0138020272 ppt04

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0138020272 ppt04

  1. 1. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank SchmallegerPearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction Ninth Edition By Frank Schmalleger Chapter 4 Policing: Purpose and OrganizationPearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. The Police Mission • Basic purposes of policing – Enforce the laws of the society of which the police are a part – Apprehend offenders who participate in crime – Prevent crime – Preserve domestic peace and tranquility – Provide the community with needed enforcement-related servicesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 3 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  4. 4. The Police Mission • Enforcing the law – Not the only job of the police – Majority of time is spent answering nonemergency public service calls – Only about 10% to 20% of all calls involve situations that actually require a law enforcement response – Police cannot enforce all laws – Police tend to tailor enforcement efforts to meet the concerns of the populace they serveCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 4 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  5. 5. The Police Mission • Apprehending offenders – Many offenders are only caught as the result of extensive police work involving investigation • Preventing crime – Crime prevention • The anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of a crime risk and the initiation of action to eliminate or reduce it – Techniques and programs • Techniques include access control, surveillance, theft- deterrent devices, CPTEDCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 5 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  6. 6. The Police Mission – Prevention programs are organized efforts that focus resources on reducing a specific form of criminal threat • Target school-based crime, gang activity, drug abuse, violence, domestic abuse • Neighborhood Watch, Crime Stoppers USA • Predicting crime – Compstat • A crime-analysis and police-management process built on crime mapping that was developed by NYPD in the mid- 1990sCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 6 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  7. 7. The Police Mission • Compstat process – First, collecting and analyzing information from 9-1-1 calls and officer reports – This information is then mapped using special software developed for the purpose – The resulting map sequences, generated over time, reveal the time and place of crime patterns and identify hot spots of ongoing criminal activity • CrimeStat – Provides statistical tools for crime mappingCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 7 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  8. 8. The Police Mission • Preserving the peace – Focus on quality-of-life offenses as crime-reduction and peacekeeping strategy • A minor violation of the law that demoralizes community residents and businesspeople • Involve acts that create physical disorder or that reflect social decay – Restore a sense of order, reduce the fear of crime, and lessen the number of serious crimes that occur – Broken windows model of policing • Providing servicesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 8 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  9. 9. American Policing Today: From the Federal to the Local Level • Federal agencies • 139,929 law enforcement officers, authorized to perform any of the following – Conduct criminal investigations – Execute search warrants – Make arrests – Carry firearmsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 9 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  10. 10. American Policing Today: From the Federal to the Local Level • Background of the FBI – History of the FBI spans more than 100 years – Began in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation – 13,000 special agents assigned to 56 field offices and 400 satellite offices – Also operates attaché offices in a number of major cities around the world – Operates the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) • Forensic database of DNA profiles of offendersCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 10 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  11. 11. American Policing Today: From the Federal to the Local Level • State agencies • Centralized model • The tasks of major criminal investigations are combined with the patrol of state highways • Centralized state police agencies generally – Assist local law enforcement in investigations – Operate a centralized identification bureau – Maintain a centralized criminal records repository – Provide select training for municipal and countyCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 11 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  12. 12. American Policing Today: From the Federal to the Local Level • Decentralized model • Draws clear distinction between traffic enforcement on state highways and other state level law enforcement functions by creating at least two separate agencies – Usually have a number of other adjunct state-level law enforcement agenciesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 12 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  13. 13. American Policing Today: From the Federal to the Local Level • Local agencies – There are approximately 12,760 municipal departments and 3,100 sheriff’s departments – Majority of agencies employ fewer than ten full-time officers – Sheriffs are the elected chief officer of a county law enforcement agencyCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 13 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  14. 14. American Policing Today: From the Federal to the Local Level • Fusion centers – New concept in policing – A multiagency law enforcement facility designed to enhance cooperative efforts through a coordinated process for collecting, sharing, and analyzing information in order to develop actionable intelligenceCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 14 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  15. 15. Police Administration • Police management – The administrative activities of controlling, directing, and coordinating police personnel, resources, and activities • Police organization and structure – Line operations • Field or supervisory activities directly related to daily police work – Staff operations • Provide support for line operationsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 15 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  16. 16. Police Administration • Organizations with line operations only – Authority flows from top down – No supporting elements – All line operations are involved in providing field services – Only the smallest departments have only line operations • Most police agencies include both line and staff operations – Divisions are likely to exist within both line and staff operationsCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 16 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  17. 17. Police Administration • Chain of command – The unbroken line of authority that extends through all levels of an organization, from the highest to the lowest • Unity of command – Every individual officer has only one supervisor • Span of control – The number of police personnel or the number of units supervised by a particular officerCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 17 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  18. 18. Policing Epochs and Styles • The political era (1840s – 1930) – Close ties between police and public officials – Police tended to serve the interests of powerful politicians and their cronies • The reform era (1930 – 1970s) – Pride in professional crime fighting – Focused most of the resources on solving “traditional” crimesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 18 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  19. 19. Policing Epochs and Styles • The community policing era – Continues to characterize much of contemporary policing today – Stresses the service role of police officers and envisions a partnership between the police agencies and their communities • The new era – Made its appearance only recently and is still evolving – Secure the homelandCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 19 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  20. 