Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase


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Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase

  1. 1. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase A Study of Innovative Practices Sponsored by: Prepared by: Stratos Inc. 2009
  2. 2. Thanks Industry Canada and Stratos would like to thank the following companies for their participation in this study: Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 2
  3. 3. Contents 1. Introduction • Overview • Findings Summary p • Scope • Communication Approaches • Participating Companies 2. Key Findings • What, why and how companies are communicating about sustainability at point of purchase 3. Tool • Elements of a sustainability point of purchase communications approach 4. Appendices • List of Participants • References 5. Case Studies (refer to supplemental deck) Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase
  5. 5. Overview • The markets for sustainable products have seen rapid recent growth. • Consumers are demanding more sustainable products and more information about these products so that they can make informed purchase decisions. p y p • While in light of the economic downturn this trend may be slowing, there is strong evidence that sustainable products that provide consumers with longer- term cost savings are still in demand. g • Strong sustainability performance and communication strengthens brand value and supports the delivery of core corporate and retail business strategies. • Effective point of purchase sustainability communication is becoming a core component of sustainability disclosure, communications and marketing for retail businesses. • This report reviews the approaches of seven innovative companies and is intended to provide guidance to other companies as they seek to develop and improve communication of sustainability information at point of purchase. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 5
  6. 6. Findings Summary • Communication of sustainability information at the point of purchase is evolving as leading companies test a range of approaches and standards and best practices emerge. • Innovations in sustainability communication at the point of purchase include: • Growing focus on linking product sustainability attributes to strong product performance • The development of coherent store- and company-wide approaches • Improving simplicity in point of purchase messaging, and supporting messages with in-depth use of supportive website stories and data • The use of techniques to engage consumers in taking action to reduce impact associated with the use and disposal of products • Increasing emphasis on strong operational and product performance improvements as a precondition of launching communication programs • Increasing sophistication in the use of assurance to back up assertions about operational sustainability and / or product sustainability claims • In a time where there is significant pressure on costs, there is evidence that point of purchase sustainability communication is cost-effective and is an effective tool for engaging consumers and driving sales. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 6
  7. 7. Objective and Approach Objective: To assist Canadian companies in their efforts to communicate sustainability information at point of purchase and adopt innovative practices. Approach: Stratos used an interactive, interview-based approach to seek lessons from seven innovative companies. Methodology Literature Selection of Focused Review companies Interviews Case Study Development Case Study Results Analysis Validation Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 7
  8. 8. Scope of the Study • A simplified view of the process a prospective consumer uses Purchase Process when making a purchase is provided on the right. Typically, Recognize need / Gather information / Purchase steps include recognizing a want / dissatisfaction Evaluate choices need/want/dissatisfaction, gathering information, and evaluating choices. • To assist a consumer in makingk •Labeling a decision at point of purchase, Communication •Packaging companies use a variety of Media •Posters communication approaches and •Displays media which may include y •Staff Interactions •In-Store Catalogues I St C t l labeling, packaging, posters, displays, staff interactions, and in-store catalogues. •Environmentally and Sustainability socially preferable yp • This study explores Information product attributes communication used at point of Communicated •Global environmental purchase. It does not include and social issues media such as websites and •Business performance advertising. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 7
