Criminal Justice:     A Brief Introduction                      Ninth Edition              By Frank SchmallegerPearson Edu...
Criminal Justice:     A Brief Introduction                      Ninth Edition              By Frank Schmalleger           ...
What is Probation?         • Community Corrections                    – The use of a variety of officially ordered program...
Probation Conditions         • Two types                    – General and specific                                • Genera...
What is Parole?         • Parole                    – The status of a convicted offender who has been                     ...
What is Parole?         • Two major models of parole decision-making                    – Parole Boards                   ...
The Extent of Parole         • About 25% of inmates who are freed from prison           are still paroled by a paroling au...
Parole Conditions         • Conditions of Parole                    – The general and specific limits imposed on an       ...
Probation and Parole:                                              The Pluses and Minuses         • Advantages of Probatio...
Disadvantages of Probation and Parole         • Relative lack of punishment         • Increased risk to the community     ...
The Legal Environment         • Griffin v. Wisconsin (1987)         • Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v.       ...
The Legal Environment         • Conditional Release                    – The release of an inmate from prison to community...
The Job of Probation                                               and Parole Officers         • Job descriptions         ...
The Challenges of the Job         • The need to balance two conflicting sets of duties                    – Provide quasi-...
The Challenges of the Job         • Correctional model                    –      Emphasizes community protection          ...
Intermediate Sanctions         • Intermediate Sanctions                    – The use of split sentencing, shock probation ...
Intermediate Sanctions         • Split Sentence         • A sentence explicitly requiring the convicted           offender...
Intermediate Sanctions         • Shock Incarceration                    – Sentencing option that makes use of “boot camp” ...
Intermediate Sanctions         • Community Service                    – Sentencing alternative that requires offenders to ...
Intermediate Sanctions         • Home Confinement                    – House arrest         • Remote Location Monitoring  ...
The Future of Probation and Parole         • Parole was widely criticized during the 1980s           and 1990s by citizen ...
Changes in Reentry Policies         • Almost two out of every three people released           from prison are rearrested w...
Changes in Reentry Policies         • More than on third of jail inmates have physical           or mental disability     ...
Changes in Reentry Policies         • SVORI phases                    – Phase 1                                • Protect a...
The Reinvention of Probation         • Rehabilitative ideal is far less popular today than           it has been in the pa...
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  1. 1. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank SchmallegerPearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank Schmalleger Chapter 10 Probation, Parole, and Community CorrectionsPearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. What is Probation? • Community Corrections – The use of a variety of officially ordered program-based sanctions that permit convicted offenders to remain in the community under conditional supervision • Probation – A sentence of imprisonment that is suspended • Today, probation is the most common form of criminal sentencing in the United States • Almost 4.3 million offendersCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 3 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  4. 4. Probation Conditions • Two types – General and specific • General conditions apply to all probationers in a given jurisdiction • Special conditions may be mandated by the judge who feels that the probationer is in need of particular guidance or controlCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 4 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  5. 5. What is Parole? • Parole – The status of a convicted offender who has been conditionally released from prison by a paroling authority before the expiration of his of her sentence • Prisoner Reentry – The managed return to the community of individuals released from prisonCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 5 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  6. 6. What is Parole? • Two major models of parole decision-making – Parole Boards • A state paroling authority that grant parole based on the board members’ judgment and assessment – Statutory decrees • Mandatory release • Discretionary Release – The release of an inmate from prison to supervision that is decided by a parole board or other authorityCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 6 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  7. 7. The Extent of Parole • About 25% of inmates who are freed from prison are still paroled by a paroling authority • Mandatory Release – The release of an inmate from prison that is determined by statute or sentencing guidelines and not decided by a parole board or other authority • Nationwide, approximately 49% of parolees successfully complete paroleCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 7 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  8. 8. Parole Conditions • Conditions of Parole – The general and specific limits imposed on an offender who is released on parole – Very similar to conditions of probation • Parole Violation – An act or failure to act by a parolee that does not conform to the conditions of parole • Parole Revocation – The administrative action of removing a person from parole in response to a violation of conditionsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 8 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  9. 9. Probation and Parole: The Pluses and Minuses • Advantages of Probation and Parole – Lower costs – Increased employment – Restitution – Community support – Reduced risk of criminal socialization – Increased use of community services – Increased opportunity for rehabilitationCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 9 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  10. 10. Disadvantages of Probation and Parole • Relative lack of punishment • Increased risk to the community • Increased social costsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 10 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  11. 