Technology Expectations in Education
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Technology Expectations in Education

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Technology Expectations in Education Technology Expectations in Education Presentation Transcript

  • Technology Expectations in Education Doug Adams ALTEC
  •  
  • “Handouts”
    • http://dadams-altec.wetpaint.com/
    • http://sites.google.com/a/altec.org/student-expectations/
  • The Millennial Generation
    • “ Millennials”
    • “ Digital Natives”
    • “ N-Gen”, “Generation Next”
    • Oyayubizoku ( 親指族 ) = “Thumb Tribe”
      • Young Japanese have become so adept at their phones — manipulating a set of cursor keys or a button-sized joystick by thumb — that some people refer to a new ' thumb culture '. ( The Daily Telegraph , August 7, 2000)
    • “ Kids say e-mail is, like, sooooo dead.” – CNET News , July 18, 2007
  • Rapid Rate of Change
    • New technologies are creating new methods of communication, allowing for long-distance interaction and even collaboration.
    • What will be the effect on education?
  • From Scientific American, July, 1903
    • “ The letter of a century ago still has a certain literary value. Nowadays we only ‘correspond’ or we ‘beg to state.’ It still remains for our children to discard the forms of polite address which have come down to us. The letter of the future will be a colorless communication of telegraphic brevity. ”
  • Where does innovation come from?
    • Consumers!
    • Current consumer electronics show us the technology that our children will be comfortable with and expect from their educational experiences
  • Characteristics of the Millennials
    • Active
    • Multi-tasking
    • Non-linear thinking
    • Ubiquity
    • Technical Fluency
    • Expectations of Feedback
    • Individualization
    • Risk-takers
    • Information sifting
  • 21 st Century Skills
  • 21 st Century Skills
    • Core Subjects and 21 st Century Themes
      • Math, Language Arts, Science, Social Studies
      • Global Awareness and Civic Literacy
      • Economic and Business Literacy
      • Health Literacy
    • Learning and Innovation Skills
      • Creativity
      • Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
      • Communication and Collaboration
  • 21 st Century Skills
    • Information Media and Technology Skills
      • Information and Media Literacy
      • Communication and Technology Literacy
    • Life and Career Skills
      • Flexibility and Adaptability
      • Initiative, Productivity, and Self-direction
      • Social Skills
      • Leadership, Accountability and Responsibility
  • Visual Ranking and 21 st Century Skills
    • http://educate.intel.com/en/ThinkingTools/VisualRanking/
    • Click Student Log-In
    • Sign In
      • [email_address]
      • Team ID
      • Team Password
  • Visual Ranking and 21 st Century Skills
    • In groups, sort the list from most important (top) to least important (bottom)
    • For the top three items , double click and explain why you ranked them as most important
    • For the bottom two items , double click and explain why you ranked them as least important
  • Technologies to watch
    • So what will our students in the coming years expect from schools?
    • Ubiquitous computing
    • Continuous, broadband access
    • Creating new content, personal control
    • Interactive virtual environments
  • Ubiquitous computing
    • Computing anytime, anywhere
      • Handheld computers
      • Wireless connections
      • Instant communications
      • Seamless interactivity
    • For Millennials, the cell phone is the REAL “personal computer”
      • In Japan, teen computer use has dropped dramatically
  • Handheld computers
    • More and more students use a portable computing device in their everyday lives
    • Cell phones are becoming more powerful and flexible.
