David A. Butz PhD, CareEvolution, U. of Michigan Ross School of Busin...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[12] Evaluation of ICD-11 as a New Diagnostic ...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[27] Health, United States, 2012. (Especially ...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


Random Primers, Guides, Lists, and Summaries
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


Health Insurance: Medicare and Medicaid
[59] M...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[77] Medical Loss Ratios. J. Haberkorn. Health...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[93] HCUP Facts and Figures: Statistics on Hos...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[107] Rehospitalizations am...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[121] Balancing "no blame" with accountability...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


A Trustee’s Primer on Bonds. A. Majka and T. ...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[142] Graduate medical education financing: F...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[156] International medical graduates in Amer...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[171] Nurse Practitioners and Primary Care. A...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[185] Meaningful use glossary and requirement...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


Also See …
[212] The new CMSS code for intera...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) and Pat...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[240] The U.S. Infant Mortality Rate: Interna...
Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz


[255] CPT and ICD-9 Codi...
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1 d (mostly) free health care references (jan 2014)


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1 d (mostly) free health care references (jan 2014)

  1. 1. (1D) MOSTLY FREE HEALTH CARE REFERENCES (2014 Q1-Q2) David A. Butz PhD, CareEvolution, U. of Michigan Ross School of Business, DABAnalytics LLC The basic aim here is to provide (free) data troves, subject primers, quick references, and background. BACKGROUND/GENERAL Examples of how medical schools and academics might approach this subject matter [1] What is value in health care? M. Porter. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 23;363(26):2477-81. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1011024. Epub 2010 Dec 8. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1011024 [2] Cost consciousness in patient care--what is medical education's responsibility? Cooke M. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 8;362(14):1253-5. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp0911502. Epub 2010 Mar 31. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp0911502 [3] Teaching high-value, cost-conscious care to residents: the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine– American College of Physicians Curriculum. Smith CD; Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine– American College of Physicians High Value; Cost-Conscious Care Curriculum Development Committee. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Aug 21;157(4):284-6. http://www.nationalahec.org/pdfs/HighValueCostConsciousCareCurriculum.pdf Companion article - http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=746773 Overview of the AAIM-ACP Curriculum - http://www.acponline.org/education_recertification/education/curriculum/hvccc_curriculum_overview.pdf See Also http://www.im.org/Publications/Insight/Archives/v11i1/Documents/hvccc.pdf [4] Cost consciousness in patient care--what is medical education's responsibility? M. Cooke. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 8;362(14):1253-5. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp0911502. Epub 2010 Mar 31. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp0911502 [5] ACGME Competencies: Systems Based Practice. University of Maryland Medical Center. 2013-0712. (GME = graduate medical education. Also see the other ACGME competencies and related links!) http://umm.edu/professionals/gme/competencies/systems-based [6] ACGME Competencies. The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. Accessed Online Jan. 2014. http://www.uthscsa.edu/gme/educationalassessment.asp [7] American Medical Association Section on Medical Schools Business Meeting/Educational Program. J. Fogarty et al. American Association of Medical Colleges (Annual Meeting 2013). 2013-11-01. https://event.crowdcompass.com/aamc2013/activity/t1xjkUcRhT Presentation 1 of 4 - S. Skochelak: https://s3.amazonaws.com/v3-app_crowdc/assets/events/UnQaEpCgx8/activities/200Skochelak111.original.1383450490.pdf Presentation 2/4 - A. Feldman: https://s3.amazonaws.com/v3-app_crowdc/assets/events/UnQaEpCgx8/activities/1400_Feldman_AMA-AAMC.original.1383450329.pdf Presentation 3/4 - S. Weinberger: https://s3.amazonaws.com/v3-app_crowdc/assets/events/UnQaEpCgx8/activities/Weingberger_medical_student_group_talk_on_HVC.original.1383041415.pdf Presentation 4/4 - D. Price: https://s3.amazonaws.com/v3-app_crowdc/assets/events/UnQaEpCgx8/activities/0800Price112.original.1383566017.pdf Coding and Scoring (The USA uses ICD-9; the rest of the world has long used ICD-10; and ICD-11 is coming!) [8] List of ICD-9 Diagnosis (Dx) codes. Wikipedia. First-time coders can find background here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Classification_of_Diseases http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ICD-9_codes [9] List of ICD-9 Procedure (Px) codes (ICD-9-CM Volume 3). Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICD-9-CM_Volume_3 [10] The Differences Between ICD-9 and ICD-10. American Medical Association. 2012-09-25. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/399/icd10-icd9-differences-fact-sheet.pdf Also See: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/solutions-managing-your-practice/coding-billing-insurance/hipaahealth-insurance-portabilityaccountability-act/transaction-code-set-standards/icd10-code-set.page [11] Understanding the ICD-10. R. Kaplan and D. Finney. Finney Learning Systems. 2012. http://therightway.com/downloads/ICD-10.pdf