  9. 9. Point of Purchase Communication Approaches STAFF LABELING PACKAGING POSTERS DISPLAYS INTERACTIONS CATALOGUES • Any type of • Refers to the • Any signage • Any type of • Conversations and • Booklets that symbol, image or composition of • Can be used three- product trials with provide detailed wording packaging, i.e. throughout dimensional trained staff information about describing post-consumer retail space visual • May be informal or products sustainability material; • Benefits include: • May include planned • Provided in store to attributes minimizing high impact and product samples, conversations, guide consumer • Can be printed wrapping flexibility (can contextual cues, demonstrations, product selection directly onto • Benefits include: be changed e.g. window workshops • Benefits include: packaging or concrete periodically), display of empty • Benefits include: depth of applied at point of representation of flexibility of plastic bottles for depth of information, information, ability purchase commitment to location, can be recycling can be tailored to to compare • Benefits include: sustainability tailored to program consumer, building of products, can show high hi h exposure reflect l fl locall • Benefits i l d fi include: consumer performance ratings f i time because interests depth of relationships consumer takes information, messaging home flexibility of location, can be tailored to reflect local interests Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 9
  10. 10. Participating Companies Focused interviews were conducted with representatives of seven companies* in a range of sectors, selected for their sustainability leadership and innovative practices in sustainability communication. COMPANY LOCATION DESCRIPTION Manufacturer, Retailer – Consumer Aveda United States and Global Products (Beauty) Retailer Retailer– Consumer Products Boots England (Health & Beauty) Retailer– Consumer Products Canadian Tire Canada (Auto, Sports, Home) Retailer – Consumer Products Apparel Products, Marks & Spencer England and Food Retailer – Consumer Products Mountain Equipment Co-op Canada (Apparel and Sporting Equipment) Manufacturer, M k t M f t Marketer – C Consumer Procter & Gamble United States and Global Products (Personal Care and Household) Manufacturer, Marketer and Retailer – Timberland United States and Global Consumer Product (Footwear and Apparel) * A complete list of interviewees is provided in Appendix A Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 10
  11. 11. KEY FINDINGS What, Wh Wh t Why and How Companies Communicate about dH C i C i t b t Sustainability at Point of Purchase Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase
  12. 12. WHAT is Communicated to the Consumer at Point of Purchase • At point of purchase, companies communicate to provide choice and to drive consumer behaviour. The type of information communicated falls into four focus areas, described below. FOCUS DESCRIPTION Product Information about the environmental and social Attributes attributes of products. Consumer Choice Operational Information about the environmental and social Performance performance of broader corporate operations. Product Information on how to reduce impacts during the Lifecycle use of a product. Consumer Action Global and Information about sustainability and the action Community consumers can take. Issues Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 12
  13. 13. WHAT is Communicated to the Consumer at Point of Purchase • All companies studied provide information to the consumer about product attributes and product lifecycle. • Communication in the product lifecycle category is of particular interest to the study companies as it is seen to drive consumer engagement. There is engagement significant innovation in approaches in this area. FOCUS Product Attributes Consumer Choice Operational Performance Product Lifecycle Consumer Action Global and Community Issues Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 13
  14. 14. WHAT is Communicated to the Consumer at Point of Purchase? • Companies communicate at the point of purchase on a range of sustainability issues. The most common of these issues include: • Climate change and energy: lifecycle energy consumption product carbon consumption, footprint, energy saving in product use • Sourcing: ethical and environmental standards applied in sourcing related to human rights fair trade rights, • Chemicals: safety of content, natural materials, organic, excluded chemicals Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 14
  15. 15. WHAT – CASE STUDY Timberland’s Nutritional Label HIGHLIGHT Timberland Nutritional Label • Timberland uses a nutritional label printed on product boxes to communicate about: • Its impact on the climate, i.e. use of solar, wind and water energy to power its factories. • The percentage of its footwear that use alternatives to P C plastic V plastic. • Its total use of renewable, organic and recycled materials. • The number of trees planted in a given year. NOTE: For further details of what study companies communicate, refer to the individual case studies. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 15
  16. 16. How Companies Decide WHAT to Communicate • Study companies use a range of approaches to determine what issues to communicate about and how to communicate about those issues to the consumer at point of purchase including: • strategic performance areas t t i f • stakeholder engagement • lifecycle analysis • market research • issue profile • The following slide provides further details of how the approaches are used. • All companies identified the need for clarity and coherence of sustainability messaging across the retail operation and within corporate messaging. • F Focusing on a small set of priorities is vital to ensuring impact of messages i ll f i ii i i l i i f and minimizing confusion and consumer “overload”. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 16
