Criminal     Justice:      A Brief    Introductio      Chapter 1          n Is       What      Ninth Edition              ...
A Brief History of      Crime in America    • 1850 – 1880          – Crime epidemic               • Related to social uphe...
A Brief History of          Crime in America    • Mid-1980s          – Increase in sale and use            of illicit drug...
A Brief History of          Crime in America    • 2002 and 2003          – Corporate crime and white-            collar cr...
The Theme of This                  Book    • Individual rights versus      public order    • 1960s and 1970s, known      a...
The Theme of This                  Book    • Individual-rights      advocate          – One who seeks to protect          ...
Criminal Justice &           Basic Fairness    • Justice          – The principle of fairness;            the ideal of mor...
Criminal Justice &           Basic Fairness    • Civil justice          – A component of social            justice concern...
American Criminal           Justice:     System and Functions  • Consensus model        – Assumes that the system’s       ...
Due Process and            Individual Rights    • Due process          – A right guaranteed by the            Fifth, Sixth...
The Role of the Courts       in Defining Rights    • Rights are open to      interpretation    • U. S. Supreme Court      ...
The Ultimate Goal:     Crime Control through           Due Process    • Crime-control model          – A criminal justice ...
The Ultimate Goal:         Crime Control     •through Due through      Crime control Process         due process          ...
Evidence-Based      Practice in Criminal    • Refers to crime-fighting              Justice        strategies that have   ...
The Start of       Academic Criminal    • Began in the late 1920s             Justice    • August Vollmer persuaded      t...
The Start of       Academic Criminal    • By the 1960s, students             Justice      began to apply the        techni...
Multiculturalism and              Diversity         in Criminal Justice    • Multiculturalism          – The existence wit...
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Chapter 1 introduction to criminal justice

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Chapter 1 introduction to criminal justice

  1. 1. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introductio Chapter 1 n Is What Ninth Edition Criminal By Frank Schmalleger Justice?Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. A Brief History of Crime in America • 1850 – 1880 – Crime epidemic • Related to social upheaval caused by immigration and the Civil War • Prohibition years – Widespread organized criminal activity • 1960s and 1970s – Concern for rights of ethnic and racial minorities, women, people with physical and mental challenges • By the 1980s, civil rights Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, affected the criminalCriminal Justice: A BriefIntroduction, 9/eFrank Schmalleger 1 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  3. 3. A Brief History of Crime in America • Mid-1980s – Increase in sale and use of illicit drugs • Mid-1990s – Bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building and Columbine High School massacre – Emphasis on individual accountability • September 11, 2001 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002,Criminal Justice: A Brief 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. – Law enforcement involves aIntroduction, 9/e 2 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rightsFrank Schmalleger reserved
  4. 4. A Brief History of Crime in America • 2002 and 2003 – Corporate crime and white- collar crime – Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) • Intended to deter corporate fraud and hold business executives accountable Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002,Criminal Justice: A Brief 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Introduction, 9/e 3 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rightsFrank Schmalleger reserved
  5. 5. The Theme of This Book • Individual rights versus public order • 1960s and 1970s, known as the civil rights era – Strong emphasis on individual rights – Guarantee the rights of defendants and attempt to understand the causes of crime and violence • Today, we have a shiftCriminal Justice: A Brief Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. away from the offenderIntroduction, 9/eFrank Schmalleger 4 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  6. 6. The Theme of This Book • Individual-rights advocate – One who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice • Public-order advocate – One who believes that under certain circumstances involving a Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, criminal threat to publicCriminal Justice: A BriefIntroduction, 9/eFrank Schmalleger 5 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  7. 7. Criminal Justice & Basic Fairness • Justice – The principle of fairness; the ideal of moral equity • Social justice – Linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrongCriminal Justice: A Brief Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Introduction, 9/e 6 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rightsFrank Schmalleger reserved
  8. 8. Criminal Justice & Basic Fairness • Civil justice – A component of social justice concerned with fairness in relationships between citizens, government agencies, and businesses in private matters • Criminal justice – The aspects of social justice that concern Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002,Criminal Justice: A Brief 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Introduction, 9/e 7 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rightsFrank Schmalleger reserved
  9. 9. American Criminal Justice: System and Functions • Consensus model – Assumes that the system’s components work together harmoniously to achieve justice • Conflict model – Assumes that the system’s components function primarily to serve their own interestsCriminal Justice: A Brief Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Introduction, 9/e 8 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rightsFrank Schmalleger reserved
  10. 10. Due Process and Individual Rights • Due process – A right guaranteed by the Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments of the U. S. Constitution – Bill of Rights – Standard was set in the 1960s by the Warren Court Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002,Criminal Justice: A Brief 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Introduction, 9/e 9 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rightsFrank Schmalleger reserved
  11. 11. The Role of the Courts in Defining Rights • Rights are open to interpretation • U. S. Supreme Court – Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) • Sixth Amendment guarantee of a right to counsel • Including court-appointed counsel for those unable to afford a lawyer – Court’s interpretation of the Sixth AmendmentCriminal Justice: A Brief Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Introduction, 9/e 10 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rightsFrank Schmalleger reserved
  12. 12. The Ultimate Goal: Crime Control through Due Process • Crime-control model – A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and convictions of offenders • Due process model – A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, the justice systemCriminal Justice: A BriefIntroduction, 9/eFrank Schmalleger 11 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  13. 13. The Ultimate Goal: Crime Control •through Due through Crime control Process due process – A system of social control that is fair to those whom it processes – Law enforcement infused with the recognition of individual rights • Social control – The use of sanctions and rewards within a group toCriminal Justice: A BriefIntroduction, 9/e 12 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rightsFrank Schmalleger reserved
  14. 14. Evidence-Based Practice in Criminal • Refers to crime-fighting Justice strategies that have been scientifically tested – Based on social science research – A major element in the increasing professionalization of criminal justice – Strong demand for the Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, application of evidence-Criminal Justice: A BriefIntroduction, 9/eFrank Schmalleger 13 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  15. 15. The Start of Academic Criminal • Began in the late 1920s Justice • August Vollmer persuaded the University of California to offer courses • Early criminal justice education was practice oriented • Primarily focused on the application of general management principles to Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002,Criminal Justice: A Brief 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Introduction, 9/e 14 Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rightsFrank Schmalleger reserved
  16. 16. The Start of Academic Criminal • By the 1960s, students Justice began to apply the techniques of social science research – Criminology, sociology, psychology, and political science • Criminology – The scientific study of the causes and prevention Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, of crime and theCriminal Justice: A BriefIntroduction, 9/eFrank Schmalleger 15 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  17. 17. Multiculturalism and Diversity in Criminal Justice • Multiculturalism – The existence within one society of diverse groups that maintain unique cultural identities while frequently accepting and participating in the larger society’s legal and political systems Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, – Is one form of diversityCriminal Justice: A BriefIntroduction, 9/eFrank Schmalleger 16 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved

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