11. The Legal Environment • Griffin v. Wisconsin (1987) • Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole v. Scott (1998) • Revocation Hearing – A hearing geld before a legally constituted hearing body to determine whether a parolee or probationer has violated the conditions and requirements of parole or probation • About 25% of probationers and 26% of parolees have their conditional release revokedCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 11 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  12. 12. The Legal Environment • Conditional Release – The release of an inmate from prison to community supervision with a set of conditions for remaining on parole • Most frequent violations for which revocation occurs – Failure to report as required – Failure to participate in treatment programs – Alcohol or drug abuse while under supervisionCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 12 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  13. 13. The Job of Probation and Parole Officers • Job descriptions • Four primary functions – Presentence investigations – Intake procedures – Diagnosis and needs assessment – Client supervisionCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 13 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  14. 14. The Challenges of the Job • The need to balance two conflicting sets of duties – Provide quasi-social work services – Handle custodial responsibilities • Social work model stresses the service role and views probationers and parolees as clients – Assess the needs of the client – Match clients with community resources – “Helping profession”Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 14 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  15. 15. The Challenges of the Job • Correctional model – Emphasizes community protection – Careful and close supervision – Periodically visit clients at home and at work – Willing to report clients for new offenses and violations of the conditions • Large caseloads – The number of probation or parole clients assigned to one probation or parole officer for supervisionCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 15 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  16. 16. Intermediate Sanctions • Intermediate Sanctions – The use of split sentencing, shock probation or parole, chock incarceration, mixed sentencing, in lieu of more traditional sanctions • Three distinct advantages – Less expensive to operate per offender – Socially cost-effective by keeping the offender in the community – Provide flexibility in terms of resourcesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 16 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  17. 17. Intermediate Sanctions • Split Sentence • A sentence explicitly requiring the convicted offender to serve a period of confinement followed by a period of probation • Shock Probation – Offender serves a relatively short period of time in custody and is released to probation – Clients must apply for probationary releaseCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 17 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  18. 18. Intermediate Sanctions • Shock Incarceration – Sentencing option that makes use of “boot camp” – type prisons • Recidivism – The repetition of criminal behavior • Mixed Sentence – A sentence that requires that a convicted offender serve weekends in a confinement facilityCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 18 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  19. 19. Intermediate Sanctions • Community Service – Sentencing alternative that requires offenders to spend at least part of their time working for a community agency • Intensive Probation Supervision (IPS) – A form of probation supervision involving frequent face-to-face contact between the probationer and the probation officer • Georgia was the first to implement IPSCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 19 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  20. 20. Intermediate Sanctions • Home Confinement – House arrest • Remote Location Monitoring – Supervision strategy that uses electronic technology to track offenders who are sentenced to house arrest • Three components of federal home confinement – Curfew – Home detention – Home incarcerationCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 20 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  21. 21. The Future of Probation and Parole • Parole was widely criticized during the 1980s and 1990s by citizen groups that claimed that it unfairly reduces prison sentences imposed on serious offenders • Seventy percent of parole violators in prison were arrested or were convicted of new offenses while on paroleCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 21 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  22. 22. Changes in Reentry Policies • Almost two out of every three people released from prison are rearrested within three years of their release • 75% of those released from prison or jail have a history of substance abuse • Two-thirds have no high school diploma • Nearly half of those leaving jail earned less than $600 per month immediately prior to incarcerationCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 22 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  23. 23. Changes in Reentry Policies • More than on third of jail inmates have physical or mental disability • Rate of serious mental illness among released inmates is at least three times higher than the rate of mental illness among the general population • Serious Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) – Geared toward serious and violent offenders – Attempts to reduced likelihood of reincarcerationCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 23 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  24. 24. Changes in Reentry Policies • SVORI phases – Phase 1 • Protect and Prepare: Institution-Based Programs – Phase 2 • Control and Restore: Community-Based Transition Programs – Phase 3 • Sustain and Support: Community-Based Long-Term Support ProgramsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 24 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  25. 25. The Reinvention of Probation • Rehabilitative ideal is far less popular today than it has been in the past • Probation advocates have been forced to admit that it is not a very powerful deterrent because it is far less punishing than a term of imprisonmentCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 25 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved

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