Assessment Front Sheet
IMPORTANT: Your assignment will not be accepted without the FRONT SHEET.
Campus: Sainik Farms Stream: HR
Level: PCL-I Year/Semester 2nd year/III sem
Module Name: HRP Assignment Type: Module Assignment
Student’s Name: Ritambhara Assessor’s Name: R C Jain
Issued on: Reqd. Submission Date:
Actual Submission Date: 4 Jan ‘11 Submitted to : Diwash Thapa
Higher Level Skills
Students are expected to develop the following skills in this assignment:
• Cognitive skills of critical thinking, analysis and synthesis.
• Effective use of communication and information technology for business applications.
• Effective self-management in terms of planning, motivation, initiative and enterprise.
Certificate by the Student:
Plagiarism is a serious College offence.
I certify that this is my own work. I have referenced all relevant materials.
EXPECTED OUTCOMES Assessment Criteria – To achieve each outcome a Achieved
student must demonstrate the ability to : (Y/N)
Assignment Grading Summary (To be filled by the Assessor)
Grades Grade Descriptors
Yes/No (Y / N)
P A Pass grade is achieved by meeting all the requirements defined.
M1 Identify and apply strategies to find appropriate solutions.
M2 Select/design and apply appropriate methods/techniques.
M3 Present and communicate appropriate findings.
D1 Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions.
Ability to anticipate and solve complex tasks in relation to the
D3 Demonstrate convergent, lateral and creative thinking.
OVERALL ASSESSMENT GRADE:
TUTOR’S COMMENTS ON
SUGGESTED MAKE UP PLAN
(applicable in case the student is asked
to re-do the assignment)
REVISED ASSESSMENT GRADE
TUTOR’S COMMENT ON REVISED
WORK (IF ANY)
Date: Assessor’s Name / Signatures:
Question 1: What are the factors that lead to strikes and lockouts at a factory and the impact of such
happenings on the employees and the company?
Strikes & Lockouts:
A strike is a very powerful weapon used by trade unions and other labor associations to get their
demands accepted. It generally involves quitting of work by a group of workers for the purpose of
bringing the pressure on their employer so that their demands get accepted. When workers collectively
cease to work in a particular industry, they are said to be on strike.
According to Industrial Disputes Act 1947, a strike is “a cessation of work by a body of persons
employed in an industry acting in combination; or a concerted refusal of any number of persons who
are or have been so employed to continue to work or to accept employment; or a refusal under a
common understanding of any number of such persons to continue to work or to accept employment”.
This definition throws light on a few aspects of a strike. Firstly, a strike is a referred to as stoppage of
work by a group of workers employed in a particular industry. Secondly, it also includes the refusal of
a number of employees to continue work under their employer.
In a strike, a group of workers agree to stop working to protest against something they think is unfair
where they work. Labors withhold their services in order to pressurize their employment or
government to meet their demands. Demands made by strikers can range from asking for higher
wages or better benefits to seeking changes in the workplace environment. Strikes sometimes occur so
that employers listen more carefully to the workers and address their problems.
A lockout is a work stoppage in which an employer prevents employees from working. It is declared
by employers to put pressure on their workers. This is different from a strike, in which employees
refuse to work. Thus, a lockout is employers’ weapon while a strike is raised on part of employees.
Acc to Industrial Disputes Act 1947, lock-out means the temporary closing of a place of employment
or the suspension of work or the refusal by an employer to continue to employ any number of persons
employed by him.
A lockout may happen for several reasons. When only part of a trade union votes to strike, the purpose
of a lockout is to put pressure on a union by reducing the number of members who are able to work.