  2. 2. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 2 [12] Evaluation of ICD-11 as a New Diagnostic Coding System. S. Stack. Report to the American Medical Association Board of Trustees. May 2013. [13] Rollups of ICD9 Dx’s and ICD9 Px’s. Healthcare Utilization Project (HCUP) Clinical Classification Software (CCS). http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/ccs/AppendixASingleDX.txt AND http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/toolssoftware/ccs/AppendixBSinglePR.txt HCUP Front Page - http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/ [14] Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) Codes for FY2010. CMS (Version 27) http://www.cms.hhs.gov/AcuteInpatientPPS/downloads/FY_2010_FR_Table_5.zip The Burden of Disease [15] The state of US health, 1990-2010: burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. JAMA. US Burden of Disease Collaborators. 2013 Aug 14;310(6):591-608. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.13805. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23842577 [16] Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury: by Age Group (2010). Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/pdf/10LCID_All_Deaths_By_Age_Group_2010-a.pdf [17] Top 10 Most Costly Conditions among Men and Women, 2008: Estimates for the U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Adult Population, Age 18 and Older. Soni. AHRQ/MEPS Brief 331. 07/2011. [18] Chronic Conditions Among Medicare Beneficiaries, Chartbook (2012 Edition). CMS. 2013-04-25. http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/Chronic-Conditions/2012ChartBook.html [19] A user’s guide to selecting a comorbidity index for clinical research. S. Hall SF. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006 Aug;59(8):849-55. Epub 2006 May 23. http://qcri.queensu.ca/CCE_Pub_Hall_2006_59_pp_926-933.pdf [20] Concept: Charlson Index. Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. 2009-10-22. http://mchp-appserv.cpe.umanitoba.ca/viewConcept.php?conceptID=1098 [21] Adult Smoking in the US. Centers for Disease Control. September 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/VitalSigns/AdultSmoking/index.html [22] New evidence that cigarette smoking remains the most important health hazard. Schroeder SA. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 24;368(4):389-90. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe1213751. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMe1213751 [23] 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. Jha P et. al. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 24;368(4):341-50. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1211128. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa1211128 [24] 50-year trends in smoking-related mortality in the United States. Thun MJ et al. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 24;368(4):351-64. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1211127. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa1211127 [25] Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. JAMA. 2012 Feb 1;307(5):491-7. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1104933 Summarized here: CDC Reports Obesity Rates In U.S. Level Off, KHN, 18 January 2012. http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/Daily-Reports/2012/January/18/obesity-rates.aspx Big Picture Statistics [26] Data Book: Health Care Spending and the Medicare Program. MedPAC. June 2013. http://www.medpac.gov/documents/Jun13DataBookEntireReport.pdf
  3. 3. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 3 [27] Health, United States, 2012. (Especially the Executive Summary and “At a Glance” Table) National Center for Health Statistics. Hyattsville (MD). 2012 May. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK98752/ [28] Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2010 (Section 3: Health and Nutrition). U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/2009pubs/10statab/health.pdf [29] Death in the United States, 2010. Miniño. National Center for Health Statistics. July 2012. More here. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db99.htm [30] The State of Health Care Quality Report. National Committee for Quality Assurance. Fall 2013. http://www.ncqa.org/Directories/HealthPlans/StateofHealthCareQuality.aspx [31] Healthcare Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs by Topic Area http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sbtopic.jsp [32] National Vital Statistics System. Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss.htm [33] National health spending in 2011: overall growth remains low, but some payers and services show signs of acceleration. Hartman M, Martin AB, Benson J, Catlin A; National Health Expenditure Accounts Team. Health Aff (Millwood). 2013 Jan;32(1):87-99. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2012.1206. http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/32/1/87.long [34] In Hopeful Sign, Health Spending Is Flattening Out. New York Times. A. Lowrey. 2012-04-28. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/29/health/policy/in-hopeful-sign-health-spending-is-flattening-out.html?_r=2&nl=todaysheadlines&emc=edit_th_20120429 [35] National Health Expenditure Data. CMS. Accessed Online Jan. 2014. https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/index.html?redirect=/NationalHealthExpendData/ [36] The value of medical spending in the United States, 1960-2000.Cutler DM, Rosen AB, Vijan S. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 31;355(9):920-7. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMsa054744 [37] Morbidity & Mortality: Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). February 2012. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/resources/docs/cht-book.htm [38] Cancer Facts and Statistics. American Cancer Society. Accessed Online Jan. 2014. http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/index [39] The Changing Geography of Outpatient Procedures. G. David and M. Neuman. Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics. U. of Pennsylvania. March 2011. http://ldi.upenn.edu/policy/issue-briefs/2011/03/29/the-changing-geography-of-outpatient-procedures [40] Health at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators. OECD. 2013-11-22. http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Health-at-a-Glance-2013.pdf Also see here: http://www.who.int/research/en/ Also see here: http://www.oecd.org/health/health-systems/ A Few Hospital and Insurance Company Rankings/Lists [41] 25 Largest Nonprofit Hospital Systems. M. Gamble. Becker’s Hospital Review. 2013-07-08. http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/lists/26-largest-nonprofit-hospital-systems-2013.html Also see 50 Largest Hospitals – http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/lists/50-largest-hospitals-in-america-2013.html [42] For-Profit Hospital Breakdown: What to Know About the 10 Largest Companies. B. Herman. Becker’s Hospital Review. 2013-09-04. http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/racs-/-icd-9-/-icd-10/for-profit-hospital-breakdown-what-to-know-about-the-10-largest-companies.html [43] Teaching Hospitals. CMS. (Scroll down for the 2014 list of all 1,188 hospitals!) http://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/National-Physician-Payment-Transparency-Program/Teaching-Hospitals.html [44] The Top 25 Health Insurance Companies. USNews. Accessed Online Jan. 2014. http://health.usnews.com/health-plans/national-insurance-companies