20. Policing Epochs and Styles • Emphasis on intelligence-led policing (ILP) • ILP represents the next evolutionary stage in how police and sheriff’s officers should approach their work • New era clearly involves efforts to deal with threats to the homeland and to inform those efforts with situational awareness and shared intelligenceCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 20 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  21. 21. Policing Epochs and Styles • The Watchman Style of Policing – Primarily concerned with order maintenance – Controlling illegal and disruptive behavior – Considerable use of discretion – Characteristic of lower-class communities where informal police intervention into the lives of residents is employed in the service of keeping the peace – Characteristic of the political eraCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 21 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  22. 22. Policing Epochs and Styles • The Legalistic Style of policing – Enforce the letter of the law – Routinely avoid community disputes arising from violations of social norms that do not break the law – Hands-off approach to behaviors that are simply bothersome – Characteristic of the reform eraCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 22 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  23. 23. Policing Epochs and Styles • The Service Style of policing – Meet the needs of the community – Police see themselves more as helpers than as soldiers in a “war on crime” – More likely to refer citizens to community resources than are other types of agencies – Common todayCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 23 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  24. 24. Police-Community Relations • Police-community relations (PCR) – An area of police activity that recognizes the need for the community and the police to work together effectively – Based on the notion that the police derive their legitimacy from the community they serve – Represents a movement away from an exclusive police emphasis on the apprehension of law violators and increasing the level of positive police-citizen interactionCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 24 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  25. 25. Police-Community Relations • Team policing – The reorganization of conventional patrol strategies into “an integrated and versatile police team assigned to a fixed district” – Experimented with during the 1960s and 1970s – Officers given considerable authority in processing complaints, from receipt through resolution – A technique to deliver total police services to a neighborhoodCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 25 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  26. 26. Police-Community Relations • Three generic kinds of “corporate strategies” guide American policing – Strategic policing – Problem-solving policing – Community policing • Strategic policing – Something of a holdover from the reform era – Emphasizes increased capacity to deal with crimes that are not well controlled by other methods – Makes use of innovative enforcement techniquesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 26 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  27. 27. Police-Community Relations • Problem-solving policing – Crimes are caused by existing social conditions – Makes use of community resources – Attempts to involve citizens in crime prevention through education, negotiation, and conflict management – Gives recognition to service style of policingCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 27 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  28. 28. Police-Community Relations • Community policing – A philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques – Goes beyond strategic policing and problem-solving policing – Seeks to actively involve the community in crime controlCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 28 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  29. 29. Police-Community Relations • Involves at least one of four elements – Community-based crime prevention – Reorientation of patrol activities to emphasize the importance of nonemergency services – Increased police accountability to the public – Decentralization of command, including greater use of civilians at all levels of police decision making • Community policing is a two-way street • Nearly 113,000 officers engage in community policingCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 29 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  30. 30. Police-Community Relations • Purposes of the Community Policing Act of 1994 – Substantially increase the number of officers interacting with the public – Provide additional and more effective training to enhance problem solving skills – Encourage innovative programs to permit community members to assist law enforcement – Encourage new technologies to assist law enforcement in preventing crimeCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 30 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  31. 31. Police-Community Relations • Critique of community policing – Difficult to determine effectiveness and citizen satisfaction with the program – Ambiguity surrounding the concept of community – Not all police officers or managers are willing to accept nontraditional images of police work – Efforts to promote community policing can demoralize the department – Some public officials unwilling to accept community policingCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 31 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  32. 32. Evidence-Based Policing • Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) – A now-defunct federal agency established under Title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 to funnel federal funding to state and local law enforcement agencies – Research-rich years of 1969 to 1982 – Established a tradition of program evaluation within police-management circlesCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 32 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  33. 33. Evidence-Based Policing • Scientific police management – The application of social science techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints, and enhancing the efficient use of available resources – NIJ – BJS – NCJRSCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 33 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  34. 34. Evidence-Based Policing • The Kansas City Experiment – The first large-scale scientific study of law enforcement practices – Focused on the practice of preventive patrol – Divided the patrol zones into proactive, reactive, and control – No significant differences in crime rate or citizen fear of crime – Greatly affected the assumptions about preventive patrolCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 34 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  35. 35. Evidence-Based Policing • Directed patrol – A police-management strategy designed to increase the productivity of patrol officers through the scientific analysis and evaluation of patrol techniques – Put the most officers on the street where and when crime is most prevalent • Conventional wisdom is not always correct • Evidence-based policing – The use of the best available research on the outcomes of police work to implement guidelines and evaluate agencies, units, and officersCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 35 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  36. 36. Evidence-Based Policing • EBP uses research into everyday police procedures to evaluate current practices • Has been called the single “most powerful force for change” in policing today • Successful law enforcement executives will have to be consumers and appliers of research • They must use research in their everyday workCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 36 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved
  37. 37. Discretion and the Individual Officer • Police discretion – Refers to the exercise of choice by law enforcement officers in the decisions to investigate or apprehend, the disposition of suspects, and carrying out of official duties, and the application of sanctions – Patrolling officers often decide against a strict enforcement of the law, preferring instead to handle situations informallyCriminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 9/e 37 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008, 2006, 2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994 by Pearson Education, Inc.Frank Schmalleger Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved

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