      • Chat, text messaging, group calls
      • Multimedia playback
      • Digital recording (audio, still pictures, video)
      • Calendar and planner
      • Web browsing and interaction
  • Broadband Access
    • Consumer market
      • Streaming video
      • CD quality on-demand music
      • File sharing
      • Online games
      • Web 2.0 applications
    Millennial students will have greater expectations for use of broadband access in schools
  • Creating New Content (Web 2.0)
    • Users of the Web create information and have control over it
      • Wikis, Blogs, Podcasting, Video
    • The Web becomes truly interactive as different sites link data
      • Aggregators/Portals – IM, Twitter, RSS
      • Social Bookmarking, “Folksonomies”
      • Mashups
      • Social Networking – Facebook, MySpace
  • Web 2.0 Storytelling Project
    • Workshop presented by blogger Alan Levine
      • Outline a story idea
      • Find some media
      • Pick a tool to build the story
    • 50 Ways to Tell the Dominoe Story
  • Wikis
    • Wikis are Web pages that are designed to be edited by the readers 
    •  
    • pbWiki: http://www.pbWiki.com
    • Wet Paint: http://WetPaint.com
    • Wiki Spaces: http://Wikispaces.com
    • Compare wikis with Wikimatrix http://www.wikimatrix.org/
    • Using Wikis in Education  http:// wikisineducation.wetpaint.com /
    • My Wiki http://dadams- altec.wetpaint.com
    •  
  • Wiki Examples
    • Science:
    • http://room2-wiki6.wikispaces.com/
    • Language Arts: Choose Your Path Story:
    • http://terrythetennisball.wikispaces.com/
    • Language Arts: Collaborative Stories:
    • http://room4-wiki.wikispaces.com/
    • Social Studies: Responsibilities:
    • http:// responsibilities.wikispaces.com /
  • Blogs
    • Blogs (short for “weblogs”) are online journals that encourage collaboration
    • Blogger: www.blogger.com    (Remove the Next Blog Bar: http://lowendmac.com/lab/06/0328.html )
    • Blogmeister: http:// classblogmeister.com/index.php
    • Typepad: http:// www.typepad.com /
    • ePals: http:// www.epals.com/about/tour/schoolblog.tpl
    • Compare blogging tools: http://blog-services- review.toptenreviews.com /
  • Blog Examples
    • Blogging overview: http://blog- study.blogspot.com /
    • David Warlick "2¢ Worth": http://davidwarlick.com/2cents/
    • Wesley Fryer "Moving at the Speek of Creativity": http://www.speedofcreativity.org/
    • Kathy Cassidy: http://classblogmeister.com/blog.php?blogger_id=1337
    • Bay Area Writing Project: http://www.bayareawritingproject.org/bawp41/
    • Students and Teacher Interaction: http://classblogmeister.com/blog.php?blogger_id=41233
    • Fourth Grade in NYC: http://blogs.dalton.org/edinger/
    • Student book on blogging (older now, but still good): http://www2.gsu.edu/~coeapd/abc/index.html
    • THE Classroom blogger, CoolCat: http:// coolcatteacher.blogspot.com /
  • Collaborative Documents
    • Word processing, spreadsheets, presentations stored online
    • Google Docs http:// docs.google.com /
    • Google Apps http://www.google.com/a/
    • This page in Google Apps http:// sites.google.com/a/altec.org/student -expectations/
    • Zoho http:// www.zoho.com
    • Slideshare http:// www.slideshare.net /
  • Aggregators and Portals
    • Web sites that gather posts and information from other sites into one convenient location (using a “Web feed” such as RSS or ATOM)
    • MyYahoo http:// my.yahoo.com
    • iGoogle http:// www.google.com/ig
    • Google Reader http:// www.google.com /reader
    • Bloglines  http:// www.bloglines.com /
    • 4Teachers.org Dashboard http://4teachersblog.blogspot.com
  • Social Bookmarking
    • Bookmarks are stored remotely using a service, accessible from any computer.
    •   
    • Delicious http:// del.icio.us
    • Stumble Upon http://www.stumbleupon.com/
    • Digg http:// digg.com
    • Slashdot http:// slashdot.org
  • Video Sharing
    • YouTube http://www.youtube.com
    • YouTube’s ALTEC channel http:// www.youtube.com/altecvideos
    • TeacherTube http://teachertube.com
    • Help with creating video: Kidsvid http:// kidsvid.altec.org /
  • Mashups
    • Combining content and tools from multiple sites to present information in a new way.
