Prepared by DIANE R. SOLVER, RN
1O STAGES IN THE LIFE SPAN
1.Prenatal Period – conception to
2.Infancy- divided into two periods
a.Partunatal period- from birth to
cutting of the umbilical cord
b.Neonatal period (newborn)- from
the cutting of the umbilical cord to
the end of the second week (28
4. Early Childhood – two to six years
5. Late childhood- six to ten to twelve
6. Puberty or pre-adolescence- ten to
twelve to thirteen or fourteen years
7. Adolescence- thirteen or fourteen to
8. Early adulthood- eighteen to forty years
9. Middle Age- forty to sixty years
10. Old age or senescence- sixty years to
The prenatal period is ten lunar
months of 28 days in length or nine
Average length of the prenatal period:
38 weeks or 266 days
70 % of babies: 36 to 40 weeks (252 to
GESTATION- Gestation is the period of
time between conception and birth.
During this time, the baby grows and
develops inside the mother's womb.
Gestational age is the common term
used during pregnancy to describe how
far along the pregnancy is. It is
measured in weeks, from the first day of
the woman's last menstrual cycle to the
current date. A normal pregnancy can
range from 38 to 42 weeks.
3 Stages of Prenatal Development
(fertilization to two weeks). The germinal
stage is the prenatal, developmental
stage that begins at fertilization and
lasts through the second week. During
this time, the fertilized egg/ovum (now
called a zygote, and consists of a single
cell) makes it way down the fallopian
tube, and begins to have cell
Eventually, the single celled zygote
becomes a multi celled ball that
attaches itself to the wall of the
uterus around the end of the
second week, which constitutes
the beginning of the embryonic
Layers of Blastocyst
1. Ectoderm (upper layer) – will become
the outer layer of skin, the nails, the hair,
the teeth, the sensory organs, and the
nervous system, including the brain and
the spinal cord.
2. Mesoderm (middle layer)- inner layer
of skin, muscles, skeleton and bone
marrow, heart and blood corpuscles,
blood vessels, kidneys and gonads.
3. Endoderm (inner layer) – will
develop the linings of nearly all of the
internal organs, including those of the
lungs, trachea and pharynx, and
digestive tract including the pancreas
and the liver.
Nearly all defects and three-quarters of all
spontaneous abortions occur during the
critical first trimester of pregnancy.
Important dangers include improper
maternal nutrition, drug intake by the
mother, incompatibility of blood type
with the mother’s blood type, medical x-
rays, and external environmental
b. THE EMBRYONIC STAGE- (two to 8-
12 weeks). During this stage, the major
body systems (respiratory, alimentary,
nervous) and organs develop. Because
of the rapid growth and development in
this stage, the embryo is most
vulnerable to prenatal environmental
influences. Almost all the
developmental birth defects (cleft
palate, incomplete or missing limbs,
blindness, deafness) occur during the
first trimester of pregnancy.
The most severely defective embryos
usually do not survive beyond this time
and are aborted spontaneously.
Spontaneous abortion/miscarriage- is
the expulsion from the uterus of a
conceptus that could not have survived
outside the womb.
-refers to the loss of pregnancy before 20
weeks of gestation.
Causes of Spontaneous
Most common cause is abnormal fetal
formation, due either to a teratogenic
factor (radiation, maternal infections,
chemicals, and drugs) or to a
Infection in a woman (e.g, rubella,
Ingestion of teratogenic drugs, alcohol.
4-6 Weeks Gestational Age
The lungs are beginning to form,
however; the major portion of the lung
development is yet to occur.
Brain activity can be recorded.
Eyes are present, but no eyelids yet.
The heart appears as a prominent
bulge on the anterior surface.
Structures that will become arms and
legs, called limb buds, begin to appear.
Organogenesis is complete.
Elbows are visible.
Facial features - the eyes, nose, lips,
and tongue - continue to develop.
The outer ears begin to take shape.
The hands and feet have fingers and
toes, but might still be webbed.
Organs begin to be controlled by the
The length is about 1/2 to 3/4 inch.
The developing unborn child is now
called a fetus, rather than an embryo.
The head is half the length of the body.
The arms and legs are long and thin.
Red blood cells are produced.
The weight is less than ½ of an ounce.
The length is about 1 1/4 to 1 3/4 inches
Nail beds are forming on fingers and
Some reflexes, such as babinsky
reflex, are present.
Tooth buds are present.
Heartbeat is audible through
All body parts and organs are
The hands can make a fist.
The weight is about 1½ ounce.
The length is about 2 to 3 inches.
The skin is almost transparent.
The mouth makes sucking motions.
Amniotic fluid is swallowed.
The arms are in proportion to the
The liver and pancreas are starting to
The weight is about 2 ounces.
The length is about 3 to 4 inches.
Fetal heart sounds are audible with an
Lanugo (the fine downy hair on the
back and arms of the newborns, which
apparently serves as a source of
insulation for body heat) is well formed.
Sex can be determined via ultrasound.
The head and body become
The weight is approximately 3.9
The length is about 4 to 5 inches.
Spontaneous fetal movements can be
sensed by the mother.
Eyebrows and lashes appear.
Hearing can be demonstrated by
response to sudden sound.
Pupil are capable of reacting to light.
Time of rapid brain growth.
The unborn child can turn its entire body
side to side and front to back.
The weight is about 11 ounces.
The length is about 6 to 7 inches.
Unique footprints and fingerprints are
The skin becomes less transparent as
fat begins to deposit.
Actions such as hiccupping, squinting,
smiling, and frowning might be seen
Surviving premature babies might have
severe disabilities and require long-term
Meconium is present as far as the
The weight is about 1 to 1 1/2 pounds.
