DABHI SANJAY D.DABHI SANJAY D.
WHAT IS A CULTURE?
Culture is the "lens" through which you
view the world.
It is central to what you see,
How you make sense of what you see,
How you express yourself.
"Culture is the arts elevated to a set of beliefs."
– Tom Wolfe
What is different?
1. Communication Styles
2. Attitudes toward conflicts
3. Decision making style
4. Approaches to knowing
What is hidden below the surface?
Four Fundamental Patterns of Cultural Difference
CODES USED IN COMMUNICATIONCODES USED IN COMMUNICATION
Verbal CommunicationVerbal Communication
Non-Verbal CommunicationNon-Verbal Communication
Facial ExpressionsFacial Expressions
Eye ContactEye Contact
Vocal CharacteristicsVocal Characteristics
Personal AppearancePersonal Appearance
Cross Culture CommunicationCross Culture Communication
Intercultural communIcatIon Is the process ofIntercultural communIcatIon Is the process of
sendIng and receIvIng messages betweensendIng and receIvIng messages between
people whose cultural background could leadpeople whose cultural background could lead
them to Interpret verbal and non-verbal sIgnsthem to Interpret verbal and non-verbal sIgns
Why Cross CultureWhy Cross Culture
Communication is important ?Communication is important ?
◦ Business OpportunitiesBusiness Opportunities
◦ Job OpportunitiesJob Opportunities
◦ Improves the contribution of employees in a diverseImproves the contribution of employees in a diverse
◦ Sharing of views and ideasSharing of views and ideas
◦ Talent improvisationTalent improvisation
◦ An understanding of diverse marketAn understanding of diverse market
Globalization:Globalization: Cross border movement of people, goods and dataCross border movement of people, goods and data
brings more and more cultures into contact with one another andbrings more and more cultures into contact with one another and
increases the potential of cross culture communication.increases the potential of cross culture communication.
High Context and Low Context CulturesHigh Context and Low Context Cultures
High Context Culture:-High Context Culture:- Cultures that rely heavily on non-Cultures that rely heavily on non-
verbal and subtle situational cues in communication.verbal and subtle situational cues in communication.
Low Context Culture:-Low Context Culture:- Cultures that rely heavily onCultures that rely heavily on
words to convey meaning in communication.words to convey meaning in communication.
CASE IN POINT : EYE CONTACT
In some cultures, looking people in the eye is assumed to indicate
honesty and straightforwardness; in others it is seen as challenging and
Blocks to Cultural Communication
1. Ethnocentrism : Inability to accept another culture's world view;
"my way is the best."
2. Discrimination : Differential treatment of an individual due to
minority status; actual and perceived; e.g., "we just aren't equipped to
serve people like that."
3. Stereotyping : Generalizing about a person while ignoring presence
of individual difference; e.g., "she's like that because she's Asian – all
Asians are nonverbal."
4.Cultural Blindness: Differences are ignored and one proceeds as
though differences did not exist; e.g., "there's no need to worry about a
5.Cultural Imposition: Belief that everyone should conform to the
majority; e.g., "we know what's best for you, if you don't like it you can
6.Tone Difference : Formal tone change becomes embarrassing and
off-putting in some cultures.
SKILLS TO OVERCOME
Understanding Body Language
UnitedStates of America
•Americans tend to refrain fro m greetings that invo lve hugging and o ther clo se physical co ntact.
•When sitting, U.S. citizens o ften lo o k very relaxed. They may so metimes sit with the ankle o f o ne
leg on their knee.
•The left hand is co nsidered unclean in the Arab co untries.
•When sitting, keep bo th feet o n the gro und.
•The " thumbs up" sign is o ffensive thro ugho ut the Arab wo rld.
•Bo ws are used fo r expressing appreciatio n, making apo lo gies and requests, as well as fo r
greetings and farewells.
•When the Japanese want to give the impressio n that they are in deep tho ught, they will
sometimes fo ld their arms.
Things To Remember While Interacting And Connecting
Business AttireBusiness Attire
SaudiArabia- Gifts areopenedinprivate.
USA- Gifts areopenedinpublic
Indonesia- Gifts, such as tokens memento of your countryor
Turkey - Wine or liquor if you are sure your hosts drink alcohol,
Candy, pastries &Roses, Glassware, suchas avase, goblet, ordecantermake
• Gifts toavoid
UAE- Alcohol /perfumes containingalcoholandporkandpigskin
China- Donotgiveanythinginsets of fourorgifts thatcarrythe
associationof death, funerals suchas clocks, cutflowers, white
How do you do it?
• The handshake sho uld be firm.
• While shaking hands establish eye co ntact and
• The perso n who initiates the handshake is the
o ne who clo ses it.
Improving Cross Culture Communication
WelcomeTopics &Topics toAvoid
• WelcomeTopics of Conversation:
Indonesia: Family, travel/tourism, sports, praising the local
cuisine, future plans and success of the group or
Germany: Sports--particularlysoccer, tennis, current events,
politics, amongthose who imbibe, beer is often agoodtopic
TEN Pre-cautions in Cultural CommunicationTEN Pre-cautions in Cultural Communication
1.1. Slow DownSlow Down
2.2. Separate QuestionsSeparate Questions
3.3. Avoid Negative QuestionsAvoid Negative Questions
4.4. Take TurnsTake Turns
5.5. Write it downWrite it down
6.6. Be SupportiveBe Supportive
7.7. Check MeaningsCheck Meanings
8.8. Avoid SlangsAvoid Slangs
9.9. Watch the humourWatch the humour
10.10. Maintain EtiquetteMaintain Etiquette
Business in To day’ s Scenario is no t a
“National Match” but is a
“Olympics”, where there are
Internatio nal Players. Only that
Individual / Co mpany can survive
which has do ne its ho mewo rk well &
develo ped its uniqueness.