Back in 1991 no one knew about interactive whiteboards, much less why they might want or need one. It took substantial effort to inform people about the new innovation and its benefits. Educators who needed to give lectures at a distance were among the first to recognize the potential of the interactive whiteboard, as they had been giving lectures using low-speed modems and early versions of operating systems that were often unstable, slow and offered few graphics capabilities.Three patents were granted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in recognition of this innovation.
“Laggards are the last to adopt an innovation. Unlike some of the previous categories, individuals in this category show little to no opinion leadership. These individuals typically have an aversion to change-agents and tend to be advanced in age. Laggards typically tend to be focused on "traditions", likely to have lowest social status, lowest financial fluidity, be oldest of all other adopters, in contact with only family and close friends, very little to no opinion leadership” (Rogers, 2003).
“Critical mass is a socio dynamic term to describe the existence of a sufficient amount of adopters of an innovation in a social system such that the rate of adoption becomes self-sustaining and creates further growth” (Roger, 2003).
“The classical diffusion approach assumes a centralized research and development organization that makes most decisions about the innovation and its diffusion” (Rogers, 2003).
“The change agent influences clients' innovation decisions in a direction deemed desirable by a change agency. Change agents act as linkers between the change agency and clients” (Rogers, 2003).
THE IMPACT OF INTERACTIVEWHITEBOARDS IN EDUCATION Multimedia Presentation Project Created by Diana Absatz EDUC-7101-1/EDUC-8841-1 Diffusion and Integration of Technology in Education
WHAT IS AN INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD? An interactive whiteboard (IWB), is a largeinteractive display that connects to a computer and projector. A projector projects the computersdesktop onto the boards surface where users control the computer using a pen, finger, stylus, or other device. The board is typically mounted to a wall or floor stand.
INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD TIMELINE DecisionJANUARY 1991 First Interactive whiteboard developed. http://www.enotes.com/topic/Smart_Board PersuasionOCTOBER 2002 Smart Board goes wireless. http://www.macworld.com/article/1007121/smart.html ImplementationMarch 2003 Online community for teachers.http://downloads01.smarttech.com/media/research/whitepapers/research_whitepaper_update.pdf KnowledgeAugust 2005 Smart board produces 2 minute tutorialshttp://www.invergrove.k12.mn.us/sites/uploads/SMART_Board_recommendation_2.pdf KnowledgeJune 2006 All- in- one Smart board http://smarttech.com/us/news DecisionOctober 2008 Smart tablet released http://www.ehow.com/facts_4915092_what-history-smart-board.html PersuasionJuly 2010 New smart response (allows interaction and student response from any web- enabled mobiledevice). http://www.whiteboardblog.co.uk/notify
WHY TEACHERS NEED TO USE AN INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD? IWB can be used with any software. They are extremely adaptable for numerous uses and do not require acquisition of additional software. Their creative use is limited only by the imaginations of teachers and students. One-computer classrooms can Interactive applications are in demand for maximize the use of limited educators who want to involve their students in computer access by using the learning with technology whiteboard Interactive whiteboards in education There is no The board can messy chalk accommodate dust or other different learning by-product, styles. which can Presentation tools are limit use. increasing in popularity and demand for educators who want to share ideas and information with large or small groups of students
T In 1986, David Martin and NancyH Knowlton were driving through upstateE New York when David first described a product idea hed been working on toO Nancy. A year later, SMART was founded.RI Originally, the company was the CanadianG distributor for a U.S. projector company,I and revenue was generated through projector sales. That revenue was directedN toward the research and development ofS the SMART Board interactive whiteboard.O The first interactive whiteboard wasF introduced by SMART Technologies to the consumer market in 1991. Upon itsS release, the SMART board became the first THE ORIGINS OFM interactive board to set the feature ofA incorporating touch control of computer THER applications as well as annotation over INTERACTIVET basic Microsoft Windows programs. WHITE BOARDSIWB