    • 10x10: Words and Pictures that Define the Time http://www.tenbyten.org/10x10.html
    • ZipSkinny http:// zipskinny.com /
    • Flickrvision http:// flickrvision.com /
    • Earth Album http://www.earthalbum.com/
    • Visited States http:// douweosinga.com/projects/visitedstates
    • Gapminder http:// www.gapminder.org /world
  • Crowdsourcing
    • Using people to perform tasks computers can’t
    • CAPTCHA - differentiating between humans and computers http:// www.captcha.net /
    • ESP - http:// www.espgame.org /
    • Peekaboom - http:// www.peekaboom.org /
    • Phetch - http:// www.peekaboom.org/phetch /
    • Flickr Library of Congress - http:// www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress /
    • Amazon Askville - http://askville.amazon.com/Index.do
    • Swarmsketch - http:// swarmsketch.com /
    • Crowdsourced journalism
  • Students retain… 90% of what they learn when they teach someone else 5% of what they’ve learned from a lecture 10% of what they’ve learned from reading 20% of what they’ve learned from audio-visual presentation 30% of what they learn from a demonstration 50% of what they learn when engaged in a discussion 75% of what they learn by doing Source: NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science
  • Concerns with Web 2.0
    • Assessment
      • Clear, complete rubrics
      • Student participate in setting criteria
      • Assess the right things
    • Resistance by parents, administration
    • Time
    • Accessibility
      • Wes Fryer: Oklahoma more restrictive than China
      • Taylor the Teacher: No blogs allowed
  • Attitudes in the Millennial World
    • “ Our knowledge comes from the intelligence of the mob . There are websites that let us view user ratings on news , bookmarks , urban definitions , wines , burritos , beers , and videos . I want to have that same experience when searching for my first home. Show me what the community thinks. Give me the data the way I am used to receiving it…. ”
    • -- Beam Me Up Jimmy - A Look At Tomorrow's 1st Time Home Buyer
    • http:// realestatetomato.typepad.com
  • But I don’t believe that people will want to live in a world that is so… VIRTUAL
    • From Scientific American, Aug, 1902:
    [C]hildren cope more easily with the new necessities of life, and new arrangements which perplexed their parents become habits easily borne. Thus we may imagine future generations perfectly calm among a hundred telephones and sleeping sweetly while airships whizz among countless electric wires over their heads and a perpetual night traffic of motor cars hurtles past their bedroom windows. As yet, our nervous systems are not so callous.
  • Differentiated Instruction
    • Adapting educational activities and instructional approaches to meet the needs of all students within a single classroom
    • Students vary in a number of ways
      • Background Knowledge/Readiness
      • Language Skills
      • Learning Styles/Preferences
      • Interests
      • more?
  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Differentiated Instruction
    • Content
      • Student selection of topics/interests
      • Compacting the curriculum
      • Accelerated or remedial activities
    • Example: ThinkTank ( http://thinktank.4teachers.org )
  • Differentiated Instruction
    • Process
      • Vary the expectations and requirements
      • Allow students to participate in setting goals
      • Combine group work with individual activities
    • Example: RubiStar and PBL Checklists
    • ( http://rubistar.4teachers.org/ )
    • ( http://pblchecklist.4teachers.org/ )
  • Differentiated Instruction
    • Product
      • Allow students to demonstrate knowledge in a variety of ways
      • Vary performance expectations
    • Example: KidsVid and Web Poster Wizard
    • ( http:// kidsvid.altec.org / )
    • ( http://poster.4teachers.org/ )
  • Collaborative Research with NoteStar
    • Students organize topics, assign topics to group members
    • Take notes as they do research, right in the browser window
    • Track source material and citations
    • Organize notes to prepare for writing
    http://notestar.4teachers.org
  • Gaming in Education
    • Do not, my friend, keep children to their studies by compulsion, but by play -- Plato, Republic.