When workers are dissuaded from work by stationing certain men at the factory gates, such a step is
known as picketing. If picketing does not involve any violence, it is perfectly legal. Pickets are
workers who are on strike that stand at the entrance to their workplace. It is basically a method of
drawing public attention towards the fact that there is a dispute between the management and
The purpose of picketing is:
Causes of strikes:
Strikes can occur because of the following reasons:
• Dissatisfaction with company policy
• Salary and incentive problems
• Increment not up to the mark
• Wrongful discharge or dismissal of workmen
• Withdrawal of any concession or privilege
• Hours of work and rest intervals
• Leaves with wages and holidays
• Bonus, profit sharing, Provident fund and gratuity
• Retrenchment of workmen and closure of establishment
• Dispute connected with minimum wages
Impact of Strikes & Lockouts on Employer:
1. Stoppage of Production.
2. Increase in the average cost of production since fixed expenses continue to be incurred.
3. Fall in sales and the rate of turnover, leading to a fall in profits.
4. The employer may also be liable to compensate his customers with whom he may have contracted for
5. Loss of prestige and credit, alienation of the labor force, and other non-economic, psychological and
social consequences may also arise.
6. Loss due to destruction ofproperty, personal injury and physical intimidation or inconvenience also
Impact of Strikes & Lockouts on Employee:
1. Loss of income
2. The regular income by way of wages and allowance ceases, and great hardship may be caused to
the worker and his family, many times resulting in deprivation, mal-nutrition, even starvation or
3. Employees also suffer from personal injury, and the psychological and physical consequences of
4. The threat of loss of employment in case of failure to settle the dispute advantageously, or the
threat of reprisal action by employers also exists.
Question 2: What are the HR policies adopted by organizations to prevent labor unrest at the
HR policies adopted by organizations to prevent labor unrest at the workplace are as follows:
Collective Bargaining is a technique by which disputes to conditions of employment, are resolved
amicably, by agreement, rather than by coercion. The dispute is settled peacefully and voluntarily,
although reluctantly, between labour and management. Negotiation: Negotiation is one of the principal
means of settling labour disputes. However, due to lack of trust between the employers and workmen or
their trade unions or inter-rivalry of the trade unions and the employers being in a commanding position,
many a time negotiations fail.
Conciliation & Mediation
Through conciliation and mediation a third party provides assistance with a view to help the parties to
reach an agreement. The conciliator brings the rival parties together discuss with them their differences
and assist them in finding out solution to their problems.
Mediator on the other hand is more actively involved while assisting the parties to find an amicable
settlement. Sometimes he submits his own proposals for settlement of their disputes.
The resort to arbitration procedure may be compulsory or arbitrary. Compulsory arbitration is the
submission of disputes to arbitration without consent or agreement of the parties involved in the dispute
and the award given by the arbitrator being binding on the parties to the dispute. On the other hand in
case of voluntary arbitration, the dispute can be referred for arbitration only if the parties agree to the
If despite efforts of the conciliation officer , no settlement is arrived at between employer and the
workman, The Industrial Dispute a provides for a three tier system of adjudication viz. Labour Courts ,
Industrial Tribunals and National Tribunals under section, 7 , 7A and under section 7B respectively. The
industrial tribunals are empowered to adjudicate on matters specified in both the Second and Third
schedule i.e. both rights and interest disputes. The jurisdiction of the Industrial Tribunal is wider that the
Question 3: Examine the role played by the top management in ensuring peaceful working
Role played by Top Management in ensuring peaceful working environment:
• Management should adopt well defined , precise clear and HRM policies.
• Management should ensure proper implementation of HR policies.
• To ensure that an effective 2 way communication system is in operation to avoid any
• Speedy grievance redressal procedure.
• Recognition to representative Unions
• Ensure joint consultation at various levels.
Question 4: Analyze the role of external parties such as trade unions; political parties etc in
disturbing the working environment in a company.
Role of Trade Union in disturbing the working Environment in a Company
Trade Union is a continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining and improving
the conditions of their working lives.
Trade Unions work constantly for the benefit & welfare of the employees. But it can also create unrest
in a company by following ways:
1. Supporting illegal strikes
2. Damaging employer’s property
3. Raising demands for unnecessary wage increment
4. Involving political parties in strikes.
Role of Political Parties in disturbing the working Environment in a Company
Political parties for their benefit tend to create unrest in the company.
The ways adopted by them are:
1. By providing financial help to the trade unions
2. Supporting illegal strikes
3. Supporting litigations, bandh and picketing