TRIGLYERIDES
AIMS:
•Be able to define all terms involved in the making of “healthy
alternatives to butter”;
•Understand pr...
Some definitions
1. Triglycerides
• esters of glycerol (propane-1,2,3-triol) with 3 carboxylic
acids;
• carboxylic acids d...
2. Fatty acids
– Naturally occurring carboxylic acids in triglycerides
– The acids contain long hydrocarbon chains

3. Sat...
Olive oil
80% oleic acid

10% linoleic acid

Cis-octadec-9-enoic acid
CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH

cis,cis-octadec-9,12-dieno...
SOAPS
• Mixture of animal fat and coconut palm oil;
• If mainly animal fat
– Less soluble
– Longer lasting

• If mainly pa...
HYDROGENATION
Margarine
– cheap substitute for butter
– hydrogen added to veg oils, saturating C=C
– Catalyst is finely tu...
Trans-fats
• Naturally occurring fatty acids exist as cisisomers;
• Nickel catalyst causes some to become trans;
• Therefo...
New production method
• A process that allows triglycerides to swap fatty
acid molecules;
• Result is a product with a hig...
TRANS-ESTERIFICATION
• ONE ESTER CONVERTED INTO ANOTHER ESTER
RCO-OR’ + R’’OH

RCO-OR’’ + R’OH
different alkoxy group
BIOFUELS
• Trigylerides in veg oils and animal fats
• Heated with methanol or ethanol in presence
of a catalyst base e.g. ...
PROS AND CONS OF BIOFUELS
• PROS:
– Used to reduce CO2 emissions;

• CONS:
• They are not carbon neutral:
–
–
–
–
–
–

Cle...
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Triglyerides

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Triglyerides

  1. 1. TRIGLYERIDES AIMS: •Be able to define all terms involved in the making of “healthy alternatives to butter”; •Understand processes involved in production of alternatives; •Know the pros and cons of butter alternative and biofuels produced by trans-esterification.
  2. 2. Some definitions 1. Triglycerides • esters of glycerol (propane-1,2,3-triol) with 3 carboxylic acids; • carboxylic acids do not need to be the same; H O H C O C R O H C O C R’ O H C O C R’’ H 1 2 3 1.from glycerol 2.3 ester links 3.from fatty acids
  3. 3. 2. Fatty acids – Naturally occurring carboxylic acids in triglycerides – The acids contain long hydrocarbon chains 3. Saturated fatty acids – No double bonds in acids 4. Fats – Solid at room temperature – Contain high proportion of saturated fatty acids 5. Unsaturated fatty acids – One or more C=C in each molecule – Less regular structure than fatty acids – Generally liquid at room temperature
  4. 4. Olive oil 80% oleic acid 10% linoleic acid Cis-octadec-9-enoic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH cis,cis-octadec-9,12-dienoic acid CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH **NOW TRY DRAWING SKELETAL FORMULA**
  5. 5. SOAPS • Mixture of animal fat and coconut palm oil; • If mainly animal fat – Less soluble – Longer lasting • If mainly palm oil – More soluble – Lather quickly – Wash away quickly **antioxidants added to stop soap and air combining to make irritant chamicals**
  6. 6. HYDROGENATION Margarine – cheap substitute for butter – hydrogen added to veg oils, saturating C=C – Catalyst is finely turned nickel, suspended in the oil – Not all C=C required to be broken to make solid – A blend of oils, some harder than others – Used as spreads and to make cakes and biscuits
  7. 7. Trans-fats • Naturally occurring fatty acids exist as cisisomers; • Nickel catalyst causes some to become trans; • Therefore there is a proportion of trans-fats in products made using partially hardened oils; • Growing concerns about trans-fats and poor health.
  8. 8. New production method • A process that allows triglycerides to swap fatty acid molecules; • Result is a product with a high melting point; • This process allows molecules to pack closer together, making them denser; • Process called TRANS-ESTERIFICATION; • Produces triglycerides not found naturally; • Catalysts used: – Sodium methoxide – lipase
  9. 9. TRANS-ESTERIFICATION • ONE ESTER CONVERTED INTO ANOTHER ESTER RCO-OR’ + R’’OH RCO-OR’’ + R’OH different alkoxy group
  10. 10. BIOFUELS • Trigylerides in veg oils and animal fats • Heated with methanol or ethanol in presence of a catalyst base e.g. NaOH in alcohol • When reaction completed, fatty acids converted to methyl or ethyl esters and a glycerol by product.
  11. 11. PROS AND CONS OF BIOFUELS • PROS: – Used to reduce CO2 emissions; • CONS: • They are not carbon neutral: – – – – – – Clearing land to grow crops e.g. Rain forests! Manufacture of fertiliser; Plant cultivation; Harvesting; Extraction of oil; Processing oil to make fuel. NEW RESEARCH IS DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVES DERIVED FROM WASTE FOOD CROPS AND GROWING CROPS ON MARGINAL LAND (NOT SUITABLE FOR FOOD PRODUCTION)

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