Community College, Vision, USA19 [accessed 28/06/2005]20 Cavaye, JM (2000) ‘The role of government in community capacity building’, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries information series, QI99804, Queensland Government21 Cavaye, Dr. J (2001) ‘Community engagement framework project: scoping and review paper’, Cavaye Community Development/ CEO Committee on Land Resources, Queensland citing OECD (2001) ‘Engaging Citizens in policy-making: information, consultation and public participation’, PUMA Policy brief No 10, July 2001, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development22 Fenton, DM & Coakes, SJ (1998) ‘Social impact assessment and water resource management: an application of TC analysis’, unpublished paper, Sheridan Coakes Consulting, November 1998:423 [accessed 28/06/2005]24 For an inventory of learning styles, see Honey, P & Mumford, A (1992) The manual of learning styles, Honey Press, Maidenhead, UK
  • 42. ASocial capacityThe sum of the relationships andtrust between individuals within acommunity.Social capitalThe networks and relationships thatfoster trust, reciprocity and socialcohesion.StakeholdersIndividuals and/or groups with aninterest in an activity and/or outcome.Stakeholders may be internal or externalto the organisation and may be director indirect beneficiaries of an activity oroutcome.Stakeholder engagementStakeholder engagement is a way ofthinking about external audiences andtheir relationship to organisationaloutcomes. It implies a longer termrelationship where both parties have amutual interest in, and ability to impactupon, the project outcomes.External stakeholders may notnecessarily be outside your organisation.They can also include those internal tothe organisation but, external to yourunit, program or project.(see Community engagement)
  • 43. 42 Book 1: an introduction to engagementRecommended resourcesB.1 Publications Carman, K and Keith, K (1994) McDonald, B, et al. (2000) Evaluation inArnstein, SR (1971) ‘A ladder of citizen ‘Community consultation techniques: the agriculture division using Bennett’sparticipation in the USA’, Journal of purposes, processes and pitfalls’, Hierarchy, Department of NaturalTown Planning Institute, Vol 57, No. 4 Queensland Department of Primary Resources and Environment, Victoria Industries, Queensland GovernmentAslin, HJ & Brown, VA (2000) Salvaris, M, Burke, T, Pidgeon, J & information series QI 94030,Collaborative, coordinated engagement Kelman, S (2000), Social benchmarks Queensland Government, Brisbanein the Murray–Darling Basin: principles, and indicators for Victoria, consultant’spractices and toolkit, Bureau of Rural Cavaye, J (2001) ‘Community report for the Department of PremierSciences, Canberra engagement framework project: and Cabinet, Victoria, Swinburne scoping and review paper’, Cavaye University of Technology, MelbourneAslin, HJ & Brown, VA (2004) Towards Community Development/CEOwhole of community engagement: a Sarkissian, W, Hirst, A & Beauford, Committee on Land Resources,practical toolkit, Murray Darling Basin S with Walton, S (2003) Community Queensland, citing OECD (2001)Commission participation in practice: new directions, ‘Engaging Citizens in policy-making: Institute for Sustainability andAspen Institute (1996) Measuring information, consultation and public Technology Policy, Murdoch University,community capacity building: a participation’, PUMA policy brief No 10, Western Australiaworkbook in progress for rural July 2001, Organisation for Economiccommunities, The Aspen Institute, Co-operation and Development Wills, J (2001) Just vibrant sustainableWashington DC communities: a framework for Cavaye, J (2000) ‘The role of progressing and measuring communityBawden, R & Macadam, R (1991) in government in community capacity wellbeing, Local GovernmentBawden, R (ed) Systemic development: building’, Queensland Government Community Services of Australia,a learning approach to change, Centre information series QI 99804, Townsville City Council, Townsvillefor Systemic Development, UWS Queensland Government, BrisbaneHawkesbury, 1995 Woodhill, J & Robins, L (1998) Hawtin, M, Hughes, G, Percy-Smith, Participatory evaluation for LandcareBlack, A & Hughes, P (2001), ‘The J & Foreman, A (1994) Community and Catchment groups: a guideidentification and analysis of indicators profiling: auditing social needs, Open for facilitators, Greening Australia,of community strength and outcomes’, University Press CanberraOccasional paper no. 3, Department Laird, A, Fawcett, J, Rait, F & Reid,of Family and Community Services, S (2000) Assessment of innovative B.2 WebsitesCanberra approaches to testing community Please refer to the CommunityBotsman, P & Latham, M (2001) opinion, George Street Research, The Engagement website for web links,The enabling state: people before Scottish Executive Central Research Unit, Pluto Press, Sydney
