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The Industrial Corridor’s environmental issues: the case of Gujarat

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India-The Industrial Corridor’s environmental issues: the case of Gujarat

India-The Industrial Corridor’s environmental issues: the case of Gujarat

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  • 1. The Industrial Corridor’s environmental issues: the case of Gujarat [email_address]
  • 2. Plan Aim: examining some environmental issues raised by the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor 20 07 by Indo-Japanese authorities Actors:several layers of public institutions as well as private actors Project goals: boosting development via industrialization and exports Issues : ecological, territorial and social C ase of Gujarat: partial loss of governability and steering Problematic: planning, control, organization and management of social and environmental responsibilities Governance: what agendas? Whose decisons? Where? When? Which Perspectives for Sustainability?
  • 3. Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor Dedicated Freight Corridor Alignment End Terminal Investment Region (Min.200SQKM) Industrial Area (Min.100SQKM) Haryana Dadri J.N.Port Rajasthan Maharashtra Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Haryana Uttar Pradesh
  • 4. Gujarat: comprehensive industrial presence Surat Rajkot Valsad Navsari Ankleshwar Vadodara Anand Ahmedabad Gandhinagar DAHEJ HAZIRA Okha Mundra Surat Surendranagar Morbi Rajkot Mehsana Kachch Jamnagar Amreli Pipavav 83 product clusters across 182 industrial estates Kandla Bhavnagar Veraval Bedi Porbandar Agro-Processing, Dairy & Engg. Chem & Petrochem. Pharma, Textiles, Engg & Auto, Diamond processing, IT/BT/ Financial services DMIC Influence Area LNG Terminal Key Ports Soda Ash, Cement Petroleum, Minerals, Engg, Brass Parts Engineering & Ceramics Engg & Auto, Steel Pipes, Cement, Salt
  • 5. Surat Rajkot Source: Blacksmith institute A mountain of waste gypsum and hazardous waste at the Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals complex (GSFC) at Bajwa Sabarmati River Amlakhadi River Sarigam Groundwater Vadodara Effluent Canal Pipeline Damanganga River Vapi one the most polluted cities in the world
    • Bajwa slush contained cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silica, sulfate, total phosphate, fluoride, and radioactive substances
    • Effluent loads from the Vapi Industrial Estate with pharmaceuticals, pulp and paper, pesticides, agrochemicals, and dye industries
    • Toxic chromium-rich sludge to fill up low-lying ditches Vadodara
    • Sabarmati River receives effluent loads from three major industrial estates
    • 50 chemical units have contaminated theSarigam groundwater
    Gujarat: comprehensive pollution presence brown environmental issues
  • 6. Gujarat: Soil Salinity and Erosion: green environmental issues
  • 7. New Economy: PPP regime
    • Ahmedabad-Dholera Investment Region (US$ 30 billion underway)
    • International airport
    • Export Oriented Industrial Areas/ SEZs (Electronics, Engineering & Auto, Pharma, Cement, Textiles and IT)
    • Knowledge City
    • International Finance City
    • Container Freight Station with Multi-Modal Logistic Infrastructure
    • Power Plant of 3500 MW
    • Development of Mass Rapid Transit System
    • Vadodara-Ankleshwar Industrial Area:
    • Industrial estates: Ankleshwar, Jhagadia & Panoli
    • Export-oriented Industrial Areas/ SEZs (Engineering, Chemicals, Pharma, Gems & Jewelry)
    • Knowledge Hub (IT/ ITEs/ BT)
  • 8. Environmental Management End of pipe abatement equipment without continuous compliance Control and Command: standards set independently Low Probability of detection and conviction Central Environmental Legislation MoEnv. Poor monitoring and implementation from the Gujarat Pollution Control Board
  • 9. Ecological & Social Risks
    • Growth based on non renewable resources (entropy law)
    • Land under stress due to overuse and speculation
    • Destruction of coastal ecology and biodiversity
    • Lack of clean technology and proper waste management
    • Water, air, acoustic pollution raising health issues
    • Poor implementation of policies linked with poor information on environmental risks
    • Structural violence and environmental constraints leading to inegality and possible political unrest
  • 10. What’s wrong with the “ New ” India ? THE MISSING LINKS BETWEEN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
