Project-Based Learning - USD 340


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Uploaded as part of the PBL workshop at Jefferson West USD 340 on November 17, 2009

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Project-Based Learning - USD 340

  1. 1. Project-Based Learning, Higher-Order Thinking, and Student-Centered Instruction Doug Adams ALTEC [email_address]
  2. 2. First activity! <ul><li>As you are watching the movie clip, write questions you might ask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On a test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To the characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To the actors/writers/producer </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956)
  4. 4. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy (2001) (Anderson & Krathwohl et al , eds., 2001) “ Knowledge” “ Comprehension” “ Synthesis”
  5. 5. Mind-set Verbs Apply: Do, use, organize, collect, operate, summarize, practice, solve, try Remember: State, show, list, tally, define, identify, repeat, recall, label, quote Understand: Restate, reword, describe, illustrate, review, discuss, explain (in your own words) Create: Develop, invent, extend, hypothesize, compose Evaluate: Judge, interpret, justify, assess, weigh, appraise, criticize Analyze: Extract, deduce, investigate, fill in, combine, disassemble,
  6. 6. Organizing Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>Level 3: High </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating something unique (to the learner) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making judgments, choices, decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking down concepts into component parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2: Intermediate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using information, skills, and concepts in new situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 1: Low </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding and interpreting information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquiring and remembering new information </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Supporting Higher-Order Thinking <ul><li>It is estimated that 90% of all test questions asked in the US are of “Low level” - knowledge and comprehension (Wilen, W.W., 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Low level” doesn’t mean easy: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Write an essay explaining the decline and fall of the Roman Empire incorporating at least five of the seven causes discussed in class from the writings of Gibbon and Toynbee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ High level” doesn’t mean hard: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which movie did you like more, WALL-E or Cars ? Why? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Complex Thinking Strategies <ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Directed Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective Thinking </li></ul>
  9. 9. Complex Thinking Strategies <ul><li>Identify some complex thinking strategies being used in this video </li></ul>
  10. 10. Curriculum-Framing Questions <ul><li>Guide a unit of study and include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Questions </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Essential Questions <ul><ul><li>Are broad, open-ended questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address big ideas and enduring concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often cross disciplines and help students see how subjects are related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why is math important to my life? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does conflict produce change? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What lessons can be learned by running a city? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Unit Questions <ul><ul><li>Are open-ended questions that tie directly to a project or unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help students demonstrate the scope of their understanding of a subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How important is measurement in building a home? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How are changes in economics a factor in war? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the story, Charlotte’s Web , how do the animals’ different abilities help Wilbur survive and succeed? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does stress on the environment impact biology? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Content Questions <ul><ul><li>Are fact-based, concrete questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a narrow set of correct answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often relate to definitions, identifications, and general recall of information (example: questions found on a test) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do you find the values of unknowns in equations? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is a fable? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the main character in To Kill a Mockingbird ? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How are volcanoes made? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it cold in the winter when the sun is shining? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Project-Based Learning (PBL) <ul><li>“ I hear and I forget. </li></ul><ul><li>I see and I remember. </li></ul><ul><li>I do and I understand . ” </li></ul><ul><li>-- (Confucius) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why Projects? <ul><li>To learn collaboration, work in teams . </li></ul><ul><li>To learn critical thinking, take on problems . </li></ul><ul><li>To learn oral communication, present . </li></ul><ul><li>To learn written communication, write . </li></ul><ul><li>To learn technology, use technology . </li></ul><ul><li>To develop citizenship, take on civic issues . </li></ul><ul><li>To learn about careers, do internships . </li></ul><ul><li>To learn content, do all of the above . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Project-Based Learning <ul><li>Hands-on, student-centered activity in which students demonstrate understanding through performance/creation </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term </li></ul><ul><li>Non-traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Personalized </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery of material in context </li></ul><ul><li>http:// /project-learning-overview-video </li></ul>
  17. 17. Benefits of PBL <ul><li>Increased motivation and engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Increased application and retention </li></ul><ul><li>Better transfer of skills </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century Skills: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connects school to real world </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple assessment opportunities </li></ul>
  18. 18. Challenges with PBL <ul><li>Designing projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessing projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability and validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubrics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistance from establishment </li></ul>
  19. 19. Examples <ul><li>Edutopia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrel of Worms ( http:// -park ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarch Butterflies ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Steps to Creating a Project <ul><li>Develop an idea </li></ul><ul><li>Decide goals </li></ul><ul><li>Define the knowledge to be demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>Decide how students can demonstrate that knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Create a schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Create an assessment plan </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor project and evaluate </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1) Develop an idea <ul><li>Start with a driving question – Essential or Unit question, NOT Content </li></ul><ul><li>Be authentic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use real-world problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie to community or school life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students to have an impact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be current </li></ul><ul><li>Involve students </li></ul><ul><li>Use what you know </li></ul>