    • Games have been widely used in education throughout history
      • Athletics
      • Debates
      • Spelling bees
      • Classroom Jeopardy
    • Most common use is in assessment
  • Gaming in Education
    • The 1970s saw a dramatic increase in the use of games for educational purposes
      • "As the true character of gaming as a unique communication form becomes clear, its use… will become pervasive” Richard Duke (1974), The Future’s Language
    • In the 1980s there was a focus on basic skill development – Reader Rabbit & Math Blaster
  • Games and Virtual Worlds
    • Video games represent a significant medium, on par with film and television
      • Spider-Man 3 opening day - $60 million
      • Halo 3 opening day - $170 million
    • Computer-based games are far more likely to appeal to females
      • More interactive than console games
      • Puzzles, word games, 3D Virtual worlds
  • Simulations
    • Simulation: a reproduction or representation of reality
    • Some simulations can be games
      • Sim City
      • Zoo Tycoon
      • “ Serious games ”
    • Some simulations may not be games
      • Economic models
      • Cinematic re-enactments
      • Anatomical or geographical exploration
    • Incidental Learning
  • How Games Teach
    • Activity – the game depends on learner not being passive
    • Engagement – longer time on task, greater involvement, rewards
    • X2: Exploration and Experimentation – support creativity, scientific thinking, opportunity for (relatively consequence free) failure
  • How Games Teach
    • Frequent achievement – smaller tasks with individual rewards, motivating
    • Expanding competence – scaffolding and breadcrumbs
    • No right answer
    • Working within a set of rules
    • Language – signs, symbols, slang all promote language skills. Game literacy = world literacy
  • How Games Teach
    • Social nature
    • Identity and empathy – students identify with characters and situations
    • Simulation – students can explore situations that are otherwise impossible
    • Practice – drill and repetition
  • How Games Teach
    • Application – learn and apply new knowledge
    • Context – relationship between objectives and game content
    • Feedback cycle – analysis > decision > feedback > analysis
  • How Games Teach
    • Multimodal – text, images, sounds, symbols, actions
    • Reflection – emphasis on thinking, problem solving rather than “twitch”
    • Mastery – Experienced players teach new players, experts become mentors
    • Challenge – game players seek out difficult or challenging tasks
  • Incidental Learning
    • Systems-based reasoning - reasoning about some phenomenon in terms of a system
    • Understanding feedback - understands relationships among system components
    • Model-based reasoning - evokes a model to understand some system in the virtual world
    • Model-testing & prediction - compares model’s predictions to actual observations
    • Mathematical modeling - proposes mathematical model to describe relationships in system
    • Mathematical computation - explicates some mathematical computation not given by game
    • -- Constance Steinkuehler , UW-M, 2007
  • Club Penguin
  • Limitations of Games
    • Content
      • Alignment with standards
      • Inaccurate information (most games aren’t designed to be “educational” at all!)
      • Fidelity of simulation
    • Transfer of skills
      • Content skills
      • Thinking skills
      • Pedagogical skills
  • Therapeutic Applications of Virtual Environments
    • Psychological
      • Phobias ( SpiderWorld , flying, speaking)
      • Sports psychology
      • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
    • Physiological
      • Distraction (exercise, games, ChocolateWorld)
      • Pain relief ( SnowWorld )
  • Virtual worlds can be:
    • Immersive
    • Interactive
    • Persistent
    • Compelling
  • Immersive
    • Three-dimensional world, often with a first-person view
    • Modeling of realistic environments
      • Terrain
      • Weather
      • Passage of time (night/day, food)
      • Surface modeling
    • Modeling of imaginary or impossible environments
  • Interactive
    • More than 500,000 players at any given time…
    • Wide variety of communication channels
      • Person to person
      • Group chat
      • Broadcast messages
      • Interact with computer-controlled characters
  • Persistent
    • Player characters retain what they earn from one session to another
    • Some games allow substantial environmental changes driven by players
    • In all games, the world continues whether YOU are logged in or not.