  4. 4. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 4 Random Primers, Guides, Lists, and Summaries [45] Summary of the Affordable Care Act. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. April 25, 2013. http://kff.org/health-reform/fact-sheet/summary-of-new-health-reform-law/ [46] Health Reform Implementation Timeline (Affordable Care Act). Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2013-07-08. http://kff.org/interactive/implementation-timeline/ [47] Medpage’s Guide to Biostatistics http://www.medpagetoday.com/lib/content/Medpage-Guide-to-Biostatistics.pdf [48] Primer on Population Health. The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada. 2009. http://www.afmc.ca/pdf/AFMC-Primer-on-Population-Health-2013-08-14.pdf 1. HOW PROVIDERS GET PAID A Terrific (But Rather Long) Summary of Payment Methdologies [49] Health Care Payment in Transition: A California Perspective. S. Oberlin et. al. Kurt Salmon for the California HealthCare Foundation. Jan. 2012. http://www.chcf.org/publications/2012/01/payment-reform-transition Revenue Cycle  Generating a Bill and Getting Paid [50] Revenue Cycle Management. (A simple graphic) ALN Medical Management. Accessed Jan. 2014. http://alnmm.com/_library/2009/11/rcm%20chart.pdf [51] Form CMS-1500 At A Glance. Medicare Learning Network. February 2011. http://www.audiology.org/practice/reimbursement/medicare/Documents/201105_CMS_1500_Form_At_A_Glance.pdf [52] Fact Sheet: Medicare Billing: 837P and Form CMS-1500. Medicare Learning Network. March 2013. http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/downloads/form_cms-1500_fact_sheet.pdf [53] Fact Sheet: Medicare Billing: 837I and Form CMS-1450. Medicare Learning Network. March 2013. http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/downloads/ub04_fact_sheet.pdf [54] Prepare that Claim. American Medical Association. Accessed 2013-10-15. http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/psa/prepare-that-claim.pdf [55] Follow that Claim. American Medical Association. Accessed 2013-10-15. http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/psa/follow-that-claim.pdf [56] AMA: Insurers processing claims faster, more accurately. D. Overland. FierceHealth. 2013-06-19. http://www.fiercehealthpayer.com/story/ama-insurers-processing-claims-faster-more-accurately/2013-06-19#ixzz2d0DAb35c Direct Link to the AMA National Health Insurer Report Card - http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/practice-management-center/health-insurerpayer-relations/national-health-insurer-report-card.page [57] The Health Care Revenue Cycle: How Money is Generated for the Business of Health Care Delivery. R. Kaplan. Finney Learning Systems. 2009. http://therightway.com/downloads/Revenue-Cycle.pdf [58] HFMA Issues Advisory on Financial Communication With Patients. J. McLaughlin. Becker’s Hospital Review. 2013-06-17. Specifically: The emergency department, non-emergency settings, before receiving medical care and when resolving outstanding balances. http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/racs-/-icd-9-/-icd-10/hfma-issues-advisory-on-financial-communication-with-patients.html ED: http://pfibestpractices.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Best-Practice-Scenario-1-Patient-Financial-Interactions-in-the-ED11.pdf Non-ED: http://pfibestpractices.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Best-Practice-Scenario-2-Patient-Financial-Interactions-at-Time-of-Service-Outside-the-ED.pdf Before Receiving Care: http://pfibestpractices.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Best-Practice-Scenario-3-Patient-Financial-Interactions-in-Advance-of-Service11.pdf Resolving Outstanding Balances: http://pfibestpractices.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Best-Practices-for-all-Patient-Financial-Interactions11.pdf
  5. 5. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 5 Health Insurance: Medicare and Medicaid [59] Medicare at a Glance. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2012. (With Additional Resources.) http://www.kff.org/medicare/talkingaboutmedicare/ataglance.cfm [60] Medicare Made Clear. United Healthcare. 2012. http://www.uhc.com/live/uhc_com/Assets/Documents/Medicare_Made_Clear.pdf [61] Medicare Spending and Financing Fact Sheet. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Sept 2011. http://www.kff.org/medicare/upload/7305-06.pdf [62] Fact Sheet: Medicare Shared Savings Program and the Pioneer ACO Program. American Academy of Actuaries. 2012-12-19. http://www.actuary.org/files/ACO_Fact_Sheet_FINAL_121912.pdf [63] Medicare Payment Basics. CMS. 2012-10-13. http://medpac.gov/payment_basics.cfm [64] Medicare 2013 Costs at a Glance. CMS. 2013. http://www.medicare.gov/your-medicare-costs/costs-at-a-glance/costs-at-glance.html [65] Medicare Primer. P. Davis, et al. Congressional Research Service. 2013-01-21. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40425.pdf [66] Visualizing Health Policy: Medicare’s Role and Future Challenges. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Nov. 2012. http://kff.org/infographic/visualizing-health-policy-medicares-role-and-future-challenges/ [67] The Green Book, Chapter 2 (Medicare). US House of Representatives, Ways and Means Committee. http://greenbook.waysandmeans.house.gov/2012-green-book [68] Medicare Advantage Plans. S. Jatte. Health Affairs (Policy Brief). 2009-04-29. http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=1 [69] CMS Reimbursement Methodologies. American Health Information Management Association. Undated (accessed online Jan. 2014). http://www.ahima.org/resources/reimbursemethod.aspx [70] Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System. Medicare Learning Network. https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/downloads/HospitalOutpaysysfctsht.pdf [71] The Independent Payment Advisory Board. J. Haberkorn. Health Affairs (Policy Brief). 2012-04-05. http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=67 [72] Medicaid: A Primer. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. March 2013. http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/7334-05.pdf [73] Care for Dual Eligibles. A. Cassidy. Health Affairs (Policy Brief). 2012-06-13. http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=70 [74] Dual Eligibles: Medicaid’s Role for Low-Income Medicare Beneficiaries. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2011-05-01. http://kff.org/medicaid/fact-sheet/dual-eligibles-medicaids-role-for-low-income-2/ Health Insurance: Private [75] How Private Insurance Works: A Primer. Claxton, G. Paper prepared for the Kaiser Family Foundation: 1-15. 2002 http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/how-private-insurance-works-a-primer-report.pdf [76] Definitions of Health Insurance Terms. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2002. http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs/sp/healthterms.pdf