  17. 17. How Companies Decide WHAT to Communicate METHOD DESCRIPTION STUDY EXAMPLE Strategic • Aligns communication topics with corporate Timberland communicates topics (climate Performance performance objectives change, chemicals, resource consumption) Areas • Benefit(s): upper management and / or Board of which were identified by the responsible Director buy-in board committee and through external stakeholder engagement activities. Stakeholder • Aligns communications with stakeholder Engagement expectations • Benefit(s): interactivity, allows for testing of communication messaging Lifecycle • Maps sustainability issues against value chain M&S used a lifecycle analysis to identify Analysis and prioritizes issues based on impact the areas of greatest impact along its • Benefit(s): aligns communications with areas of value chain and areas where consumers greatest impact for company and / or consumer; could take action. identifies areas in which consumer action would be most valuable; identifies baseline against which improvements can be communicated Market • Aligns communications with market Canadian Tire used market research to Research expectations identify carbon management as the area • Benefit(s): provides detail by consumer about which consumers were most segment / target markets interested in receiving information/ take action. Issue Profile • Aligns communications with issues of high public Aveda often links areas in which awareness consumers are likely to take action • Benefit(s): identifies areas in which consumers to its communication messaging, e.g. want to take action, increasing consumer using renewable energy. engagement and brand relevance. t db d l Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 17
  18. 18. How M&S decides WHAT to Communicate CASE STUDY at Point of Purchase HIGHLIGHT • M&S conducted a lifecycle analysis to map sustainability issues against value chain Sample Heat Map activities. Plotting the results in a simple “heat map” can help identify areas of heat map greatest impact. MANUFACTURING • M&S identified areas where consumers could impact value chain sustainability TRANSPORT performance and developed point of f dd l d i t f S U P P LY purchase messaging around those issues. R E TA I L USAGE • For example, the analysis showed the strong impact of recycling clothing. M&S partnered with OXFAM and as of March, WASTE 2008, over 80,000 people donated their clothing to the organization. Donors were GHGS given a £5 voucher to use at M&S, 55% of CHEMICALS which were redeemed. When similar vouchers were mailed to consumers, the LABOUR redemption rate was only 5% Low Med High Impact Impact Impact NOTE: For further information on how companies decide what to communicate, refer to the individual case studies. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 18
  19. 19. WHY Communicate about Sustainability at Point of Purchase • Study companies identified a range of rationales for their decision to communicate at point of purchase about sustainability. Corporate C t Brand • While there were mixed opinions about product differentiation as a driver for sustainability communication there was communication, very strong agreement among study companies that such communication Consumer Consumer Loyalty Expectations drives brand value. • Ensuring that this activity results in improved sustainability performance is vital to credibility and in some cases Sustainability compliance with advertising codes. l h d d Communication C i ti Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 19
  20. 20. WHY Communicate about Sustainability at Point of Purchase DRIVER BUSINESS CASE STUDY EXAMPLE Brand Strengthening brand Aveda’s communication about the sustainability relevance and trust. attributes of its products enhances its brand which is associated with natural and organic products. products Consumer Delivering on consumer As providers of pharmaceutical products, Expectations expectations for corporate trust is fundamental to Boots. sustainability performance performance. Communication on sustainability efforts is part of building that trust. Consumer Engaging consumers in When M&S offered five pound vouchers to Loyalty L lt sustainable change can t i bl h consumers who recycled clothing with OXFAM, h l d l thi ith OXFAM create enduring consumer the redemption rate was significantly higher than relationships. when similar vouchers were mailed to consumers. Product Providing clarity on MEC’s sustainability logo informs consumers of Differentiation sustainability attributes of products that have attributes that comply with products can provide a point certain sustainability criteria. of differentiation from standard offerings. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 20