  • Compelling
    • Typical player spends 22 hours per week in the game (Yee)
      • Players described the game as an “addiction”
      • “ NeverRest” or “World of Warcrack”
    • 40% say they spend more time in the world than they do at work (Castranova)
    • 25% are online for more than 40 hours per week (Haran, BBC News)
    • 25% report they would spend all of their time in the world, if they could (Yee)
  • Fine, but how is it educational?
    • Don’t we want all of our educational experiences to be:
      • Immersive
      • Interactive
      • Persistent
      • Compelling
    • What would you do with your students if you could visit a virtual world ?
  • Historical visits
    • Explore Colonial Williamsburg and see what life was like at the time of the American Revolution
  • Historical visits
    • Learn about pyramids by seeing them as they were being constructed
                                   
  • Other virtual exploration
    • Difficult or expensive
      • Space , ocean, volcano
      • International visits
    • Microscopic or invasive
      • Explore an anthill
      • Inside a cell
    • Futuristic or imaginary
      • Alice in Wonderland
      • Martian colony
  • Interact with ‘bots
    • The Guide says, “Hello, Doug. Welcome to the Louvre museum. What would you like to [see]?”
    • You say, “I want to see the Mona Lisa.”
    • The Guide says, “Go to the left and through the arch to see the work of [Leonardo da Vinci], including the [Mona Lisa]”
    • You say, “Who is Leonardo da Vinci?”
    • The Guide says, “Leonardo da Vinci was an artist and engineer born in [Florence] in 1452. His work epitomized the [Renaissance]. His best known works…”
  • Interact with other users
    • Chat window
      • Could support simultaneous translation
    • Voice
      • Currently, supports voice to voice
      • Could support voice to text eventually
  • Virtual exploration
    • “Field trip” can can have a negative connotation for many of us
    • Applications
      • Interactive two-way video (live)
      • Virtual tours (canned)
      • Simulations
    • Telescopes in Education
      • http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov/tie/index.html
  • Other virtual exploration
    • Difficult or expensive
      • Space , ocean, volcano
      • International visits
    • Microscopic or invasive
      • Explore an anthill
      • Inside a cell
    • Futuristic or imaginary
      • Alice in Wonderland
      • Martian colony
  • So, when will we see all this stuff in schools?
    • Some of it we can see now
    • The rest, we will see it become more and more common in schools
      • When it is in the home
      • When the users expect it
      • Probably not long after it becomes mainstream
  • Economics in Virtual Worlds
    • Thousands of buy and sell transactions occur daily, as players trade items that their characters acquire within the game
      • Computer to Player, Player to Computer
      • Player to player
        • In game
        • IRL (in real life) – http://www.playerauctions.com
    • Economic transactions impact on real world
    • Real economic and social models can be explored
  • City of Heroes Discussion Topics 7/20/07
    • http://boards.cityofheroes.com/
    • Speculative markets
    • Variants on auction strategies
    • Market functions and mechanics
    • Arbitrage
    • “Trading transparency”
  • Protea's Guide to Market Participation
    • “ The instant resolution nature of the consignment house has an interesting effect on steady-state properties of the market. Let’s suppose for a moment that the system is seeded with a large number of random entries for both bids and postings: (b1 b2 … bN) and (p1 p2 … pN) The subscripts here denote increasing denominations of [currency], i.e. both the bids and postings are sorted within their own pools. As long as any bids are higher than any postings, the system will resolve transactions and remove those bids and postings from play. If there are any bids and postings left, which we would expect in many instances, there are by definition two domains in the market afterwards: (b1 b2 … bM) ... (pM+1 pM+2 … pN) That is, the highest remaining bid is lower than the lowest remaining posting. In other words, these two domains – known as the bid pool and the sell pool - are disjoint. They have in a very tangible sense become two separate markets.”
  • Virtual Markets in Education
    • Virtual Markets allow users to trade using virtual money – no real cash
    • As people invest in a particular “property”, the price goes up, as demand goes down, so does price.
    • Virtual Stock Exchange
    • Hollywood Stock Exchange
    • Inkling – allows anyone to create their own market