  6. 6. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 6 [77] Medical Loss Ratios. J. Haberkorn. Health Affairs (Policy Brief). 2010-11-17. http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=31 [78] How Do Hospitals Get Paid? A Primer. U. Reinhardt. New York Times. 2009-01-23. http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/01/23/how-do-hospitals-get-paid-a-primer/ [79] Bundled Payment. American Hospital Association (Research Synthesis Report). May 2010. http://www.aha.org/research/cor/bundled-payment/index.shtml [80] Employer Heath Benefits: 2013 Summary of Findings. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2013-08-20. http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/8466-employer-health-benefits-2013_summary-of-findings1.pdf Full Report, ChartPack, and Additional Resources: http://kff.org/private-insurance/report/2013-employer-health-benefits/ [81] Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance in the United States – Origins and Implications. D Blumenthal. N Engl J Med 355(1), 2006: 82-88. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMhpr060703 [82] Beyond pay for performance--emerging models of provider-payment reform. MB Rosenthal. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 18;359(12):1197-200. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp0804658. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp0804658 How Physicians Are Reimbursed [83] Relative Value Units (RVUs). National Health Policy Forum. 2009-02-12. http://www.nhpf.org/library/the-basics/Basics_RVUs_02-12-09.pdf [84] The Nuts and Bolts of RVUs and Reimbursement (Video). M. Granovsky. American College of Emergency Physicians. 2012. (This is how physicians are paid in the US.) http://www.acep.org/content.aspx?id=46017 [85] Medicare Payments to Physicians. M. Merlis. Health Affairs (Policy Brief). 2013-02-13. http://healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief_pdfs/healthpolicybrief_85.pdf [86] Physician and other health professionals paymentbasics payment system. Medicare Payment Basics. CMS. 2012-10-13. http://www.medpac.gov/documents/MedPAC_Payment_Basics_13_Physician.pdf [87] Adding value to relative-value units. E. Stecker and S. Schroeder. N Engl J Med. 2013 Dec 5;369(23):2176-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1310583. Epub 2013 Nov 20. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1310583 [88] American Medical Group Association 2012 Medical Group Compensation and Financial Survey (Executive Summary). SullivanCotter. August 2012. http://www.amga.org/Research/2013ExecSummary.pdf 2. HEALTH CARE COSTS AND COST ACCOUNTING [89] The Problem with Knowing How Much Your Health Care Costs. L. Rosenbaum. New Yorker. 2013-12-23. http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/elements/2013/12/price-transparency-health-care-costs.html Also see S. Brill in March 2013 Time Magazine – http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2136864,00.html Also see P. Ubell et al. in NEJM on Full Disclosure — Out-of-Pocket Costs as Side Effects: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1306826 Also see D. Dranove, May 2013, The Rest of the Story About Hospital Pricing – http://thehealthcareblog.com/blog/2013/05/09/the-rest-of-the-story-about-hospital-pricing/ [90] Why Medical Bills Are a Mystery. R. Kaplan and M. Porter. New York Times. 14 April 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/15/opinion/sunday/why-medical-bills-are-a-mystery.html?_r=3& [91] Health Care Costs: A Primer. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. May 2012. http://www.kff.org/insurance/upload/7670-03.pdf [92] 2013 Milliman Medical Index. L. Mayne, C. Girod, S. Weltz. Milliman. 2013-05-22. http://insight.milliman.com/article.php?cntid=8359&utm_source=search&utm_medium=web&utm_content=8359&utm_campaign=Search
  7. 7. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 7 [93] HCUP Facts and Figures: Statistics on Hospital-based Care in the United States, 2009. LM Wier, A Pfuntner, J Maeda, E Stranges, K Ryan, P Jagadish, B Collins Sharp, A Elixhauser. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2011 http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports.jsp [94] Components of Growth in Inpatient Hospital Costs, 1997–2009. Stranges et al. HCUP Statistical Brief [Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality], no. 123, Nov. 2011. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb123.pdf 3. HEALTH CARE OPERATIONS AND UTILIZATION [95] The triple aim: Care, health, and cost. Berwick DM, Nolan TW, Whittington J. Health Aff [Internet]. 2008 May 1;27(3):759-69. http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/27/3/759.long [96] Hospital Operations: Principles of High Efficiency Health Care. W. Hopp and W. Lovejoy. FT Press Operations Management. (The whole book is excellent, but for a great overview, see Appendix A.) http://www.amazon.com/Hospital-Operations-Principles-Efficiency-Management/dp/0132908662/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1373080089&sr=81&keywords=lovejoy+hospital [97] Define patient panels to improve practice flow, patient care. K. Ziehler. Medical Group Management Association In Practice Blog, 2013-02-21. http://www.mgma.com/blog/define-patient-panels-to-improve-practice-flow-patient-care/ [98] Ambulatory Health Care Data: Factsheets. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ahcd/factsheets.htm#2009 [99] Crowding Continues to Occur, and Some Patients Wait Longer than Recommended Time Frames. US General Accounting Office. GAO-09-347, Apr 30, 2009. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09347.pdf Examples in the Emergency Department [100] The ER, 50 years on. A. Kellermann AL, Martinez R. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 16;364(24):2278-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1101544. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1101544 [101] The growing role of emergency departments in hospital admissions. Schuur JD, Venkatesh AK. N Engl J Med. 2012 Aug 2;367(5):391-3. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1204431. Epub 2012 Jul 11. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1204431 [102] The Evolving Role of Emergency Departments in the United States. K. Gonzalez Morganti et. al. Rand Health. 2013-05-20. http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR280.html [103] Mentally Ill Languish In Hospital Emergency Rooms. J. Gold. National Public Radio. 2011-04-2013. http://www.npr.org/2011/04/13/135351760/mentally-ill-languish-in-hospital-emergency-rooms [104] Mandating care in the ER but not payment: Why that’s a problem. T. Pane. MedPage Today. 200808-18. http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2012/08/mandating-care-er-payment-problem.html [105] The Surge in Urgent Care Centers: Emergency Department Alternative or Costly Convenience? T. Yee, A. Lechner, and E. Boukus. Center for Studying Health System Change. July 2013. http://www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1366/1366.pdf [106] Mail Order Meds Tied to Fewer ER Visits. C. Petrochko. KevinMD. 2013-11-22. http://www.medpagetoday.com/Endocrinology/Diabetes/43071
  8. 8. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 8 Rehospitalizations [107] Rehospitalizations among Patients in the Medicare Fee-for-Service Program. Jencks et al., New England Journal of Medicine. 04/12/2009. HTTP://WWW.NEJM.ORG/DOI/FULL/10.1056/NEJMSA0803563 [108] Medicare Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program. J. James. Health Affairs (Policy Brief). 2013-11-12. http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=102 [109] The Revolving Door: A Report on U.S. Hospital Readmissions. D. Goodman, E. Fisher, C. Chang. Dartmouth Atlas Project and Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. February 2013. http://www.rwjf.org/en/research-publications/find-rwjf-research/2013/02/the-revolving-door--a-report-on-u-s--hospital-readmissions.html [110] Risk Prediction Models for Hospital Readmission: A Systematic Review, D. Kansagara et al., Journal of the American Medical Association, 2011;306(15):1688-1698. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.1515 HTTP://JAMA.JAMANETWORK.COM/ARTICLE.ASPX?ARTICLEID=110451 [111] Project RED (Re-Engineered Discharge). Boston University Medical School. Accessed 2013-12-30. http://www.bu.edu/fammed/projectred/index.html Systematic Ways to Reduce Utilization [112] Choosing wisely: helping physicians and patients make smart decisions about their care. C. Cassel and J. Guest. JAMA. 2012 May 2;307(17):1801-2. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.476. Epub 2012 Apr 4. http://www.cmu.edu/dietrich/sds/docs/loewenstein/ChoosingWisely.pdf [113] Choosing Wisely. ABIM Foundation. http://choosingwisely.org/?page_id=13 Choosing Wisely Explained: Do You Need That Test? New York Times. 8 April 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/09/opinion/do-you-really-need-that-medical-test.html?_r=2&hp& Wellness and Prevention [114] Quick Reference Information: The ABCs of Providing the Annual Wellness Visit. Medicare Learning Network. January 2012. http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/Downloads/AWV_Chart_ICN905706.pdf Also: Providing the AWV – http://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNProducts/Downloads/AnnualWellnessVisit-ICN907786.pdf And: Medicare Preventive Services Quick Reference Chart – http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Prevention/PrevntionGenInfo/Downloads/MPS_QuickReferenceChart_1.pdf [115] The history of vaccines and immunization: familiar patterns, new challenges. A. Stern and H. Markel. Health Aff (Millwood). 2005 May-Jun;24(3):611-21. http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/24/3/611.long [116] The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services 2012: Recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Accessed Jan. 2014. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/guidelines-recommendations/guide/abstract.html [117] Rankings of Preventive Services for the US Population. Partnership for Prevention. 2013. http://www.prevent.org/National-Commission-on-Prevention-Priorities/Rankings-of-Preventive-Services-for-the-US-Population.aspx Executive Summary - http://www.prevent.org/data/files/initiatives/prioritiesforamericashealthexecutivesummary.pdf [118] Preventing Chronic Disease. Centers for Disease Control. 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/collections/pdf/PCD_MCC_Collection_5-17-13.pdf [119] Workplace Wellness Programs. J. James. Health Affairs (Policy Brief). 2013-05-16. http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=93 Care Redesign and Patient Safety [120] Care redesign--a path forward for providers. Lee TH. N Engl J Med. 2012 Aug 2;367(5):466-72. doi: 10.1056/NEJMhpr1204386. Epub 2012 Jul 29. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMhpr1204386 Alternate Link: http://www.acponline.org/about_acp/chapters/vt/careredesignarticle_aug12.pdf
  9. 9. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 9 [121] Balancing "no blame" with accountability in patient safety. Wachter RM, Pronovost PJ. N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 1;361(14):1401-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsb0903885. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsb0903885 Alternate Link: http://www.mayorswellnesscampaign.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Balancing-No-Blame.pdf 4. FINANCE, FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING, GOVERNANCE, AND STRATEGY [122] A Primer on Hospital Accounting and Finance, 4th Edition. F. Kaufman. Kaufman Hall. March 2009. https://www.kaufmanhall.com/DocumentDetails.aspx?did=49c8b592-c9dd-4725-8492-c9bf987a1ced [123] Essentials of corporate governance. Bergeson PT. J Physician Assist Educ. 2011;22(3):33-4. http://www.paeaonline.org/index.php?ht=action/GetDocumentAction/i/130775 [124] Governance in Large Nonprofit Health Systems: Current Profile and Emerging Patterns. American Hospital Association’s Center for Healthcare Governance. 2012. http://www.americangovernance.com/resources/reports/governance-reports/2012/ Also see other Center Publications: http://www.americangovernance.com/ See Also: Handbook for Directors of Nonprofit Corporations in the United States. K&L Gates. 2013 – http://www.klgates.com/files/Publication/0515f7b7-d3d1-4a51b993-3873d9c88634/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/8754fe58-e646-458c-b6fe-8aaa75e77330/TEO_Handbook_for_Directors_Nonprofit_Corporations_2013.pdf Also: Section 501(c)3 in Plain English – http://501c3.org/what-is-a-501c3/ The IRS’s Explanation of 501(c)3 – http://www.irs.gov/Charities-%26-Non-Profits/Charitable-Organizations/Exemption-Requirements-Section-501(c)(3)-Organizations All Sections of 501(c) (NonProfit Tax Exempt Organizations) – http://www.taxfreecharity.com/types.htm [125] The Guide to Not-for-Profit Governance 2012. Weil, Gotshal & Manges LLP. Accessed Jan. 2014. http://www.pbpatl.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/NFPGuide_2012.pdf [126] Understanding the Federal Community Benefit Standard. Catholic Health Association of the United States. Accessed Online Jan. 2014. http://www.chausa.org/communitybenefit/resources/understanding-the-federal-community-benefit-standard Also see: Community Benefit New Assessment Tool - http://www.chausa.org/publications/health-progress/article/january-february-2011/community-benefit---newassessment-tool [127] Provision of community benefits by tax-exempt U.S. hospitals. Young GJ, Chou CH, Alexander J, Lee SY, Raver E. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 18;368(16):1519-27. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1210239. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa1210239 [128] The economics of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Reinhardt UE. Health Aff (Millwood). 2000 Nov-Dec;19(6):178-86. http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/19/6/178.long [129] Community Benefit and Not-for-Profit Status. American Association of Medical Colleges (Annual Meeting 2013). J. Erwin and R. Christie. 2013-11-02. https://event.crowdcompass.com/aamc2013/activity/RtO7wwgRAR Presentation 1 of 2 - J. Erwin: https://s3.amazonaws.com/v3-app_crowdc/assets/events/UnQaEpCgx8/activities/1100Erwin112.original.1383531818.pdf Presentation 2/4 – R. Christie: https://s3.amazonaws.com/v3-app_crowdc/assets/events/UnQaEpCgx8/activities/1100Christie112.original.1383531577.pdf [130] Nonprofit Hospitals: Variation in Standards and Guidance Limits Comparison of How Hospitals Meet Community Benefit Requirements. GAO-08-880, Sep 12, 2008. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-08-880 [131] Health Care and Profits, a Poor Mix, E. Porter, NYTimes, 8 Jan 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/09/business/health-care-and-pursuit-of-profit-make-a-poor-mix.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=0 [132] Kaufman Hall: Many good primers and briefs, easily accessible to non-financial readers, including: Taking Care of Your Organization’s Financial Health. K. Kaufman. Healthcare Executive. Jan/Feb. 2007. https://www.kaufmanhall.com/SitePages/DocumentDetails.aspx?ProductName=Capital%20Advisor&ProductName=Capital+Advisor&did=1231b8ac-0352-4021986a-12b223047fa9 Capital Allocation the Right Way. J. Sussman. 2012. https://www.kaufmanhall.com/SitePages/DocumentDetails.aspx?ProductName=Capital%20Advisor&ProductName=Capital+Advisor&did=d8d9c096-9b94-470ebc89-50eebc6af388 A Guide to Financing Strategies for Hospitals. J. Sussman, E. Jordahl. (American Hospital Association). http://www.hret.org/financial-strategies/index.shtml
  10. 10. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 10 A Trustee’s Primer on Bonds. A. Majka and T. Wareham. Trustee. October 2009. https://www.kaufmanhall.com/Products/Capital%20Advisor/DocumentDetails.aspx?did=6b20ac6f-73a0-440d-b76a-2beeda0b7280 Other recent Kaufman Hall articles include: Transforming America’s Hospitals: What’s Working. J. Collins et al. Kaufman Hall. Winter 2013. https://www.kaufmanhall.com/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=af597ca4-8715-4fd5-901c-95139a35508d Decline in Utilization Rates Signals a Change in the Inpatient Business Model. M. Grube, K. Kaufman, R. York. Kaufman Hall. April 2013. https://www.kaufmanhall.com/SitePages/DocumentDetails.aspx?did=d011941d-7f79-46ae-9fde-5d794856816a [133] Understanding New York City’s Budget: A Guide to The Capital Budget. NYC Independent Budget Office. June 2013. http://www.ibo.nyc.ny.us/iboreports/IBOCBG.pdf Examples of Strategy [134] The Strategy That Will Fix Health Care. M. Porter and T. Lee. Harvard Business Review. Oct2013, Vol. 91 Issue 10, p50-70. http://www.iqg.com.br/uploads/biblioteca/the_strategy.pdf [135] The Future of the Academic Medical Center: Strategies to Avoid a Margin Meltdown. PwC Health Research Institute. Feb2012. http://healthsciences.utah.edu/hcr/2012/resources/the-future-of-academic-medical-centers.pdf [136] Hospitals, market share, and consolidation. Cutler DM, Scott Morton F. JAMA. 2013 Nov 13;310(18):1964-70. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.281675. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1769891 Alternative Link: http://www.cultureofdoubt.net/download/docs_cod/24219952_%20Hospitals,%20market%20share,%20and%20consolidation.pdf 5. WORKFORCE/HUMAN RESOURCES/PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION-DEVELOPMENT Undergaduate and Graduate Medical Education (UGME/GME) for Physicians [137] Quick Answers to Common Questions About Getting into Medical School. Association of American Medical Colleges. 2013. http://www.greenvillemed.sc.edu/doc/GettingIntoMedicalSchool.pdf See also: Your Path to a Career in Medicine. AAMC. 2013. https://www.aamc.org/students/download/330592/data/16-questions.pdf See also: AAMC Resources for Pre-Med Students. AAMC. 2013. [138] Medicare Payments for Graduate Medical Education: What Every Medical Student, Resident, and Advisor Needs to Know. Association of American Medical Colleges. January 2013. https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/Medicare%20Payments%20for%20Graduate%20Medical%20Education%202013.pdf [139] Graduate Medical Education. C. Dower. Health Affairs (Policy Brief). 2012-08-31. http://www.healthaffairs.org/healthpolicybriefs/brief.php?brief_id=75 [140] Graduate medical education, 2011-2012. SE Brotherton, SI Etzel. JAMA. 2012 Dec 5;308(21):226479. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.7913. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1475156 [141] Osteopathic graduate medical education 2013. A DeRosier, TA Lischka, B Martinez. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2013 Apr;113(4):303-10. http://www.jaoa.org/content/113/4/303.long  A 13-page manuscript covering NYC municipal government (rather than health care) requires an explanation. This is a lovely document, written in plain English to a general audience, real-world, and rigorous without being too focused on numbers-crunching. For those unfamiliar with capital budgeting, this offers an intuitive and helpful introduction to the topic. It offers a good template.