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  • 45. 44 Book 1: an introduction to engagementBibliographyC.1 Publications Cavaye, JM (2000) ‘The role of Cuthill, M (2003) ‘The contribution ofArnold, M (2003) ‘Intranets, community, government in community capacity human and social capital to buildingand social capital: the case of Williams building’, Department of Primary community well-being: a researchBay’, Bulletin of science technology Industries and Fisheries information agenda relating to citizen participationsociety, 23, pp. 78 – 87 series, QI99804, Queensland in local governance in Australia’, Urban Government policy and research, 21(4) pp. 373-391Bawden, R & Macadam, R (1991)in Bawden, R (1995) Systemic Chudleigh, P, Simpson, S, Warburton, Department of Human Servicesdevelopment: a learning approach J, Chenoweth, L, Beck, T & Comerford, (2004), Inclusive consultation andto change, Centre for Systemic E (2003) ‘Arrangements to enhance communication with people with aDevelopment, UWS Hawkesbury effective use of incentive mechanisms in disability, Disabilities Services Division, regional natural resource management: Victorian Government Department ofBolitho, Dr A (2005) Citizen’s juries for a scoping study: research and Human Services, Melbournenatural resource management, Social development final report’, AGT13Capacity Building Project Catchment Emmett, T (2000) ‘Beyond community Agtrans research, Land and WaterStrategies, Victorian Department participation? Alternative routes to civil Resources Research and Developmentof Sustainability and Environment, engagement and development in South Corporation, Brisbane, QueenslandMelbourne Africa’, Development Southern Africa, Connelly, S (2005) ‘Looking inside 17(4) pp. 501-518Brown, J & Isaacs, D (1994) ‘Merging public involvement: how is it made sothe best of two worlds the core Faust, LA, Blanchard, LW, Breyfogle, ineffective and can we change this?’processes of organisations as BA, Baroni, JK, Reed, RE & Young, MJ Community development journal, 10,communities’ in P Senge, A Kleiner, (2004) ‘Discussion suppers as a means pp. 10-93C Roberts, R Ross & B Smith (eds.) for community engagement’, Journal ofThe fifth discipline fieldbook: strategies Cook, D (2002) ‘Consultation, for rural health, 21(1) pp. 92-5and tools for building a learning a change? Engaging users and Fenton, DM & Coakes, SJ (1998) ‘Socialorganization, Doubleday/Currency communities in the policy process’, impact assessment and water resourcePublications Social policy and administration, 36(5), management: an application of TC pp. 516-531Byron, I & Curtis, A (2002) ‘Maintaining analysis’, unpublished paper, Sheridanvolunteer commitment to local Cornwall, A & Coelho, VSP (2004) Coakes Consulting, November 1998:4watershed initiatives’, Environmental ‘New democratic spaces?’, IDS bulletin, Grudens-Schuck, N (2000) ‘Conflictmanagement, 30(1), pp. 59-67 Institute of Development Studies, 35(2) and engagement: an empirical study pp. 1-98Cavaye, JM (2001) ‘Community of a farmer-extension partnership inengagement framework project: Curtis, A, Byron, I, McCullough, P, a sustainable agriculture program’,scoping and review paper’, Cavaye Brown, G, Mann, K, Smith, M, Lorimer, Journal of agricultural & environmentalCommunity Development/CEO WK, Murdoch, H & Ash, L (2003) ethics, 13(1/2) pp. 79-100Committee on Land Resources, Assessing and managing burnout Honey, P & Mumford, A (1992)Queensland citing OECD (2001) in Landcare members, leaders and The manual of learning styles,‘Engaging Citizens in policy-making: coordinators: research and development Honey Press, Maidenhead, UKinformation, consultation and public final report, CSU23 Land and Waterparticipation’, PUMA policy brief No 10, Resources Research and Development Knowles, MS (1970) The modernJuly 2001, Organisation for Economic Corporation, Canberra ACT practice of adult education: andragogyCo-operation and Development verses pedogagy, New York Association Press
  • 46. CLieb, S (1991) Principles of adult Pretty, J & Hine, R (1999) Participatory Williams, C (2003) ‘Developinglearning, Arizona Department of Health appraisal for community assessment, community involvement: contrastingServices/South Mountain Community Centre for Environment and Society, local and regional participatory culturesCollege, Vision, USA University of Essex in Britain and their implications for policy’, Regional studies: the journal ofLovan, WR, Murray, M & Shaffer R Queensland Department of Emergency the Regional Studies Association, 37(5)(2004) ‘Participatory governance: Services (2001) Charter for community pp. 531-541planning, conflict mediation and engagement, Community Engagementpublic decision-making in civil society’, Unit, Strategic and Executive Services, Woodward, V (2000) ‘CommunityParticipatory governance: planning, Queensland Department of Emergency engagement with the state: a caseconflict mediation and public decision- Services study of the Plymouth Hoe citizens jury’,making in civil society, Ashgate Community development journal, 35(3) Rogers, M (2005) ‘Social sustainabilityPublishing, Aldershot, UK pp. 233-244 and the art of engagement - the smallMaguire, LA (2003) ‘Interplay of science towns: big picture experience’, Local Youth Affairs Council of Victoriaand stakeholder values in Neuse River environment, 10(2) pp. 109-124 (2004) Taking young people seriouslytotal maximum daily load process’, - consulting young people about their Shaw, H (2005) ‘A guide to assist(Special issue: TMDL approach to water ideas and opinions: a handbook for staff to engage with Indigenousquality management), Journal of water organisations working with young communities’, unpublished paper,resources planning and management, people, Office for Youth, Department Victorian Department of Sustainability129(4) pp. 261-270 for Victorian Communities, Melbourne and Environment, MelbourneMcGill, I & Beaty, L (2001) Action Youth Affairs Council of Victoria (2004) State Government of Victoria (2005)learning: a guide for professional, Taking young people seriously - young A Fairer Victoria: creating opportunitymanagement & educational people on boards and committees: a and addressing disadvantage, Statedevelopment, Kogan Page, London handbook for organisations working Government of Victoria, Melbourne with young people, Office for Youth,Nelson, A & Pettit, C (2004) ‘Effective State Government of Victoria (2005) Department for Victorian Communities,community engagement for Growing Victoria Together: a vision Melbournesustainability: Wombat Community for Victoria to 2010 and beyond, StateForest Management case study’, C.2 Websites Government of Victoria, MelbourneAustralian geographer, 35(3) pp. 301- http://www.communitybuilding.vic.315 State Government of Victoria (2005) [accessed Our Water Our Future action plan, StatePetts, J (2003) ‘Barriers to deliberative 28/06/2005] Government of Victoria, Melbourneparticipation in EIA: learning from waste [accessedpolicies, plans and projects’, Journal of Voyer, J-P (2004) ‘A network approach 07/06/2005]environmental assessment policy and to facilitating and measuringmanagement, 5(3) pp. 269-293 social capital’, Expert workshop on measurement of social capital for publicPetts, J & Leach, B (2000) ‘Evaluating policy, Synthesis Report, June, Statisticsmethods for public participation: a Canadaliterature review’, R & D technicalreport, E135, Environment Agency,Bristol
  • 47. 46 Book 1: an introduction to engagementDiversity groups additional contactsD.1 General D.2 Indigenous D.3 Culturally and LinguisticallyDepartment for Victorian Aboriginal Affairs Victoria (AAV) will DiverseCommunities (DVC) can guide local give you information on state Aboriginal Victorian Office of Multiculturalcommunities and community groups organisations, cultural heritage contacts Affairs provides policy advice to theand assist them to access local-level and further information. Victorian Government in the areas ofdata that will support community multicultural affairs, immigration andbuilding activities. community relations. Native Title Tribunal provides information and services about nativeDiversity @ Work provides a wide title applications, future acts and native Ethnic Communities’ Council ofrange of diversity data and analysis, title agreement-making. Victoria is the peak non-governmentanswers to common questions and body representing ethnic communitiestraining. throughout Victoria. Regional Indigenous Facilitators DSE has six Indigenous Facilitators Migrant Resource Centres are to assist with Indigenous community community-based, non-government and partnerships. The Indigenous Facilitator non-profit organisations, established should be the first point of contact for for the development and provision all DSE staff in relation to Indigenous of community welfare services and land and natural resource management establishment of social support groups. issues. msa_b.htm#vic
  • 48. DD.4 People with Disabilities D.5 Young People D.7 GenderDisability Advisory Council of Victoria Office for Youth runs a range of Office of Women’s Policy (OWP),provides advice to the Victorian Minister programs and plays a leadership role DVC, provides strategic policy advicefor Community Services on issues in coordinating research and policy to the Victorian Government, withconcerning people with disabilities in development on youth issues. the aim of creating better outcomesorder to assist the Victorian Government for all women.achieve its policy objectives. Youth Liaison Officers support the 15 Regional Youth Affairs Networks (RYAN) Rural Women’s Network is concernedDisability Online provides a listing and across Victoria, providing regional advice with valuing and responding tolinks to supports and services. on policy, planning and service provision women’s voices across rural and issues relating to young people. regional Victoria. Australia offers tips on meeting rwnhome.nsfand communicating with people who D.6 Seniorshave vision impairment. Office of Senior Victorians coordinates policy and actionVictorian Deaf Society (Vicdeaf) is a across government to promotenon-profit organisation and the primary the wellbeing and social participationsource of reference, referral, advice and of older for deaf adults in Victoria. Seniors Information Victoria providesBetter Hearing Australia has a contacts and ideas for communicatingcommunity education program to with older people.understand hearing impaired clients. seniorsinformationcommuned.htm
  • 49. 48 Book 1: an introduction to engagementFeedback sheetHow useful did you find the Effective Engagement kit? (circle rating out of 5) Please send your completed form to:1 2 3 4 5 ‘Effective Engagement’ Feedback,not useful extremely useful DSE Community Engagement Network, 310 Commercial Road, Yarram, Victoria, 3971Would you recommend it to others? (tick one) Yes NoWhy or why not?What changes would you suggest we make to the Effective Engagement kit?Are you interested in more information about the Community EngagementCommunity of Practice (CoP)? Yes NoAre you interested in being consulted or involved in the development offuture editions of the Effective Engagement kit? Yes NoYour nameAddressEmailTelephonePreferred method of contact Mail Email Telephone
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