0138020272 ppt11

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0138020272 ppt11

  1. 1. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank SchmallegerPearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank Schmalleger Chapter 11 Prisons and JailsPearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Prisons • Prison – A state or federal confinement facility that has custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement • The incarceration rate for state and federal prisoners sentenced to more than a year has reached a record 504 prisoners for every 100,000 U. S. residents • Huge disparity between African-Americans and Caucasians in prison – Incarceration rate for African-American males was seven times greater than the figure for CaucasiansCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 3 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  4. 4. The Philosophy of Imprisonment • Overcrowded prisons of today are the result of “get tough on crime” attitudes that have swept the nation for the past few decades • These attitudes are based on the Justice Model – A contemporary model of imprisonment based on the principle of just deserts – Emphasizes individual responsibility and the punishment of offenders – Has become the operative principle underlying many of today’s correctional initiativesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 4 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  5. 5. The Philosophy of Imprisonment • Imprisonment is seen as a fully deserved consequence of criminal behavior • “Get tough” philosophy has been here for some time • “Three strikes and you’re out” lawsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 5 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  6. 6. Overcrowding • The dimensions of overcrowding – Just deserts philosophy led to substantial and continued increases in the American prison population – Even as crime rates were dropping • Three definitions of prison capacity – The size of the correctional population an institution can effectively hold – Rated Capacity • The number of inmates a prison can handle according to expertsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 6 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  7. 7. Overcrowding • Operational Capacity – The number of inmates a prison can effectively accommodate based on management considerations • Design Capacity – The number of inmates a prison was intended to hold when it was built or modified • Rhodes v. Chapman (1981)Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 7 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  8. 8. Selective Incapacitation: A Strategy to Reduce Prison Populations • Collective incapacitation – Found in states that rely on predetermined, or fixed, sentences • Selective incapacitation – Seeks to identify the most dangerous criminals with the goal of removing them from societyCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 8 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  9. 9. Security Levels • Maximum-custody prisons – High level of security characterized by high fences, thick walls, secure cells, gun towers, armed prison guards – Death-row inmates are all maximum-security prisoners • Medium-security prisoners – Generally permitted more freedom to associate with one another – Less intense supervisionCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 9 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  10. 10. Security Levels • Minimum-security institutions – Generally housed in dormitory-like settings and are – Free to walk the yard and to visit most of the prison facility • The typical American prison today is medium or minimum custodyCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 10 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  11. 11. Prison Classification Systems • Classification System – A system used by prison administrators to assign inmates to custody levels based on offense history, assessed dangerousness, and other factors • Adult internal management system (AIMS) – One of the best-known internal classification systems • Record of misconduct • Ability to follow staff directions • Level of aggression toward other inmates • Johnson v. California (2005)Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 11 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  12. 12. The Federal Prison System • Five security levels – ADMAX • An acronym for administrative maximum – High security – Medium security – Low security – Minimum securityCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 12 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  13. 13. Jails • Jail – A confinement facility administered by an agency of local government • Purposes of jails – Receiving individuals pending arraignment, holding for trial, conviction, sentencing – Readmitting probation, parole, and bail violators – Detaining juveniles – Holding individuals for the military – Releasing inmates upon completion of sentenceCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 13 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  14. 14. Jails – Transferring inmates to federal, state, or other authorities – Housing inmates for federal, state, or other authorities because of overcrowding in their facilities – Operating community-based programs – Holding inmates sentenced to short terms • 3,360 jails operate throughout the U. S. • Approximately 20 million people are admitted to the nation’s jails each year • Los Angeles County and New York CityCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 14 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  15. 15. Women and Jail • Women comprise 12% of the country’s jail population • They are the largest growth group in jails nationwide • Fewer than half have are high school graduates • Over 30% of women who are admitted to jail have a substance abuse problem – In some jurisdictions, it may be as high as 70% • 4% are pregnant when they enter jailCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 15 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  16. 16. Direct-Supervision Jails • Direct-Supervision Jail – A temporary confinement facility that eliminates many of the traditional barriers between inmates and corrections staff – Also known as podular/direct supervision (PDS) jail – Emerged during the 1970s – Praised for their tendency to reduce inmate dissatisfaction and their ability to deter rape and violenceCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 16 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  17. 17. Direct-Supervision Jails • Appear to be substantially less susceptible to lawsuits brought by inmates • Too frequently run by old-style managers • Correctional personnel sometimes lack the training needed to make the transition to the direct style of supervisionCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 17 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  18. 18. Jails and the Future • Jails receive relatively little attention from the media • Have generally escaped public scrutiny • National efforts are underway to improve the quality of jail life • Jail industries • Regional Jails – A jail that is built and run using the combined resources of a variety of local jurisdictionsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 18 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  19. 19. Jails and the Future • Regional jails have been to replace the smaller and older local jails • The emergence of state jail standards – Purpose is to identify the basic minimum conditions necessary for inmate health and safety – Increased standards are costly – Lack of a written planCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 19 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  20. 20. Private Prisons • Privatization – The movement toward the wider use of private prisons • Private Prison – A correctional institution operated by a private firm on behalf of a local or state government • Hold 6.8% of all state prisoners and 16.5% of federal prisoners • The growth rate of the private prison industry has been around 35% annuallyCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 20 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  21. 21. Private Prisons • Barriers to privatization – Old state laws that prohibit private involvement in correctional management – Strikes by correctional officers – State’s liability will not transfer to private corrections • Richardson v. McKnight (1997) • Correctional Services Company v. Malesko (2001)Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 21 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved

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