  11. 11. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 11 [142] Graduate medical education financing: Focusing on educational priorities. Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. Report to Congress (Chapter 4). June 2010. http://www.medpac.gov/chapters/Jun10_Ch04.pdf [143] The uncertain future of Medicare and graduate medical education. Iglehart JK. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 6;365(14):1340-5. doi: 10.1056/NEJMhpr1107519. Epub 2011Sep 7. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMhpr1107519 [144] General competencies and accreditation in graduate medical education. Batalden P, Leach D, Swing S, Dreyfus H, Dreyfus S. Health Aff (Millwood). 2002 Sep-Oct;21(5):103-11. http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/21/5/103.long [145] Medical schools in the United States, 2011-2012. B Barzansky, SI Etzel. JAMA. 2012 Dec 5;308(21):2257-63. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.13425. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1475157 This is a Link to the Appendix, which is freely accessible and has much of the data: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/data/Journals/JAMA/929415/jax130003.pdf Alternate List from the Liaison Committee on Medical Education: http://www.lcme.org/directory.htm And Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_medical_schools_in_the_United_States Also See – U.S. Medical School Applicants and Students 1982-1983 to 2011-2012: https://www.aamc.org/download/153708/data/ [146] Osteopathic Medical College Information Book, Entering Class 2014. American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2013. http://www.aacom.org/resources/bookstore/cib/Documents/2014cib/2014%20CIB%20Complete%20Small.pdf [147] UMDNJ- New Jersey Medical School Student Handbook, Academic Year 2012-2013. (Especially the curriculum overview beginning page 31.) 2012. http://njms.rutgers.edu/education/office_education/documents/StudentHandbookcomplete.pdf [148] Results of the 2012 Medical School Enrollment Survey. Center for Workforce Studies. Association of American Medical Colleges. May 2013. https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/12-237%20EnrollmSurvey2013.pdf [149] Residency Slots: A Crisis in the Making? D. Pittman. MedPage Today. 2013-11-07. http://www.medpagetoday.com/PublicHealthPolicy/MedicalEducation/42786 [150] The residency mismatch. J. Iglehart. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jul 25;369(4):297-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1306445. Epub 2013 Jun 19. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1306445 [151] Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program Handbook, 2013–2014. Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center. http://lomalindahealth.org/media/medical-center/departments/orthopaedics/pdfs/handbook.pdf [152] Medical School Enrollment on Pace to Reach 30 Percent Increase by 2017. Association of American Medical Colleges. 2013-05-02. https://www.aamc.org/newsroom/newsreleases/335244/050213.html [153] U.S. graduate medical education and physician specialty choice. P Jolly, C Erikson, G Garrison. Acad Med. 2013 Apr;88(4):468-74. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e318285199d. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23425979 [154] American Board of Medical Specialties Web Site. http://www.abms.org Organizational Brochure - http://www.abms.org/About_ABMS/pdf/ABMS_Corp_Brochure.pdf ABMS History - http://www.abms.org/About_ABMS/ABMS_History/Extended_History/default.aspx Specialties and Subspecialties - http://www.abms.org/who_we_help/physicians/specialties.aspx What Board Certification Means - http://www.abms.org/About_Board_Certification/means.aspx Maintenance of Certification Competencies and Criteria - http://www.abms.org/Maintenance_of_Certification/MOC_competencies.aspx [155] Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education: At a Glance. Accessed Online Jan. 2014. http://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/tabid/120/About/ACGMEataGlance.aspx Most Recent (2000-2001) Graduate Medical Education Directory (“Green Book”) - http://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/Portals/0/PDFs/2000-01.pdf ACGME History - http://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/tabid/122/About/ACGMEHistory.aspx Common Program Requirements - http://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/Portals/0/PFAssets/ProgramRequirements/CPRs2013.pdf Graduate Medical Education Data Resource Book - https://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/Publications/GraduateMedicalEducationDataResourceBook.aspx Glossary of Terms - http://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/Portals/0/PFAssets/ProgramRequirements/ab_ACGMEglossary.pdf
  12. 12. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 12 [156] International medical graduates in American medicine: Contemporary challenges and opportunities. American Medical Association. Jan. 2013. http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/img/international-medical-graduates-in-american-medicine.pdf [157] United States Medical Licensing Examination. Tufts Univ. School of Medicine. Accessed Jan. 2014. http://medicine.tufts.edu/Who-We-Are/Administrative-Offices/Office-of-International-Affairs/Required-Qualifications/Medical-Licensing-Examination [158] Office of Educational Programs, University of Texas Medical School at Houston. Many great links! http://med.uth.tmc.edu/administration/edu_programs/index.html Physician Workforce [159] Annual Address on the State of the Physician Workforce. C. Erikson et al. AAMC's Center for Workforce Studies. 2013-11-02. https://event.crowdcompass.com/aamc2013/activity/KmcfgpcRiJ [160] Physician Workforce Projections in an Era of Health Care Reform. D. Kirch, M. Henderson, and M. Dill. Annual Review of Medicine, Vol. 63: 435 -445. February 2012. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-med-050310-134634?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed [161] Primary Care Health Workforce in the United States. C. Dower, E. O'Neil. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2011-07-01. http://www.rwjf.org/en/research-publications/find-rwjf-research/2011/07/primary-care-health-workforce-in-the-united-states0.html [162] Specialization, subspecialization, and subsubspecialization in internal medicine. C. Cassel and D. Reuben. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 24;364(12):1169-73. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsb1012647 [163] International medical graduates in American medicine: Contemporary challenges and opportunities. American Medical Association – IMG Section Governing Council. January 2013. http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/img/international-medical-graduates-in-american-medicine.pdf [164] 2012 Physician Specialty Data Book. Center for Workforce Studies. American Association of Medical Colleges. November 2012. https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/2012%20Physician%20Specialty%20Data%20Book.pdf [165] Physician Compensation: Where the Market is Going. Sullivan, Cotter and Associates for the American Medical Group Association. 2013-03-13. https://www.eiseverywhere.com/file_uploads/5f5dedc5323d81d666261a4e9a6436bf_2013_AMGA_Presentation_CFO_3-13-13_to_AMGA_Print.pdf 2013 Survey Results, 2013-08-12, AMGA Press Release: http://www.amga.org/AboutAMGA/News/article_news.asp?k=675 News Account and Physician Compensation Averages: http://cejka.force.com/physiciancompensation [166] Trends in the earnings of health care professionals in the United States, 1987-2010. SA Seabury, AB Jena, A Chandra. JAMA. 2012 Nov 28;308(20):2083-5. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.14552. http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1456053 Nurse, Nurse Practitioner, and Physician Assistant Workforce [167] Nursing in the United States. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nursing_in_the_United_States [168] The U.S. Nursing Workforce: Trends in Supply and Education – Results in Brief. AHRQ National Center for Health Workforce Analysis. April 2013. http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/nursingworkforce/nursingworkforcebrief.pdf [169] Quick Facts: Registered Nurses. Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Registered-nurses.htm [170] The nursing workforce in an era of health care reform. DI Auerbach, DO Staiger, U Muench, PI Buerhaus. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 18;368(16):1470-2. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1301694. http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1301694
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  19. 19. Nearly All Free Health Care References, 2014 Q1 and Q2, © David A. Butz 19 10. ALSO OF INTEREST [255] CPT and ICD-9 Coding for Surgical Residents and New Surgeons. American College of Surgeons. 2004. Accessed Jan. 2014. http://www.facs.org/ahp/codingmanual.pdf [256] Group Purchasing Organizations: Services Provided to Customers and Initiatives Regarding Their Business Practices. General Accounting Office, August 2010. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10738.pdf [257] Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Congressional Budget Office. Oct 2006. http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/76xx/doc7615/10-02-drugr-d.pdf [258] Drug Discovery and Development. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, February 2007. http://www.phrma.org/sites/default/files/159/rd_brochure_022307.pdf See Also: 2013 Profile of the Biopharmaceutical Research Industry - http://phrma.org/sites/default/files/pdf/PhRMA%20Profile%202013.pdf See Also Chartpack of Biopharmaceuticals in Perspective - http://phrma.org/sites/default/files/pdf/CHART%20PACK_online%20version_13APR04_forweb.pdf [259] The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States. L. Shrestha and E. Heisler. Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C., March 31, 2011. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32701.pdf [260] Healthy People 2020: Topics & Objectives. US Dept. of Health and Human Services. Accessed Jan. 2014. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/default.aspx [261] 50 Things to Know About the Hospital Industry. L. Dunn and S. Becker. Beckers Hospital Review. 2013-07-23. http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/50-things-to-know-about-the-hospital-industry.html [262] Atlas of the Human Body. American Medical Association. Accessed Jan. 2013. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/patient-education-materials/atlas-of-human-body.pag [263] Addressing overutilization in medical imaging. Hendee WR, Becker GJ, Borgstede JP, Bosma J, Casarella WJ, Erickson BA, Maynard CD, Thrall JH, Wallner PE. Radiology. 2010 Oct;257(1):240-5. Epub 2010 Aug 24. http://radiology.rsna.org/content/257/1/240.full.pdf+html Biography David Butz received his PhD in Economics in 1985 from Northwestern University. After eight years on the Economics faculty at UCLA, he moved to Ann Arbor, MI, where he has served in various capacities on the faculty of the University of Michigan’s Business and Medical Schools. He is presently adjunct faculty at the University’s Ross School of Business. Butz now spends the bulk of his time working for CareEvolution, an Ann Arbor-based health information exchange. Other research interests lie in health care outcomes research, industrial organization, law and economics, antitrust, and supply chain contracting, where he has published numerous peerreviewed papers. Reach Butz at dabutz@DABAnalytics.com.