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    0138020272 ppt12 0138020272 ppt12 Presentation Transcript

    • Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank SchmallegerPearson Education, Inc.
    • Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank Schmalleger Chapter 12 Prison LifePearson Education, Inc.
    • Research on Prison Life: Total Institutions • Total Institution – An enclosed facility separated from society both socially and physically, where the inhabitants share all aspects of their daily livesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 3 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Male Inmate’s World • Two social realities coexist in prison settings – The official structure of rules and procedures put in place by the wider society and enforced by the prison staff – The more informal but decidedly more powerful inmate world • Prison Subculture • The values and behavioral patterns characteristic of prison inmatesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 4 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Male Inmate’s World • Prisonization – The process whereby newly institutionalized offenders come to accept prison lifestyles and criminal values • Five elements of the prison code in 1960 – Don’t interfere with the interests of other inmates – Don’t lose your head – Don’t exploit inmates – Don’t whine – Don’t be a suckerCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 5 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Male Inmate’s World • Some have suggested that the prison code is simply a reflection of general criminal values • If so, these values are brought to the institution rather than created thereCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 6 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Functions of Prison Subcultures • According to some, prison subcultures are fundamentally an adaptation to deprivation and confinement • Prisoners are deprived of – Liberty – Goods and services – Heterosexual relationships – Autonomy – Personal securityCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 7 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Functions of Prison Subcultures • Importation model • Inmates bring with them values, roles, and behavior patterns from the outside world • The social structure of the prison is another element that shapes prison subcultureCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 8 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Prison Lifestyles and Inmate Types • The mean dude • The hedonist • The opportunist • The retreatist • The legalist • The radical • The colonizer • The religious • The gangbanger • The realistCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 9 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Homosexuality and Sexual Victimization in Prison • Bowker’s observations of sexual violence – Most sexual aggressors do not consider themselves homosexuals – Sexual release is not the primary motivation for sexual attack – Many aggressors must continue to participate in gang rapes to avoid becoming victims themselves – The aggressors have themselves suffered damage to their masculinity in the pastCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 10 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Female Inmate’s World • Accounting for 7% of all prison inmates • Profile based on national data for female offenders – Disproportionately women of color – In their early to middle 30s – Most likely to have been convicted of a drug-related offense – Survivors of physical and/or sexual abuse as children and adults – High school or GED but limited vocational trainingCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 11 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Female Inmate’s World • Women’s most common pathways to crime involve survival strategies that result from physical and sexual abuse, poverty, and substance abuse • 80% of women entering prison are mothers • 85% of those women had custody of their children • Two-thirds of incarcerated women had minor childrenCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 12 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Female Inmate’s World • 25% of women entering prison either had recently given birth or is pregnant • The number of mothers who are incarcerated has more than doubled in the past 15 years • Statistically speaking, one out of every 43 American children has a parent in prison today • More than half of the children of female prisoners never visit their mothers in prison – Due primarily to remote locationsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 13 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Gender Responsiveness • NIC report recommendations – The creation of an effective system for female offenders that is structured differently from a system for male offenders – The development of gender-responsive policies and practices – The modification of the criminal justice sanctions to recognize the low risk to public safety represented by the typical female offender – The consideration of women’s relationshipsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 14 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Social Structure in Women’s Prisons • Female prisoners are likely to be black or Hispanic, poor, uneducated, abuse survivors, single parents, and in poor health • Female inmates construct organized pseudofamilies • Suffer intensely from the loss of affectional relationships • Pains of imprisonment • Sexual misconduct between staff and inmatesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 15 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Types of Female Inmates • Square inmates – Had few early experiences with criminal lifestyles – Tended to sympathize with the values and attitudes of conventional society • Cool inmates – More likely to be career offenders – Tended to keep to themselves and supported inmate values • Life inmates – Familiar with lives of crimeCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 16 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Types of Female Inmates – Full participants in the economic, social and familial arrangements of the prison • Recently, the social structure has been altered by “crack kids” – Streetwise young women with little respect for traditional prison values, for their elders, or even their own childrenCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 17 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Violence in Women’s Prisons • Some suggest that violence in women’s prisons is less frequent that it is in men’s prisons • Task Force on the Female Offender recommendations – Substance abuse programs – Need to acquire greater literacy skills – Housed in buildings without male inmates – Develop programs for keeping children in the facility – Institutions should be built to accommodate programsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 18 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Staff World • Facts and figures – Approximately 748,000 people are employed in corrections – Women account for 20% of all corrections officers – Corrections officers undergo a socialization process – Formative influence on staff culture is the potential threat that inmates poseCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 19 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Prison Riots • Causes of riots – Insensitive prison administration and neglect of inmates’ demands – Previous lifestyles of most inmates – Dehumanizing prison conditions – Regulation of inmate society and redistribution of power balances among inmate groups – Power vacuumsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 20 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Prison Riots • Security Threat Groups (STG) – An inmate group, gang, or organization whose members act together to pose a threat to the safety of corrections staff or the public • Real reasons for riots are probably specific to the institution – May not allow for generalizations – The growth of a revolutionary prisoner subcultureCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 21 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Prisoners’ Rights • Hands-off Doctrine – A policy of nonintervention with regard to prison management that U. S. courts tended to follow until the late 1960s • Civil Death – The legal status of prisoners in some jurisdictions who are denied the opportunity to vote, hold public office, marry, or enter into contractsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 22 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • The Legal Basis of Prisoners’ Rights • Pell v. Procunier (1974) • Balancing Test – A principle that attempts to weigh the rights of an individual against the authority of states to make laws or to otherwise restrict a person’s freedom in order to protect the state’s interest and its citizens • Conditional rights rather than absolute rightsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 23 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Grievance Procedures • Grievance Procedure – A formalized arrangement, usually involving a neutral hearing board, whereby institutionalized individuals have the opportunity to register complaints about the conditions of their confinement • Wolff v. McDonnell (1974) • Ponte v. Real (1985) • Vitek v. Jones (1980)Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 24 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • A Return to the Hands-Off Doctrine? • Wilson v. Seiter (1991) • Deliberate Indifference – A wanton disregard by corrections personnel for the well-being of inmates • Estelle v. Gamble (1976) • Sandin v. Conner (1995) • Hewitt v. Helms (1983) • Ali v. Federal Bureau of Prisons (2008)Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 25 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
    • Issues Facing Prisons Today • AIDS • Geriatric offenders • Mentally ill and mentally deficient inmates • TerrorismCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 26 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved