Criminal Justice:     A Brief Introduction                      Ninth Edition              By Frank Schmalleger           ...
A Brief History of Crime in America         • 1850 – 1880                    – Crime epidemic                             ...
A Brief History of Crime in America         • Mid-1980s                    – Increase in sale and use of illicit drugs    ...
A Brief History of Crime in America         • 2002 and 2003                    – Corporate crime and white-collar crime   ...
The Theme of This Book         • Individual rights versus public order         • 1960s and 1970s, known as the civil right...
The Theme of This Book         • Individual-rights advocate                    – One who seeks to protect personal freedom...
Criminal Justice & Basic Fairness         • Justice                    – The principle of fairness; the ideal of moral equ...
Criminal Justice & Basic Fairness         • Civil justice                    – A component of social justice concerned wit...
American Criminal Justice:                                                System and Functions     • Consensus model      ...
Due Process and Individual Rights         • Due process                    – A right guaranteed by the Fifth, Sixth, and F...
The Role of the Courts in Defining Rights         • Rights are open to interpretation         • U. S. Supreme Court       ...
The Ultimate Goal:                               Crime Control through Due Process         • Crime-control model          ...
The Ultimate Goal:                      Crime Control through Due Process           • Crime control through due process   ...
Evidence-Based Practice in Criminal Justice         • Refers to crime-fighting strategies that have been           scienti...
The Start of Academic Criminal Justice         • Began in the late 1920s         • August Vollmer persuaded the University...
The Start of Academic Criminal Justice         • By the 1960s, students began to apply the           techniques of social ...
Multiculturalism and Diversity                                               in Criminal Justice         • Multiculturalis...
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Chapter 1 introduction to criminal justice

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Chapter 1 introduction to criminal justice

  1. 1. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank Schmalleger Chapter 1 What Is Criminal Justice?Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. A Brief History of Crime in America • 1850 – 1880 – Crime epidemic • Related to social upheaval caused by immigration and the Civil War • Prohibition years – Widespread organized criminal activity • 1960s and 1970s – Concern for rights of ethnic and racial minorities, women, people with physical and mental challenges • By the 1980s, civil rights affected the criminal justice systemCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 2 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  3. 3. A Brief History of Crime in America • Mid-1980s – Increase in sale and use of illicit drugs • Mid-1990s – Bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building and Columbine High School massacre – Emphasis on individual accountability • September 11, 2001 – Law enforcement involves a global effort at controlling crimeCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 3 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  4. 4. A Brief History of Crime in America • 2002 and 2003 – Corporate crime and white-collar crime – Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) • Intended to deter corporate fraud and hold business executives accountableCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 4 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  5. 5. The Theme of This Book • Individual rights versus public order • 1960s and 1970s, known as the civil rights era – Strong emphasis on individual rights – Guarantee the rights of defendants and attempt to understand the causes of crime and violence • Today, we have a shift away from the offender as victim and now see the offender as a dangerous social predator • Late-2010, Chelsea’s Law passed the CA senateCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 5 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  6. 6. The Theme of This Book • Individual-rights advocate – One who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice • Public-order advocate – One who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rightsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 6 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  7. 7. Criminal Justice & Basic Fairness • Justice – The principle of fairness; the ideal of moral equity • Social justice – Linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrongCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 7 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  8. 8. Criminal Justice & Basic Fairness • Civil justice – A component of social justice concerned with fairness in relationships between citizens, government agencies, and businesses in private matters • Criminal justice – The aspects of social justice that concern violations of the criminal lawCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 8 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  9. 9. American Criminal Justice: System and Functions • Consensus model – Assumes that the system’s components work together harmoniously to achieve justice • Conflict model – Assumes that the system’s components function primarily to serve their own interestsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 9 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  10. 10. Due Process and Individual Rights • Due process – A right guaranteed by the Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments of the U. S. Constitution – Bill of Rights – Standard was set in the 1960s by the Warren CourtCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 10 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  11. 11. The Role of the Courts in Defining Rights • Rights are open to interpretation • U. S. Supreme Court – Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) • Sixth Amendment guarantee of a right to counsel • Including court-appointed counsel for those unable to afford a lawyer – Court’s interpretation of the Sixth AmendmentCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 11 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  12. 12. The Ultimate Goal: Crime Control through Due Process • Crime-control model – A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and convictions of offenders • Due process model – A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of the justice system processing • Often assumed to be opposing goalsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 12 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  13. 13. The Ultimate Goal: Crime Control through Due Process • Crime control through due process – A system of social control that is fair to those whom it processes – Law enforcement infused with the recognition of individual rights • Social control – The use of sanctions and rewards within a group to influence and shape the behavior of individual members of that groupCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 13 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  14. 14. Evidence-Based Practice in Criminal Justice • Refers to crime-fighting strategies that have been scientifically tested – Based on social science research – A major element in the increasing professionalization of criminal justice – Strong demand for the application of evidence-based practices throughout criminal justiceCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 14 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  15. 15. The Start of Academic Criminal Justice • Began in the late 1920s • August Vollmer persuaded the University of California to offer courses • Early criminal justice education was practice oriented • Primarily focused on the application of general management principles to the administration of police agencies • Organizational effectivenessCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 15 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  16. 16. The Start of Academic Criminal Justice • By the 1960s, students began to apply the techniques of social science research – Criminology, sociology, psychology, and political science • Criminology – The scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offendersCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 16 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  17. 17. Multiculturalism and Diversity in Criminal Justice • Multiculturalism – The existence within one society of diverse groups that maintain unique cultural identities while frequently accepting and participating in the larger society’s legal and political systems – Is one form of diversityCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 17 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved

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