The length is about 8 to 9 inches.
Another person can hear a heartbeat
by listening to the pregnant woman's
Lung alveoli begin to mature, and
surfactant can be demonstrated in
There is a good chance of survival (with
intensive care treatment) if birth occurs.
The weight is about 2 to 2 1/4 pounds.
The length is about 10 to 13 inches.
The lungs are still developing.
Body temperature is partially under
The skin is thicker, with more color.
There is a good chance of long-term
survival and the risk of long-term
disability is low.
Birth position may be assumed.
The weight is about 3 to 4 pounds.
The length is about 16 to 17 inches.
Fine hair begins to disappear.
Body fat has increased.
The fingernails reach the end of the
Most babies turn into a vertex or head
down presentation during this month.
The weight is about 5 to 6 pounds.
The length is about 16 to 19 inches.
A newborn is considered full-term at 38
weeks. Small breast buds are present
on both sexes.
The unborn child can grasp firmly.
The unborn child turns toward a light
The average weight is greater than 6
The length is about 19 to 21 inches.
BIRTH OCCURS IN 3 STAGES:
1.First stage: Dilation of the cervix
2.Second stage: Descent and
emergence of the baby
3.Third stage: Expulsion of the
placenta and the umbilical cord.
STAGES OF LABOR
Latent phase: begins at the onset of
regularly perceived uterine contractions
and ends when rapid cervical dilation
begins. Contraction during this phase are
mild and short, lasting 20-40seconds.
Cervical effacement occurs, and the cervix
dilates from 0- 3 cm. The phase lasts
approximately 6 hours in a nullipara and
4.5 hours in a multipara.
Active phase: cervical dilation occurs
more rapidly, increasing from 4 to 7 cm.
Contractions grow stronger, lasting 40 to
60 seconds, and occur approximately
every 3-5 minutes. This phase lasts
approximately3 hours in a nullipara and
2 hours in a multipara. Show (increased
in vaginal secretions) and perhaps
spontaneous rupture of the membranes
may occur during this time.
Transition phase- Contractions reach
their peak of intensity, occurring every
2 to 3 minutes with a duration of 60 to
90 seconds and causing maximum
dilatation of 8 to 10 cm. During this
phase a woman may experience
intense discomfort, so strong that it is
accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
A woman may also experience a
feeling of loss of control, anxiety, panic
The second stage involves the actual delivery
of the baby. This expulsion stage is quiet
variable and can last anywhere from 2 to 60
minutes or more. As the fetal head touches
the internal side of the perineum, the
perineum begins to bulge. In the average
delivery, the baby’s head appears first, an
event referred to as crowning. The rest of the
body soon follows.
The third stage of labor, the placental stage,
begins with the birth of the infant and ends
with the delivery of the placenta. During this
stage, mild contractions continue for some
time. They help decrease the blood flow to
the uterus and reduce the uterus to normal
The Lamaze Method
Developed by Dr. Ferdinand Lamaze
It includes instruction in anatomy and
physiology to remove fear of the unknown;
training in respiration techniques such as
(rapid breathing and panting) to ease pain at
each stage of labor; and cognitive
restructuring through focusing the eyes on
something or sucking on ice, to help the
woman concentrate on sensations other than
The Leboyer Method
Frederick Leboyer, author of Birth Without
Violence, encourages the mothers to take up
Indian chanting and thus to transform
pregnancy and childbirth into a spiritual
experience. Leboyer is suggesting that the
mother breath in deeply and slowly from the
belly, chanting a loud pure sound on the
outbreath and with the contraction; and then
wait at the end of the outbreath for the
contraction to be over, before breathing in
The Bradley Method
Bradley method feel that there is danger in
current obstetrical procedures. They disavow
the safety sonograms, episiotomy, and
regional anesthesia. It is stressed that
women are capable of and entitled to a birth
without drugs or medical interventions. They
encourage the use of midwives rather than
“technical oriented” doctors. Parents should
take the responsibility for the birth place,
procedures, and emergency back-up.
It teaches conditioning exercises and muscle
relaxation in labor.
The Kitzinger Method
It uses mental imagery to enhance relaxation.
The use of touch, massage and visualization
helps the woman flow with the contraction
rather than ignore or breath it away. The
mother is encouraged to labor in any position
that is comfortable for her. Pushing is done
when the body tells you. Between pushes,
short breaths are taken.
The Gamper Method
The key is the self-determination and
confidence instilled by instructors in the
ability to work and cooperate with the natural
forces of childbirth. The emphasis is on the
contraction, rather than away from the
contraction. A normal, natural rate of deep
abdominal breathing is taught to be able to
help the woman work with the contraction.
The Simskin Method
The Simskin approach to childbirth works with
the strengths of the couple giving birth. They
are encourage to use whatever means of
breathing and style which helps them as
The Noble Method
It involves relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles
and learning ways to relax them. Her gentle
pushing or breathing the baby out technique
is now incorporated in many classes. Her
approach emphasizes women listening to
The Odent Method
Odent allowed his laboring mothers to submerge
in a pool of water. This appears to help some
women ease labor pain. When some of the
women were reluctant to leave at the time of
delivery, they were delivered submerged,
without drowning the baby since the baby has
lived in fluid for nine months.
The period of infancy covers approximately the
first two weeks of life- the time needed for the
newborn to adjust to the new environment
outside the mothers body. This period is
divided into two:
a.Period of the partunate - from birth up to the
cutting and tying of the umbilical cord.
b.Period of the neonate – from the cutting and
tying of the umbilical cord to the end of the