THE ORIGINS OF INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARDSIn In 1992, SMARTformed a strategic alliance with Intel Corporation, which 1992, SMART formed alliance with Intel Corporation, which resulted in joint product development,joint marketing efforts and Intels resulted in joint product development, joint marketing efforts and Intels equity ownership in SMART. Other than the Intel equity investment and someequity ownership in SMART. Other than the Intel equity investment and some small investments from family and friends, the company relied on its retained small investments from family and friends, the company relied on its retained earnings to fuel growth in these early years. earnings to fuel growth in these early years. That relationship with Intel was one of the key building blocks in SMARTs That relationship with Intel was one of the key building blocks in SMARTs history. history.http://www.smarttech.com/us/About+SMART/
PRODUCTION, MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, MARKETING, AND DISTRIBUTION Prices for Interactive Whiteboards vary, depending on the brand and what is needed, from $750 for just the whiteboard to $6,000 for a whole system.http://www.nextag.com/interactive-whiteboard/compare-html Nancy Knowlton from Smart technologies took on the responsibility of marketing and sales by 2000. By 2002,one hundred thousand interactive boards had been shipped out to different places around the world. The interactive board can be purchased as a complete package with the whiteboard, projector, and software. There are many different types of interactive boards on the market such as the ebeam, mimio and many others with various prices.
SMART Showcase SchoolsSmart Technologies promotes theadoption of SMART boards by settingSMART board systems into “ShowcaseClassrooms” to large School Districts.These “Smart showcase classrooms”demonstrate how SMART products cantransform classrooms and improvelearning outcomes. They serve as hostsites for educators who are interested inimplementing SMART products – andreceive benefits, including professionaldevelopment opportunities. Become aSMART Showcase School and share yoursuccess story.http://www.smarttech.com/us/Resources/SMART+education+programs
Interactive White Boards Vs. Traditional Tools (The Research)Robert Marzano recently divided 85educators into two groups:One taught a lesson to students usinginteractive whiteboards and theother taught the same lesson usingstandard, more traditional tools. Hisdata was undeniable:
RESULTS INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD MARZANO’S FINAL WINS THOUGHTS• Immediate increase of 17% in scores.• If a teacher had been given 20-30 “Beyond this sweet spot, dragons months to hone his or her skills, await in the form of diminishing there was an average 20 returns in improved student percentile gain. scores, thus proving, he adds, that you clearly "cant take the• If a teacher had used it for two human being out of years, and did so 75 % of the teaching”(Marzano, 2011). time. That profile shows a whopping 29 percentile gain in scores.
THE S-CURVE FOR INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARDSIt appears that the S-Curve for Interactive Electronic Whiteboards is still in a high growth rate and yet to level out. According to data, sales of IEW’s have been growing at a rate of 15% per year. It appears that, despite a sluggish economy, the sale of IEW’s will steadily increase into the future. It is expected to keep or increase this rate at least through theyear 2013 where the sale of IEW’s will top $2 billion in total sales.www.digitallearning.in
STATISTICS * 377,000 interactive whiteboards were sold to education institutions in 2007.*The forecast is that interactive whiteboard category will increase by 200 percent in the next five years and that one in six classrooms will have an interactive whiteboard by 2011. * SMART boards now holds 53 % of the product category share in the education segment in the United States
FUTURE OF INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARDS According to an article found on Reuters, 377,000 interactive whiteboards were sold in 2007. That number is projected to increase by 200 percent by 2011. A number of features make interactive whiteboards a desirable classroom tool.http://www.forbes.com/prnewswire/feeds/prnewswire
WHAT TYPE OF ADOPTER IS THE SCHOOL DISTRICT OF PBC ?The School District of Palm BeachCounty falls into the category ofLaggards regarding the adoption ofnew technology in primary grades“The laggard’s precarious economic position forcesthese individuals to be extremely cautious in adoptinginnovations” (Rogers, 2003)*The school district of PBC allocates 15,000 annually for technology to elementary schools.*About 50% of the money allocated for technology is used to maintain technology already purchased.