  21. 21. WHY Communicate about Sustainability at Point of Purchase – cont’d DRIVER BUSINESS CASE STUDY EXAMPLE Increased Increased consumer interest The growth of Canadian Tire’s Blue Planet Sales in sustainable products can “environmentally preferred “ line is translate to rapid growth of better than average business growth. sales of products with clear p sustainability characteristics. Operational Efforts to robustly Boots’ work with Carbon Trust to assess the Efficiencies understand and communicate carbon footprint of two shampoos sustainability performance revealed areas for operational can reveal operational improvements across similar products. efficiencies. Changing Communicating effectively on Society’s understanding and appreciation of the societal current social and planet’s water resources is growing. Aveda built and market environmental challenges its campaign promoting the sustainable use of expectations helps maintain the currency water to complement this market expectation. and relevancy of the brand. Improve value Informing consumers about P&G conducted a lifecycle analysis and found that chain h i actions th ti they can take to t k t use of laundry detergent i th h fl d d t t in the home had the h d th sustainability reduce their environmental greatest energy impact of all its products, and so performance footprint can improve the created Tide Cold Water. overall sustainability performance of a value chain, helping meet corporate objectives Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 21
  22. 22. WHY Canadian Tire CASE STUDY HIGHLIGHT Communicates about Sustainability • Canadian Tire builds its point of purchase sustainability communication to deliver on four primary business objectives: • Consumer expectations; p ; • Corporate brand; • Sales growth; and • Consumer loyalty. • Over the past five to ten years, Canadian Tire has seen a growing interest from the public and its consumers in “environmentally preferred” product options. It considers meeting these needs critical to its business success. • Canadian Tire recognizes its consumers expect that it g p will “do the right thing”. Meeting this expectation is a key component of their approach to building long term consumer relationships. • Active point of purchase communication reinforces this trust. trust • The Blue Planet Line is achieving sales growth that is greater than average, when compared to other Canadian Tire lines. NOTE: For further details on WHY study companies communicate about sustainability, refer to the individual case studies. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 22
  23. 23. HOW Companies Communicate at Point of Purchase • Study companies use different media to communicate sustainability information at point of purchase. purchase Some of the common approaches used include: labels, packaging, posters, displays, staff interactions and catalogues. • Labels: effective display of points of difference in products • Packaging: concrete representation of a company’s commitment to sustainability performance • Posters & Displays: flexibility to reflect current trends and hot topics • Staff interactions: enable consumer engagement and answering specific questions • Catalogues: allow for product comparison, provide depth / detail to communicate lifecycle issues MEDIA Labels Packaging Posters Displays i l Staff interactions In store In-store catalogues Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 23
  24. 24. HOW MEC Communicates about CASE STUDY HIGHLIGHT Sustainability • MEC has designed its own product sustainability symbol that is applied to the product during its manufacture. The symbol indicates products that contain organically grown cotton blend (at least 50%) or organically grown cotton (at least 100%), recycled polyester content (at least 50%) or that are completely P C-free. V • MEC makes use of posters and displays to communicate both its operational performance and global and community issue areas. For example, signage th l i throughout the retail space h t th t il guides consumers on a tour highlighting the stores sustainability design features, e.g. solar panels, environmentally preferable construction materials, etc. • MEC-brand products are packaged using low material volumes and recycled content wherever possible. Recently, MEC reduced the thickness of cardboard stock used for packaging. • Th MEC catalogue, (available in-store), i The t l ( il bl i t ) is leveraged to deliver sustainability messages, e.g. a recent copy featured a two-page spread called “The Power of Choice”, highlighting ways in which MEC and its consumers can make a positive impact on the environment. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 24
  25. 25. TOOL a Sustainability Point of Purchase Elements of Communications Approach Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase
  26. 26. Overview • This section presents a tool to Link assist companies in the Get Basics Right Find Right Tone Communication development of robust point of Channels purchase sustainability h t i bilit communication. Determine Business & Simplify Track • It is designed to provide Communication Messaging Performance communicators with practical Objectives guidance, insight and options as they develop and improve Develop point of purchase sustainability Communications Increase Improve Engagement Performance communication. Approach • The flow diagram to the right provides a high-level overview Ensure Coherence of Ensure Accuracy of the tool, which is explained Communication and supported in more d d d detail in l the coming section. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 26