  22. 22. Driving Question <ul><li>Shift from “right answer” to complex, local, active questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of healthy soil? </li></ul><ul><li>vs </li></ul><ul><li>Is our soil healthy enough to support a vegetable garden? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Driving Question <ul><li>Shift from abstract to concrete: </li></ul><ul><li>How do architects use geometry? </li></ul><ul><li>vs </li></ul><ul><li>How can we design a building with the most number of apartments with the given specifications? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Driving Question <ul><li>Shift from “too big” to answerable: </li></ul><ul><li>How has technology affected history? </li></ul><ul><li>vs </li></ul><ul><li>Does technology make war more or less humane? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Driving Question <ul><li>Shift from “teacher talk” to student-friendly: </li></ul><ul><li>How does the author of Bleak House use voice and characterization to reflect on his childhood and the social climate? </li></ul><ul><li>vs </li></ul><ul><li>How do our childhood memories affect how we see the world? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Activity <ul><li>Look at an existing unit that you enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with a driving question to use as inspiration for a project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can work solo or teamed (no more than 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving question should reflect input from all </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 2) Decide goals <ul><li>Core content and skills to be assessed </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century skills to be assessed </li></ul><ul><li>Additional content to be encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>What standards will be addressed? </li></ul>
  28. 28. 3) Make a plan <ul><li>Involve students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we answer this question? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can we do to support the inquiry? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look at available resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary sources online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Primary Source Material <ul><li>Engage Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie to prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make it personal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promote Inquiry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make speculations (creator, purpose, audience) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare to other primary and secondary sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk about other places to find primary sources </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Primary Source Example <ul><li>Library of Congress ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Memory Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Digital Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas – Legislation Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veteran’s history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher Resources </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. More Primary Sources <ul><li>Similar resources exist at many high-level government sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geology & Geography ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space and Physics ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceanography & Meteorology ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health & Medicine ( & ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smithsonian Museums ( http:// ) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Project-Based Learning Resources <ul><li>Buck Institute for Education (BIE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edutopia </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ePals </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>iEARN (International Education and Resource Network) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. 3) Create a schedule <ul><li>What time can be allotted to the project? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with “contact hours” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many days? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular schedule or ad hoc? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What events have a fixed time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will multiple classrooms be involved? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help students budget time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve students in creating timeline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed benchmarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help with time management </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Activity <ul><li>In groups, fill in more of the Project Planning Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content and skills to be assessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content and skills to be encouraged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorm resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about time limits and benchmarks </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. 4) Create an assessment plan <ul><li>Involve students in planning </li></ul><ul><li>Rubrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess identified skills from goals </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for differentiation </li></ul>
  36. 36. Activity <ul><li>Complete Project Planning Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe final project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the audience? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What rubrics will you need to create? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What other assessments will you need? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will you need to accommodate through differentiation? </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. 5) Monitor and evaluate <ul><li>Be a mentor, not a director </li></ul><ul><li>Help students stick to the timeline </li></ul><ul><li>Remind students of rubrics </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect often </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss what worked and what didn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for changes </li></ul><ul><li>Share ideas for new projects </li></ul>
  38. 38. Differentiated Instruction & Technology <ul><li>Adapting educational activities and instructional approaches to meet the needs of all students within a single classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Students vary in many ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Background Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Language Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul><ul><li>more? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Differentiated Instruction
  40. 40. Differentiation - Content <ul><li>Student selection of topics/interests </li></ul><ul><li>Compacting the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated or remedial activities </li></ul><ul><li>Example: ThinkTank ( ) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Differentiation - Process <ul><li>Vary the expectations and requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Allow students to participate in setting goals </li></ul><ul><li>Combine group work with individual activities </li></ul><ul><li>Example: RubiStar and PBL Checklists </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Differentiation - Product <ul><li>Allow students to demonstrate knowledge in a variety of ways </li></ul><ul><li>Vary performance expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Example: KidsVid and Web Poster Wizard </li></ul><ul><li>( http:// / ) </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>