HOW TO CONVINCE LAGGARDS TO ADOPT IWBS?Trial ability seems to be the best way to approachlaggards like the School District of Palm beachCounty ”An innovation that is trial able represents less uncertainty to the individual who is considering it foradoption, who can learn by doing”(Rogers, 2003).*If teachers request Smart Technologies to transform their classrooms intosmart showcase classrooms, teachers will be able to show to their schooldistricts and colleagues how SMART interactive whiteboards can transformclassrooms into 21st century classrooms and improve learning outcomes.*By successfully using interactive whiteboards in their showcaseclassrooms , teachers will be able to compile case studies and their resultsto show that the use of interactive whiteboards can make a difference inacademic achievement.*Laggards need to see plenty of positive evidence regarding the successof an educational innovation before considering adoption.
TEACHERS HAVE THE POWER TO CHANGE THINGSBy implementing showcase classrooms in schools,educators will get the chance to learn from observing otherteachers who use the interactive whiteboards effectively. MODELING TRAINING MODELING TRAINING….. *It is well-known that teachers play a crucial role in efforts to implement innovations.*Teachers can make technology integration a priority in the professional development budget.
CRITICAL MASS AND INTERACTIVE WHITE BOARDSCritical mass was quickly met after teachers discovered the ability of the interactive whiteboard. The IWB has the potential to greatly improve a classroom. Society hasaccepted the interactive whiteboard across the globe.
Hierarchy for initial adoption (Board chair directors, Superintendents,Chief of staff, and Chief information officers are committed to put in practice the initiative “No Child left behind: Enhancing education through technology initiatives” Incentives for early adoption: Smart technologies has showcase classrooms in many school districts all over the United States. Individuals’ perception s of the innovation can be shaped: Manyteachers have changed their perception of IWB’s after witnessing their effectiveness in student engagement.The innovation should be introduced to intact groups in the systems:School districts are solid organizations in the process of growing. The education field at all levels is the major target for all interactive whiteboards manufacturers.
CENTRALIZED DIFFUSION The centralized diffusion system is the best system to approach the board of directors of the Palm Beach school district.The school district of Palm Beach county is a large organization that makes most decisions about innovations and their diffusion to all public schools in Palm Beach County.The technology department of the SDPBC is conformed by a team of technical experts devoted to improve the quality of educationaltechnology, and posses the ability to gain adoption of innovations not popular but important for public schools education.
KEY CHANGE AGENTS School board directors, educational technologists, school principals and otherAdministrators working for the school board are the key change agents.Principals and Administrators can be supportive in developing relationships with their facultyand staff members to persuade/convince them in how essential the need is for adopting the Interactive Whiteboards.
When an organization like a public school districtdecides to implement an innovation and allocatesresources to it, the implementation consists of eventsand actions that pertain to modifying the innovation,preparing the organization for its use, trial use,acceptance of the innovation by the users and continueuse of the innovation until it becomes a routine featureof the organization. In this phase the innovation is putinto use by organizational members, administration,technology specialists, and faculty.
INTERNAL ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS*Complexity: * INTERCONNECTEDNESS : Smart tech has built the resources toEducational technologists at provide teachers and students with theschools will offer their high capabilities to effectively design, prototype and test new ideas andlevel of knowledge and concepts for the next generation ofexpertise to support faculty intelligent interactive products, systems and services. They are reshaping theafter the installation of way we interact and communicate.interactive whiteboards. * EDUCATIONAL SLACK WAS*Formalization: LEFT IN THE PAST:Procedures and rules will be Orange County Public Schools in Orlando, Florida is the tenth largestestablished and enforce to U.S. public school district with moreencourage the than 181,000 students and 8,000 classrooms. Classrooms will beimplementation of smart equipped with SMART Board 800boards in the classrooms. series interactive whiteboards in 2012.
“ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS AT ORANGE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF USING SMART PRODUCTS IN THE CLASSROOM TO ENGAGE AND SUPPORT TODAY’S LEARNERS,” SAYS PATRICK NAGEL, VICE-PRESIDENT,AMERICAS, SMART TECHNOLOGIES. “WE ARE PLEASED TO BE THE SOLE SUPPLIER OF INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARDS FOR OCPS AND LOOK FORWARD TOPROVIDING PRODUCTS THAT HELP IMPROVE STUDENT OUTCOMES” (NAGEL, 2012)
WHAT EDUCATIONAL CHAMPIONS TECHNOLOGISTS ARE SAYING ABOUT IWB?NAME: Myron Rumsey, director of technologyDISTRICT: Odessa-Montour (NY) CentralSchool District “This tool transforms teaching and changes how students perceive instructional material. It equalizes visual and audio learners. We’ve seen a huge increase in student participation wherever teachers use the whiteboard. We have interactive whiteboards in 20 percent of our district, and we have plans to expand them into the rest of our district”.
WHAT EDUCATIONAL CHAMPIONS TECHNOLOGISTS ARE SAYING ABOUT IWB? NAME: Patricia M. Kershaw, instructional technology manager DISTRICT: Fauquier County (VA) Public Schools“Fauquier County Public Schools serves about 12,000 students and employs morethan 1,800 teachers, administrators, and support staff members. We have aninteractive whiteboard in every core classroom in every elementary school in thedistrict. The other middle schools and high schools have several whiteboards onwheels that classrooms share. When the whiteboard is used appropriately, theverbal and auditory learner can also benefit from the large group learningenvironment. We chose SMART Boards because of the “touch” technology, whichallows students the ability to touch the screen and manipulate the object on thescreen. This capability lets students participate physically with the materials onthe board.
WHAT DO ADMINISTRATORS CHAMPIONS HAVE TO SAY ABOUT IWB’S? Jason Briggs, vice principal The Smart Boards were also easy to SCHOOL: Saint Gregory the Great install. We hope to add interaction School (NJ) devices, such as tablets, to our Smart Board systems in order to increase student participation.“We use Smart Boards because we wantto acquaint students with cutting-edgetechnology, and we believe thatinstructional technology lets our teachersmaximize effective student learning. Thesoftware is intuitive to learn and featuresa variety of papers and templates that fitseamlessly into teachers’ lessons.
CONCLUSION “85% of the classrooms in the UK have Adopted interactive whiteboards” (Marzano, 2011)“Sen.Michael Bennet said, “ if there isn’t more investment in technologyin schools, classrooms will look the same in 20 years as they do nowand American students will fall behind”(Sherry, 2012). Children in Palm Beach County will be left behind without more technology Adopted !!!!!!!!!
CONCLUSION One of the latest case studies conducted by Dr. Marzano showed a16 percentile point gain in student achievement in classroomsusing the interactive whiteboards. The article also mentioned how the use of graphics to represent information could increase studentachievement to a 26 percentile point gain. It went on further to mention that a 31 percentile point gain could be found in classrooms where the interactive whiteboard reinforcer was used.
VIDEO CLIP: MARZANOAND TEACHING WITH INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARDS
ROBERT MARZANO“Interactive whiteboards are the future ofeducational strategies, and without proper adoption of these and other technology tools, teachers are doomed to become dinosaurs in their practices.”
REFERENCESE-World Forum.(2011) Interactive Whiteboards: Bringing Life to Classrooms. Digital Learning Magazine. Retrieved May 15, 2012 from: http://issuu.com/dl_magazine/docs/Marzano. R; (2011) Marzano Research Laboratory. Retrieved from http://www.marzanoresearch.com/documents/whiteboards_webinars_ 4_1.pdf. On May 11, 2012.Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.Smart Technologies. (2012). Smart Showcase Schools. Education Programs and Funding Resources. Retrieved May 9, 2012 from: http://www.smarttech.com/usSMART Technologies. (2012). The history of SMART. About Smart Technologies. Retrieved On May 8, 2012 from : http://www.smarttech.com/us/About+SMART/Wolper-Gawron, H., (2011). Technology Combined with Good Teaching Leads to Success. Edutopia. Retrieved May 12, 2012 from: http://www.edutopia.org/