  27. 27. Get the Basics Right • Communication on sustainability is most effective and credible when approached from a platform of strong operational and product sustainability performance. Determine • Determine issues of primary (material) importance, where Material pe o a ce performance improvements deliver most value and impact. p o e e ts de e ost a ue a d pact Issues • Key tools include materiality analysis, stakeholder engagement and lifecycle analysis. (Refer to slide 30 for more detail). • Segment your sustainability action plant to identify: Improve • A Areas requiring action with supply chain partners i i ti ith l h i t Performance • Areas requiring technical fixes • Product sustainability improvements • Key consumer impacts. Gain • Get assurance that systems managing performance Assurance improvements are robust. External support such as auditors, consultants and NGOs can provide valuable support. • Incorporate sustainability into the design of products, services and operations operations. • The bottom line? Have a solid plan to improve performance in Communicate place before going public with point of purchase messaging. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 27
  28. 28. Determine Business and Communication Objectives • Communication is most effectively delivered if there is a clear understanding of the business objectives and the specific impact sought from the point of purchase communication. • Objectives for point of purchase sustainability communication programs might include: • Differentiating products • Reducing sustainability impacts associated with product use • Reinforcing a sustainability brand • Reflecting current sustainability concerns • Increase sales • A full breakdown of potential business drivers and example strategies is provided on slide 20. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 28
  29. 29. Develop Communications Approach • Once business and communication objectives are determined, identify: • the sustainability issues on which to focus at point of purchase; • the focus of point of purchase communication (product attributes, operational performance, product lifecycle, and global and community issues), and; • which communication media to use. Detailed information on these aspects can be found in the “What, Why and How” section of this report, specifically slides 12 through 17. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 29
  30. 30. Ensure Coherence of Communication • Important sustainability communication messages can be lost or diluted if not supported by a coherent, store-wide experience. Key considerations include: • Ensuring staff can speak knowledgably about sustainability of different products. • Ensuring that packaging is appropriately optimized and is designed with sustainability i mind. t i bilit in i d • Ensure the approach to high visibility areas and items like catalogues, lighting and displays are designed with sustainability in mind. • Ensuring store-wide rigor in identifying impacts. E.g. If one item is labeled as being air freighted, you must ensure that all other non-labeled products in the store is not. t e sto e s ot Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 30
  31. 31. UK and USA based Ensure the Accuracy of Communications surveys show that nine out of ten people are • With the rapid growth in volume of sustainability “skeptical about green skeptical or climate change information, there is real and increasing skepticism information from among consumers and stakeholders. companies and • Avoiding the promotion of false or misleading governments”. sustainability information is critical to ensuring EXAMPLES OF credibility. CLAIMS REQUIRING • Check: JUSTIFICATION • Data: Ensure the accuracy of the data being presented in • Eco-friendly sustainability claims, e.g. Aveda’s claim of being “the first beauty • Natural company manufacturing with 100% wind power” • Non-toxic • Language: Ensure that the language used in a claim is credible, • Green objective, easily identifiable and understood by consumers. • Pollutant-free • Implications: what are you inferring about the performance of • Carbon-neutral other products • Ethical • Distinguish your communication • Fair • Recyclable • Strictly apply guidance such as CSA & Competition Bureau’s • Low-impact Environmental claims: A guide for industry and advertisers • Environmentally-friendly • Use your internal experts to verify statements e.g. lawyers, statements, e g lawyers • Energy efficient E ffi i t auditors • Low carbon • Apply the same standards to information used in other • Not tested on animals communication channels e.g. television and radio advertising, • Organic website, sustainability reporting etc. • Biodegradable • Zero carbon • Zero waste Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 31
  32. 32. Increase the Level of Consumer Engagement • The greater the level of engagement of consumers in delivering improved sustainability performance, the greater the returns to companies, particularly in terms of brand value and consumer retention. • Look for opportunities to engage your consumers directly in improving performance. Create feedback loops to bring consumers back to your products and stores. “Involve me” (e.g. consumer lifecycle actions like M&S’ promotion of clothing recycling) BUSINESS “Prove it to me” (e.g. third party certification for Boots by the Carbon Trust) VALUE “Show me” (e.g. Aveda’s sustainability stories) “Tell me” (e.g. in-house labeling like MEC’s sustainability label) ENGAGEMENT Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 32