  • 11. Environmental degradation can jeopardize economic development, leaving its ‘footprint’ on the environment for the resources and energy intensive industries accompanied by the growth of mega cities and rapid urbanization EQUITY ECOLOGY FUTURITY CITIZENSHIP DIVIDED ACCORDING TO THE THREE PILLARS Brundtland Commission,1987 ETHICAL INTEGRATION OF HUMAN ASPIRATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL ECONOMIC
  • 12. How can the “New” improve?
    • Obstacles to Sustainable Development
      • Governance: - Bureaucracy -Judiciary –Police –Corruption –High turnover of officials due to political interests –Overlapping agencies
      • State: - High subsidies -High fiscal deficit –High evasion and black economy
      • Citizenship: double standard treatment to rich and poor
      • Democratization: vote-catching political processes
      • Corporations: poor social and environmental responsibility
      • Economy: based on intensive natural and human resources
      • Environment: lack of efficient implementation of laws and awareness
      • Globalization: dumping and outsourcing
  • 13. Shifts in thinking
      • TECHNOLOGY
      • SUSTAINABILITY
      • ETHICS
      • GOVERNANCE
    • Need for a shared new understanding of the nature and role of key concepts
  • 14. Technology: wastes energy-matter dispersed Industry 1 resources Goods and services old new (Erkman, 1998) Quantity of used resources reduced Quantity of discharged wastes reduced Industry 1 Industry 2 Industry 3 Industry 4
  • 15. Ethics: Why should one be concerned about sustaining the ecological basis of human well-being? Ethics is the desire of a life fulfilled with and for the others, within a fair institutions framework (Paul Ricoeur) ‘ Human beings have always been naturally concerned about their own future and almost all human cultures often place a significant value on the well-being of future generations’ (Lélé,1991) Ethics emerge from degradation to norms, while ‘applied ethics’ should be guided by principles Beauchamp&Childress,2001
  • 16. Sustainable Development Scenarios 2020 ? ETHICS ECOLOGY CLAN/ ENTREPRENEURIAL CIVIC/ EQUITABLE ECO-INDUSTRIES NORMS TO POLLUTION NO SUSTAINABILITY ECO-SOCIO SUSTAINABLE NORMATIVE APPROACH TO SUSTAINABILITY ECO-SUSTAINABLE
  • 17. Governance: multi-levels HIERARCHICAL GOVERNANCE INTERLINKING GOVERNANCE OF COMMUNITIES OF PLACES, INTERESTS AND/OR VALUES FLAT GOVERNANCE INTERCONNECTION POLICY FLOWS COMMUNICATION EXCHANGES NETWORKED COMMUNITIES MULTI-LEVEL LINKS
  • 18. Governance: New Economies
    • Economic systems which better enable people to invest energy and livelihood
    • What is the current cost of export driven economy?
    • Are multinational companies really helping?
    • Bringing value closer to value creation
    • Systems based on possession not propriety
    Bottom-up development : -schools -training centers -community centers -associated agriculture -basic infrastructures -collective transport -communication -small businesses -cottage industries -financial loans -minimum wage scheme
  • 19. Governance: New Ethics … CORPORATE AND PUBLIC STRUCTURES AND... TOWARDS A NEW EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN… … SOCIAL MOVEMENTS OF SELF-REGULATING NETWORKS WITH A DEMOCRATIZATION OF POLICY-MAKING PROPOSALS FOR A MULTI-LEVEL ETHICAL GOVERNANCE OF INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES
  • 20. Governance: New Ecologies
    • “ a genuine policy of global environmental governance
    • would necessitate funds, sorely missing in India” (Biermann&Dingwerth, 2004).
    • Necessity to develop local adapted responses to ecological constraints
    • T echnological: renewable resources and ecological industries
    • Institutional: agencies, academies, judiciary, private and public, associations and the media
    • Economic: corporate social responsibility
    • Political: citizenship enabling vital adaptive capacities of communities and system
  • 21. Enabling Trends
    • LINEAR  MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE
    • WEST COAST  EAST COAST
    • FREIGHT  BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE
    • INDUSTRIAL CORRIDOR  INDUSTRIAL PROCESS
    • MNCs INCENTIVES  LOCAL COMPANIES INCENTIVES
    • IMPORTED TECHNOLOGY  GREEN TECHNOLOGY
    • SECTORIAL  INTEGRATED ECOLOGY
    • WEAK SUSTAINABILITY  STRONG SUSTAINABILITY
    • COORDINATED  ANIMATED ETHICS
    • HOMOGENEITY  HETEROGENEITY
  • 22. THANK YOU!