  33. 33. Keep Messaging Simple • Consumers are flooded with messages at the point of purchase. For sustainability messages to be heard and understood, there needs to be: • Clarity on the one to five key messages • Simplicity of language and concepts • Real, rather than abstract concepts • R Repetition of messaging titi f i • Concrete action points for consumers • For example, out of 100 performance areas in their Plan A of commitments, M&S only communicates about five to ten at point of purchase, while Aveda picks two or three key messages and highlights relevant product offerings. • Whatever issues are being communicated, study companies comprehensively identified simplicity of messaging as being key to a successful sustainability communications program. i i Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 33
  34. 34. Find the Right Tone • The tone of sustainability messaging can have a huge impact on consumer response. Consumers react adversely to a “preachy” or “finger-wagging” tone. • Messaging that provides consumers with simple ways to take action is a valuable part of a communications campaign. • Important aspects of tone include: y • Humility • Transparency • Credibility • Commitment to future action • Solutions-orientation • The tone of sustainability messaging should also resonate with brand, and be consistent with corporate strategy and sustainability performance targets. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 34
  35. 35. Link Point of Purchase Messaging to Other Communication Channels • Coherence between communication channels is a key to credible sustainability messaging. • Advertising: ensure coherence of point of purchase with broader branding and marketing activities. • Website: Use the web to provide details, data, stories and more information to support communication. • Provide proof points for each sustainability-related communication • Educate the consumer about product-related and broader sustainability issues • Provide the consumer with opportunities to take action • Include supportive information on the strength of corporate activities • Give the consumer opportunities for comment or feedback Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 35
  36. 36. Track your Performance • Understanding and DRIVER MEASURE monitoring the success of • Consumer brand awareness Brand communication activities is • Perceptions of sustainability of brand vital to delivering effective Consumer • Consumer feedback Expectations programs • Degree of consumer participation in communication program (e.g. number Consumer Loyalty ) of vouchers redeemed) • Align measures to provide insight into the delivery of Product • Compare sales growth of sustainable to business objectives Differentiation standard product offering • Return on investment and Increased sales • Sales brand value contributions Operational are very difficult to Efficiencies • Dollars saved monitor, creative and Changing societal innovative approaches are and market • Brand relevance required. expectations Improve value chain • Value chain greenhouse gas emissions sustainability • Value chain water consumption performance • Value chain waste Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 36
  37. 37. Use Point of Purchase Sustainability Communication to Maximize Sustainability Performance Improvements • Improving performance is a core objective of businesses communicating sustainability at point of purchase and is vital to credibility of initiatives. • Maximize the sustainability benefits by: • Using lifecycle analysis to identify opportunities for operational efficiency g y y y pp p y • Involving your supply chain • Driving consumers to products with improved sustainability attributes • Improve consumer use of products • Improve consumer disposal and recovery of end of life products Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 37
  38. 38. APPENDICES Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase
  39. 39. Appendix A: List of Participants COMPANY CONTACT TITLE Aveda Chuck Bennett VP of Earth and Community Care y Boots Richard Ellis Group Head CSR Canadian Tire Jason Kane Manager, The Environment Marks & Spencer Mike Barry Head of Corporate Social Responsibility Mountain Equipment Co-op Esther Speck Director Sustainability Proctor & Gamble Lee Bansil Director, External Relations Timberland Beth Ginsberg Holzman CSR Strategy and Reporting Manager Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 39
  40. 40. Appendix B: Useful References and Further Reading 1. Carbon Trust. Case Study CTS053 – Working with Boots. Product carbon footprinting in practice. 2. CSA & Competition Bureau. Environmental claims: A guide for industry and advertisers. 2008. advertisers 2008 3. Futerra. Greenwash: Annoying or dangerous? 4. Forum for the Future. Eco-promising: communicating the environmental credentials of your products and services. April 2008. 5. Research Network for Business Sustainability. Knowledge Forum on Socially Conscious Consumerism. February 2009. 6. UNEP. Talk the Walk. Advancing Sustainable Lifestyles through Marketing and g y g g Communications. 2005. 7. Michelle Warren. Environmental disaster. Marketing, 113(7), 23-24. April 2008. 8. Annual Reports of all study companies. Sustainability Communication at Point of Purchase 40